blood pressure target
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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yuki Kotani ◽  
Takuo Yoshida ◽  
Junji Kumasawa ◽  
Jun Kamei ◽  
Akihisa Taguchi ◽  

Abstract Background Cardiac surgery is performed worldwide, and acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery is a risk factor for mortality. However, the optimal blood pressure target to prevent AKI after cardiac surgery remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether relative hypotension and other hemodynamic parameters after cardiac surgery are associated with subsequent AKI progression. Methods We retrospectively enrolled adult patients admitted to 14 intensive care units after elective cardiac surgery between January and December 2018. We defined mean perfusion pressure (MPP) as the difference between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and central venous pressure (CVP). The main exposure variables were time-weighted-average MPP-deficit (i.e., the percentage difference between preoperative and postoperative MPP) and time spent with MPP-deficit > 20% within the first 24 h. We defined other pressure-related hemodynamic parameters during the initial 24 h as exploratory exposure variables. The primary outcome was AKI progression, defined as one or more AKI stages using Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes’ creatinine and urine output criteria between 24 and 72 h. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to assess the association between the exposure variables and AKI progression. Results Among the 746 patients enrolled, the median time-weighted-average MPP-deficit was 20% [interquartile range (IQR): 10–27%], and the median duration with MPP-deficit > 20% was 12 h (IQR: 3–20 h). One-hundred-and-twenty patients (16.1%) experienced AKI progression. In the multivariable analyses, time-weighted-average MPP-deficit or time spent with MPP-deficit > 20% was not associated with AKI progression [odds ratio (OR): 1.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.99–1.03]. Likewise, time spent with MPP-deficit > 20% was not associated with AKI progression (OR: 1.01, 95% CI 0.99–1.04). Among exploratory exposure variables, time-weighted-average CVP, time-weighted-average MPP, and time spent with MPP < 60 mmHg were associated with AKI progression (OR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.20; OR: 0.97, 95% CI 0.94–0.99; OR: 1.03, 95% CI 1.00–1.06, respectively). Conclusions Although higher CVP and lower MPP were associated with AKI progression, relative hypotension was not associated with AKI progression in patients after cardiac surgery. However, these findings were based on exploratory investigation, and further studies for validating them are required. Trial Registration UMIN-CTR,, UMIN000037074.

Indranil Dasgupta ◽  
Carmine Zoccali

Meticulous management of hypertension is important in chronic kidney disease (CKD) to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, mortality, and progression of CKD. The recently published Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline on blood pressure (BP) management in CKD stresses the importance of standardized BP measurement and strict control of BP. This is a useful document that will help to improve the management of hypertension in CKD globally. However, the recommendation of systolic BP target of <120 mm Hg by KDIGO is controversial. It is based on weak evidence derived mainly from a single randomized controlled trial and its CKD subgroup analysis. Here, we review the current evidence surrounding BP target in CKD. We argue that the target recommended by KDIGO is not generalizable to the majority of people with CKD. Standardized BP measurements are challenging to implement outside specialist hypertension and research clinics, and the target of <120 mm Hg BP systolic cannot be extrapolated to routine clinic BP measurements. If applied to routine BP measurement, this target will expose the multimorbid and frail CKD patients to the risk of adverse events including falls and fractures. Furthermore, it will not be achievable in the majority of CKD patients. The target recommended by KDIGO is an outlier among contemporary major international hypertension guidelines and is likely to perplex clinicians. We believe the KDIGO-recommended target systolic BP <120 mm Hg for CKD is inappropriate in the majority of CKD patients and it may even be harmful for patients managed in routine clinical practice.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Raja Ram Dhungana ◽  
Zeljko Pedisic ◽  
Achyut Raj Pandey ◽  
Nipun Shrestha ◽  
Maximilian de Courten

Background: Understanding country-specific factors influencing hypertension care is critical to address the gaps in the management of hypertension. However, no systematic investigation of factors influencing hypertension treatment and control in Nepal is available. This study aimed to systematically review the published literature and synthesise the findings on barriers, enablers, and strategies for hypertension treatment and control in Nepal.Methods: Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, ProQuest and WorldCat, and Nepali journals and government websites were searched for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies on factors or strategies related to hypertension treatment and control in Nepal. Information from qualitative studies was analysed using template analysis, while results from quantitative studies were narratively synthesised. Summary findings were framed under “health system”, “provider”, and “patient” domains. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020145823).Results: We identified 15 studies; ten related to barriers and enablers and five to strategies. The identified barriers associated with the health system were: lack of affordable services and lack of resources. The barriers at the provider's level were: communication gaps, inadequate counselling, long waiting hours for appointments, lack of national guidelines for hypertension treatment, and provider's unsupportive behaviours. Non-adherence to medication, irregular follow-up visits, lack of awareness on blood pressure target, poor help-seeking behaviours, reluctance to change behaviours, perceived side-effects of anti-hypertensive medication, self-medication, lack of family support, financial hardship, lack of awareness on blood pressure complications, and comorbidity were barriers identified at patient level. The following enablers were identified: free essential health care services, family support, positive illness perception, and drug reminders. Strategies implemented at the health system, provider and patient levels were: establishing digital health records at health centres, health worker's capacity development, and health education.Conclusion: There is a range of barriers for hypertension treatment and control in Nepal pertaining to the health system, health providers, and patients. Comprehensive interventions are needed at all three levels to further improve management and control of hypertension in Nepal.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (Supplement_1) ◽  
S Ikeda ◽  
M Iguchi ◽  
H Ogawa ◽  
K Ishigami ◽  
K Doi ◽  

Abstract Background Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has been reported to be associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events, but current guidelines recommend an intensive blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mmHg for AF patients taking oral anticoagulants without mentioning the lower limits of DBP. Methods The Fushimi AF Registry is a community-based prospective survey of AF patients in a city of Japan. Follow-up data were available in 4,472 patients, and hypertensive patients who received prescription of any antihypertensive agents and whose systolic blood pressure was treated to less than 130 mmHg were available were examined (n=1,319). We divided the patients into four groups according to their DBP at baseline; G1 (DBP&lt;60 mmHg, n=349), G2 (60≤DBP&lt;70, n=434), G3 (70≤DBP&lt;80, n=386) and G4 (80≤DBP, n=150), and compared the clinical background and outcomes among groups. Results The proportion of female was grater in G1 group, and the patients in G1 group were older. During the median follow-up of 2,458 days, in Kaplan-Meier analysis, the incidence rates of cardiovascular events (composite of cardiac death, ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, non-fatal myocardial infarction and heart failure hospitalization during follow up) were the highest in G1 group and the lowest in G3 group (G1: 7.2% per person-year vs. G2: 4.9% vs. G3: 2.2% vs. G4: 4.4%; p&lt;0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that DBP was an independent determinant of cardiovascular events (G1 vs. G3; hazard ratio (HR): 1.96, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.39–2.76, G2 vs. G3; HR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.28–2.50, G4 vs. G3; HR: 1.56, 95% CI: 0.99–2.45) (Figure 1). When we examined the association of DBP according to 10 mmHg increment, patients with excessively low DBP (&lt;50 mmHg) had significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events than patients with DBP of 70–79 mmHg (HR: 2.80, 95% CI: 1.81–4.33), and DBP exhibited J curve association with higher incidence of cardiovascular events (Figure 2). Conclusion In Japanese AF patients whose systolic blood pressure was treated to less than 130 mmHg, patients with excessively low DBP had significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular events, and DBP exhibited J curve association with higher incidence of cardiovascular events. FUNDunding Acknowledgement Type of funding sources: None.

Geert Goderis ◽  
Bert Vaes ◽  
Pavlos Mamouris ◽  
Eline van Craeyveld ◽  
Chantal Mathieu

Abstract Aims This study aims to assess the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), heart failure (HF), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and their combined presence in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in primary care for whom the 2019 ADA/EASD consensus update “Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes” recommends GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-I) as first-line medications after metformin. Methods Data were obtained in 2015 from Intego, a morbidity registration network of 111 general practitioners (GPs) working in 48 practices and including 123 261 registered patients. Results Of 123 261 patients, 9616 had T2D. Of these patients, 4200 (43.7%) presented with ASCVD and/or CKD and/or HF. Specifically, 3348 (34.8%) patients had ASCVD, 388 (4.0%) had heart failure, and 1402 (14.6%) had CKD. Compared to patients without any of these comorbidities, patients with at least 1 of these conditions were older (69.7 ±12.6 vs. 63.1±12.5 years), had higher LDL-C values (104.2±35.8 mg/dl vs. 97.2±37.7) and less frequently achieved the systolic blood pressure target of 140 mm Hg (53 vs. 61%) (all p<0.001). Comorbid patients also had significantly more other comorbidities, such as dementia or cancer; received more recommended medications, such as statins; and received less metformin. Most patients with HF (325; 3.4%) had ASCVD (114; 1.2%), CKD (76; 0.8%), or both (135; 1.4%). In total, 478 patients with CKD (5.0%) also had ASCVD. Conclusions At the primary care level, 44% of T2D patients suffer from ASCVD, CKD, and/or HF, and thus qualify for GLP-1RA or SGLT2-I therapy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 174749302110254
Zien Zhou ◽  
Chao Xia ◽  
Grant Mair ◽  
Candice Delcourt ◽  
Sohei Yoshimura ◽  

Background: We explored the influence of low-dose intravenous alteplase and intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering on outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) according to status/location of vascular obstruction in participants of the Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED). Methods: ENCHANTED was a multicenter, quasi-factorial, randomized trial to determine efficacy and safety of low- versus standard-dose intravenous alteplase and intensive- versus guideline-recommended BP lowering in AIS patients. In those who had baseline CT or MRI angiography, the degree of vascular occlusion was grouped according to being no (NVO), medium (MVO), or large (LVO). Logistic regression models were used to determine 90-day outcomes (modified Rankin scale [mRS] shift [primary], other mRS cut-scores, intracranial hemorrhage, early neurologic deterioration [END], and recanalization) by vascular obstruction status/site. Heterogeneity in associations for outcomes across subgroups was estimated by adding an interaction term to the models. Results: There were 940 participants: 607 in alteplase arm only, 243 in BP arm only, and 90 assigned to both arms. Compared to the NVO group, functional outcome was worse in LVO (mRS shift, adjusted OR [95% CI] 2.13 [1.56-2.90] but comparable in MVO (1.34 [0.96-1.88]) groups. There were no differences in associations of alteplase dose or BP lowering and outcomes across NVO/MVO/LVO groups (mRS shift: low versus standard alteplase dose 0.84 [0.54-1.30]/0.48 [0.25-0.91]/0.99 [0.75-2.09], Pinteraction=0.28; intensive versus standard BP lowering 1.32 [0.74-2.38]/0.78 [0.31-1.94]/1.24 [0.64-2.41], Pinteraction=0.41), except for a borderline significant difference for intensive BP lowering and increased END (0.63 [0.14-2.72]/0.17 [0.02-1.47]/2.69 [0.90-8.04], Pinteraction=0.05). Conclusions: Functional outcome by dose of alteplase or intensity of BP lowering is not modified by vascular obstruction status/site according to analyzes from ENCHANTED, although these results are compromised by low statistical power.

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