exclusion chromatography
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Fatemeh Yadavar Nikravesh ◽  
Samira Shirkhani ◽  
Elham Bayat ◽  
Yeganeh Talebkhan ◽  
Esmat Mirabzadeh ◽  

AbstractGranulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) can decrease mortality of patients undergo chemotherapy through increasing neutrophil counts. Many strategies have been developed to improve its blood circulating time. Albumin binding domain (ABD) was genetically fused to N-terminal end of GCSF encoding sequence and expressed as cytoplasmic inclusion bodies within Escherichia coli. Biological activity of ABD-GCSF protein was assessed by proliferation assay on NFS-60 cells. Physicochemical properties were analyzed through size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties were also investigated in a neutropenic rat model. CD and IFS spectra revealed that ABD fusion to GCSF did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the molecule. DLS and SEC results indicated the absence of aggregation formation. EC50 value of the ABD-GCSF in proliferation of NFS-60 cells was 75.76 pg/ml after 72 h in comparison with control GCSF molecules (Filgrastim: 73.1 pg/ml and PEG-Filgrastim: 44.6 pg/ml). Animal studies of ABD-GCSF represented improved serum half-life (9.3 ± 0.7 h) and consequently reduced renal clearance (16.1 ± 1.4 ml/h.kg) in comparison with Filgrastim (1.7 ± 0.1 h). Enhanced neutrophils count following administration of ABD-GCSF was comparable with Filgrastim and weaker than PEG-Filgrastim treated rats. In vitro and in vivo results suggested the ABD fusion as a potential approach for improving GCSF properties.

Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice ◽  
Alisa Potter ◽  
Felix Evers ◽  
Johannes F. Hevler ◽  
Sergio Guerrero-Castillo

Complexome profiling (CP) is a state-of-the-art approach that combines separation of native proteins by electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography or density gradient centrifugation with tandem mass spectrometry identification and quantification. Resulting data are computationally clustered to visualize the inventory, abundance and arrangement of multiprotein complexes in a biological sample. Since its formal introduction a decade ago, this method has been mostly applied to explore not only the composition and abundance of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in several species but also to identify novel protein interactors involved in their assembly, maintenance and functions. Besides, complexome profiling has been utilized to study the dynamics of OXPHOS complexes, as well as the impact of an increasing number of mutations leading to mitochondrial disorders or rearrangements of the whole mitochondrial complexome. Here, we summarize the major findings obtained by this approach; emphasize its advantages and current limitations; discuss multiple examples on how this tool could be applied to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms and comment on the latest advances and opportunity areas to keep developing this methodology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Genevieve E. Melling ◽  
Ross Conlon ◽  
Paschalia Pantazi ◽  
Elizabeth R. Dellar ◽  
Priya Samuel ◽  

AbstractAssessing genuine extracellular vesicle (EV) uptake is crucial for understanding the functional roles of EVs. This study measured the bona fide labelling of EVs utilising two commonly used fluorescent dyes, PKH26 and C5-maleimide-Alexa633. MCF7 EVs tagged with mEmerald-CD81 were isolated from conditioned media by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and characterised using Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), MACsPlex immunocapture assay and immunoblots. These fluorescently tagged EVs were subsequently stained with C5-maleimide-Alexa633 or PKH26, according to published protocols. Colocalisation of dual-labelled EVs was assessed by confocal microscopy and quantified using the Rank-Weighted Colocalisation (RWC) algorithm. We observed strikingly poor colocalisation between mEmerald-CD81-tagged EVs and C5-Maleimide-Alexa633 (5.4% ± 1.8) or PKH26 (4.6% ± 1.6), that remained low even when serum was removed from preparations. Our data confirms previous work showing that some dyes form contaminating aggregates. Furthermore, uptake studies showed that maleimide and mEmerald-CD81-tagged EVs can be often located into non-overlapping subcellular locations. By using common methods to isolate and stain EVs we observed that most EVs remained unstained and most dye signal does not appear to be EV associated. Our work shows that there is an urgent need for optimisation and standardisation in how EV researchers use these tools to assess genuine EV signals.

2022 ◽  
Shavron Hada ◽  
Jae Chul Lee ◽  
Eun Chae Lee ◽  
Sunkyong Ji ◽  
Jeong Sun Nam ◽  

Abstract Biophysical characterization of type A botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/A) complex along with its thermodynamic stability was assessed through a combination of various methods. BoNT/A exists as large complexes in association with neurotoxin associated proteins (NAPs). To evaluate its biophysical behavior, size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), multi-angled light scattering (MALS), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were utilized. Initially, a single peak (peak 1) of SEC was observed at pH 6.0, and an additional peak (peak 2) appeared at pH 7.4 with a decrement of peak 1. Through MALS and ELISA, the peak 2 was determined to be BoNT/A dissociated from its complex. The dissociation was accelerated by time and temperature. At 37°C, dissociated BoNT/A self-associated at pH 7.4 in the presence of polysorbate 20. On the other hand, the dissociation was partly reversible when titrated back to pH 6.0. Overall, BoNT/A was more stable when associated with NAPs at pH 6.0 compared to its dissociated state at pH 7.4. The conventional analytical methods could be utilized to relatively quantify its amount in different formulations.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 229
Marija Kavaliauskaite ◽  
Medeina Steponaviciute ◽  
Justina Kievisaite ◽  
Arturas Katelnikovas ◽  
Vaidas Klimkevicius

Synthesis and study of well-defined thermoresponsive amphiphilic copolymers with various compositions were reported. Kinetics of the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) (co)polymerization of styrene (St) and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEO5MEMA) was studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 1H NMR spectroscopy, which allows calculating not only (co)polymerization parameters but also gives valuable information on RAFT (co)polymerization kinetics, process control, and chain propagation. Molecular weight Mn and dispersity Đ of the copolymers were determined by SEC with triple detection. The detailed investigation of styrene and PEO5MEMA (co)polymerization showed that both monomers prefer cross-polymerization due to their low reactivity ratios (r1 < 1, r2 < 1); therefore, the distribution of monomeric units across the copolymer chain of p(St-co-PEO5MEMA) with various compositions is almost ideally statistical or azeotropic. The thermoresponsive properties of p(St-co-PEO5MEMA) copolymers in aqueous solutions as a function of different hydrophilic/hydrophobic substituent ratios were evaluated by measuring the changes in hydrodynamic parameters under applied temperature using the dynamic light scattering method (DLS).

Small ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 2104470
Sheng Yuan Leong ◽  
Hong Boon Ong ◽  
Hui Min Tay ◽  
Fang Kong ◽  
Megha Upadya ◽  

2022 ◽  
Avnika Bali ◽  
Samantha P Schaefer ◽  
Isabelle Trier ◽  
Alice L Zhang ◽  
Lilian Kabeche ◽  

The wasabi receptor, TRPA1, is a non-selective homotetrameric cation channel expressed in primary sensory neurons of the pain pathway, where it is activated by diverse chemical irritants. A direct role for TRPA1 in human health has been highlighted by the discovery of genetic variants associated with severe pain disorders. One such TRPA1 mutant was identified in a father-son pair with cramp fasciculation syndrome (CFS) and neuronal hyperexcitability-hypersensitivity symptoms that may be caused by aberrant channel activity, though the mechanism of action for this mutant is unknown. Here, we show the CFS-associated R919* TRPA1 mutant is functionally inactive when expressed alone in heterologous cells, which is not surprising since it lacks the 201 C-terminal amino acids that house critical channel gating machinery including the pore-lining transmembrane helix. Interestingly, the R919* mutant confers enhanced agonist sensitivity when co-expressed with wild type (WT) TRPA1. This channel hyperactivation mechanism is conserved in distant TRPA1 species orthologues and can be recapitulated in the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. Using a combination of ratiometric calcium imaging, immunostaining, surface biotinylation, pulldown assays, fluorescence size exclusion chromatography, and proximity biotinylation assays, we show that the R919* mutant co-assembles with WT subunits into heteromeric channels. Within these heteromers, we postulate that R919* TRPA1 subunits contribute to hyperactivation by lowering energetic barriers to channel activation contributed by the missing regions. Additionally, we show heteromer activation can originate from the R919* TRPA1 subunits, which suggests an unexpected role for the ankyrin repeat and coiled coil domains in concerted channel gating. Our results demonstrate the R919* TRPA1 mutant confers gain-of-function thereby expanding the physiological impact of nonsense mutations, reveals a novel and genetically tractable mechanism for selective channel sensitization that may be broadly applicable to other receptors, and uncovers new gating insights that may explain the molecular mechanism of temperature sensing by some TRPA1 orthologues.

Tomo Shimizu ◽  
Takashi Sawada ◽  
Tomohide Asai ◽  
Yuka Kanetsuki ◽  
Jiro Hirota ◽  

Abstract Background Recent increases in the number of patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) warrant the identification of biomarkers for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with NASH (NASH-HCC). IgM-free apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM), which generally associates with IgM in blood and exerts its biological function by dissociation from IgM, may serve as an effective biomarker for NASH-HCC. Here, we established a fully automatic and high-throughput electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) to measure IgM-free AIM and investigated its efficacy in diagnosing NASH-HCC and viral HCC. Methods IgM-free AIM levels were measured in 212 serum samples from patients with, or without, HCC related to NASH, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, using ECLIA. We also developed an ECLIA for measuring both IgM-free and IgM-bound AIM and investigated the existing form of AIM in blood by size-exclusion chromatography. Results IgM-free AIM levels were significantly higher in the HCC group than in the non-HCC group, regardless of the associated pathogenesis. Moreover, the area under the receiver operating curve for IgM-free AIM was greater than that for conventional HCC biomarkers, alpha-fetoprotein or des-γ-carboxy prothrombin, regardless of the cancer stage. ECLIA counts of IgM-free AIM derived from samples fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography were significantly higher in patients with NASH-HCC than in healthy volunteers and in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver and NASH. Conclusions Serum IgM-free AIM may represent a universal HCC diagnostic marker superior to alpha-fetoprotein or des-γ-carboxy prothrombin. Our newly established ECLIA could contribute to further clinical studies on AIM and in vitro HCC diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Baubek Spanov ◽  
Victoria Aboagye ◽  
Oladapo Olaleye ◽  
Natalia Govorukhina ◽  
Nico C. van de Merbel ◽  

Asparagine deamidation and aspartic acid isomerization in the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of monoclonal antibodies may alter their affinity to the target antigen. Trastuzumab has two hot spots for deamidation and one position for isomerization in the CDRs. Little is known how complex formation with its target antigen HER2 affects these modifications. Modifications in the CDRs of trastuzumab were thus compared between the free antibody and the trastuzumab–HER2 complex when stressed under physiological conditions at 37°C. Complex formation and stability of the complex upon stressing were assessed by size-exclusion chromatography. Deamidation of light-chain Asn-30 (Lc-Asn-30) was extensive when trastuzumab was stressed free but reduced about 10-fold when the antibody was stressed in complex with HER2. Almost no deamidation of heavy-chain (Hc-Asn-55) was detected in the trastuzumab–HER2 complex, while deamidation was observed when the antibody was stressed alone. Hc-Asp-102 isomerization, a modification that critically affects biological activity, was observed to a moderate degree when the free antibody was stressed but was not detected at all in the trastuzumab–HER2 complex. This shows that complex formation has a major influence on critical modifications in the CDRs of trastuzumab.

2022 ◽  
Hilda Mirbaha ◽  
Dailu Chen ◽  
Vishruth Mullapudi ◽  
Sandi Jo Estill Terpack ◽  
Charles L. White ◽  

Tau aggregation into ordered assemblies causes myriad neurodegenerative tauopathies. We previously reported that tau monomer exists in either inert (Mi) or seed-competent (Ms) conformational ensembles, and that Ms encodes strains, which are biologically active, self-propagating assemblies. We have previously isolated Ms from tauopathy brains, but it is unknown if disease begins with Ms formation followed by fibril assembly, or if Ms derives from fibrils and is an epiphenomenon. Consequently, we studied a tauopathy mouse model (PS19) that expresses full-length human (1N4R) tau containing a disease-associated mutation (P301S). Using tau repeat domain biosensor cells, we detected insoluble tau seeding activity at 2 months. We found insoluble tau protein assemblies by immunoblot at 3 months. We next immunopurified monomer from mice aged 1-6 weeks using size exclusion chromatography. We detected soluble seeding activity at 4 weeks, before insoluble material or larger assemblies, with assemblies ranging from n=1-3 tau units. By 5 and 6 weeks, large soluble assemblies had formed. This indicated the first detectable pathological forms of tau were Ms. We next tested for post-translational modifications of tau monomer from 1-6 weeks. We detected no phosphorylation unique to Ms in PS19 or Alzheimer disease brain. We conclude that tauopathy begins with formation of Ms monomer, whose activity is phosphorylation-independent. Ms self-assembles to form oligomers before it forms insoluble fibrils. The conversion of tau monomer from Mi to Ms thus constitutes the first detectable step in the initiation of tauopathy in this mouse model, with obvious implications for origins of disease in humans.

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