Turbulence Production
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1300
Troels Aagaard ◽  
Joost Brinkkemper ◽  
Drude F. Christensen ◽  
Michael G. Hughes ◽  
Gerben Ruessink

The existence of sandy beaches relies on the onshore transport of sand by waves during post-storm conditions. Most operational sediment transport models employ wave-averaged terms, and/or the instantaneous cross-shore velocity signal, but the models often fail in predictions of the onshore-directed transport rates. An important reason is that they rarely consider the phase relationships between wave orbital velocity and the suspended sediment concentration. This relationship depends on the intra-wave structure of the bed shear stress and hence on the timing and magnitude of turbulence production in the water column. This paper provides an up-to-date review of recent experimental advances on intra-wave turbulence characteristics, sediment mobilization, and suspended sediment transport in laboratory and natural surf zones. Experimental results generally show that peaks in the suspended sediment concentration are shifted forward on the wave phase with increasing turbulence levels and instantaneous near-bed sediment concentration scales with instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy. The magnitude and intra-wave phase of turbulence production and sediment concentration are shown to depend on wave (breaker) type, seabed configuration, and relative wave height, which opens up the possibility of more robust predictions of transport rates for different wave and beach conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 80 (2) ◽  
Bouke Biemond ◽  
Marina Amadori ◽  
Marco Toffolon ◽  
Sebastiano Piccolroaz ◽  
Hans Van Haren ◽  

A calibrated three-dimensional numerical model (Delft3D) and in-situ observations are used to study the relation between deep-water temperature and deep mixing in Lake Garda (Italy). A model-observation comparison indicates that the model is able to adequately capture turbulent kinetic energy production in the surface layer and its vertical propagation during unstratified conditions. From the modeling results several processes are identified to affect the deep-water temperature in Lake Garda. The first process is thermocline tilting due to strong and persistent winds, leading to a temporary disappearance of stratification followed by vertical mixing. The second process is turbulent cooling, which acts when vertical temperature gradients are nearly absent over the whole depth and arises as a combination of buoyancy-induced turbulence production due to surface cooling and turbulence production by strong winds. A third process is differential cooling, which causes cold water to move from the shallow parts of the lake to deeper parts along the sloping bottom. Two of these processes (thermocline tilting and turbulent cooling) cause deep-mixing events, while deep-cooling events are mainly caused by turbulent cooling and differential cooling. Detailed observations of turbulence quantities and lake temperature, available at the deepest point of Lake Garda for the year 2018, indicate that differential cooling was responsible for the deep-water cooling at that location. Long-term simulations of deep-water temperature and deep mixing appear to be very sensitive to the applied wind forcing. This sensitivity is one of the main challenges in making projections of future occurrences of episodic deep mixing and deep cooling under climate change.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-36
Xiao He ◽  
Fanzhou Zhao ◽  
Mehdi Vahdati

Abstract The turbulence model in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations is crucial in the prediction of the compressor stall margin. In this paper, parametric uncertainty of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model in predicting two-dimensional airfoil stall and three-dimensional compressor stall has been investigated using a metamodel-based Monte Carlo method. The model coefficients are represented by uniform distributions within physically acceptable ranges. The quantities of interest include characteristic curves, stall limit, blockage size and turbulence magnitude. Results show that the characteristics can be well predicted in the stable flow range, but the inaccuracy and the uncertainty increase when approaching stall. The stall point of the airfoil can be enveloped by the parametric uncertainty range, but that of the rotor cannot. Sensitivity analyses identified the crucial model coefficients to be source-related, where an increase in the predicted turbulence level will delay the onset of stall. Such results imply that implementing new turbulence production terms with respect to the rotor-specific flow features is likely to improve the model accuracy. The findings in this paper not only provide engineering rules of thumb for the model users, but also guide the future implementation of a data-driven turbulence model for the model developers.

Vyacheslav Boyko ◽  
Nikki Vercauteren

AbstractThe lower nocturnal boundary layer is governed by intermittent turbulence which is thought to be triggered by sporadic activity of so-called sub-mesoscale motions in a complex way. We analyze intermittent turbulence based on an assumed relation between the vertical gradients of the sub-mean scales and turbulence kinetic energy. We analyze high-resolution nocturnal eddy-correlation data from 30-m tower collected during the Fluxes over Snow Surfaces II field program. The non-turbulent velocity signal is decomposed using a discrete wavelet transform into three ranges of scales interpreted as the mean, jet and sub-mesoscales. The vertical gradients of the sub-mean scales are estimated using finite differences. The turbulence kinetic energy is modelled as a discrete-time autoregressive process with exogenous variables, where the latter ones are the vertical gradients of the sub-mean scales. The parameters of the discrete model evolve in time depending on the locally-dominant turbulence-production scales. The three regimes with averaged model parameters are estimated using a subspace-clustering algorithm which illustrates a weak bimodal distribution in the energy phase space of turbulence and sub-mesoscale motions for the very stable boundary layer. One mode indicates turbulence modulated by sub-mesoscale motions. Furthermore, intermittent turbulence appears if the sub-mesoscale intensity exceeds $$10 \%$$ 10 % of the mean kinetic energy in strong stratification.

2020 ◽  
Vol 142 (12) ◽  
Pawel J. Przytarski ◽  
Andrew P. S. Wheeler

Abstract In this paper, we study the effect of rotor-stator axial gap on midspan compressor loss using high-fidelity scale-resolving simulations. For this purpose, we mimic the multi-stage environment using a new numerical method that recycles wake unsteadiness from a single blade passage back into the inlet of the computational domain. As a result, a type of repeating-passage simulation is obtained such as observed by an embedded blade-row. We find that freestream turbulence levels rise significantly as the size of the rotor-stator axial gap is reduced. This is because of the effect of axial gap on turbulence production, which becomes amplified at smaller axial gaps and drives increases in dissipation and loss. This effect is found to raise loss by between 5.5% and 9.5% over the range of conditions tested here. This effect significantly outweighs the beneficial effects of wake recovery on loss.

2020 ◽  
Vol 148 (11) ◽  
pp. 4587-4605
Katelyn A. Barber ◽  
Gretchen L. Mullendore

AbstractTurbulence (clear-air, mountain wave, convectively induced) is an aviation hazard that is a challenge to forecast due to the coarse resolution ultilized in operational weather models. Turbulence indices are commonly used to aid pilots in avoiding turbulence, but these indices have been designed and calibrated for midlatitude clear-air turbulence prediction (e.g., the Ellrod index). A significant limitation with current convectively induced turbulence (CIT) prediction is the lack of storm stage dependency. In this study, six high-resolution simulations of tropical oceanic and midlatitude continental convection are performed to characterize the turbulent environment near various convective types during the developing and mature stages. Second-order structure functions, a diagnostic commonly used to identify turbulence in turbulence prediction systems, are used to characterize the probability of turbulence for various convective types. Turbulence likelihood was found to be independent of region (i.e., tropical vs midlatitude) but dependent on convective stage. The probability of turbulence increased near developing convection for the majority of cases. Additional analysis of static stability and vertical wind shear, indicators of turbulence potential, showed that the convective environment near developing convection was more favorable for turbulence production than mature convection. Near developing convection, static stability decreased and vertical wind shear increased. Vertical wind shear near mature and developing convection was found to be weakly correlated to turbulence intensity in both the tropics and the midlatitudes. This study emphasizes the need for turbulence avoidance guidelines for the aviation community that are dependent on convective stage.

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