obese children
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İsmail Dündar ◽  
Ayşehan Akıncı

Abstract Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and other comorbidities in overweight and obese children in Malatya, Turkey. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional study. We studied 860 obese and overweight children and adolescents (obese children Body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile, overweight children BMI >85th percentile) aged between 6 and 18 years. The diagnosis of MetS, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and T2DM were defined according to modified the World Health Organization criteria adapted for children. Other comorbidities were studied. Results Subjects (n=860) consisted of 113 overweight and 747 obese children of whom 434 (50.5%) were girls. MetS was significantly more prevalent in obese than overweight children (43.8 vs. 2.7%, p<0.001), and in pubertal than prepubertal children (41.1 vs. 31.7%, p<0.001). Mean homeostasis model assessment for insulin ratio (HOMA-IR) was 3.6 ± 2.0 in the prepubertal and 4.9 ± 2.4 in pubertal children (p<0.001). All cases underwent oral glucose tolerance test and IGT, IFG, and T2DM were diagnosed in 124 (14.4%), 19 (2.2%), and 32 (3.7%) cases, respectively. Insulin resistance (IR) was present in 606 cases (70.5%). Conclusions Puberty and obesity are important risk factors for MetS, T2DM, and IR. The prevalence of MetS, T2DM, and other morbidities was high in the study cohort. Obese children and adolescents should be carefully screened for T2DM, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, dyslipidemia, hypertension, IGT, and IFG. The prevention, early recognition, and treatment of obesity are essential to avoid associated morbidities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Pecoraro Luca ◽  
Zoller Thomas ◽  
Richard L. Atkinson ◽  
Nisi Fulvio ◽  
Antoniazzi Franco ◽  

Abstract Introduction Overweight or obese children develop abnormal endothelial cell dysfunction and arterial intima–media thickening with increased vasomotor tone and inflammation. Curcumin, resveratrol, zinc, magnesium, selenium, and vitamin D have shown beneficial effects on endothelial function. We test, among overweight and obese pediatric subjects, the effects on the endothelium of a combination of curcumin, resveratrol, zinc, magnesium, selenium, and vitamin D. Methods Forty-eight subjects (6–17 years) were randomized into two groups (placebo vs treatment) attended three visits at 0, 3, and 6 months (±15 days). Endothelial function was assessed by means of a post-occlusive release hyperemic (PORH) test for estimation of delta flow (DF) and hyperemic AUC index, and a heat provocation test (HPT) to measure DF HPT (DFHPT). Results Significant DF difference was noted at 6 months in both groups (p < 0.001). Overall time trend was significantly different between baseline, 3 months, and 6 months both in placebo (p < 0.05) and treatment (p < 0.001) groups and their comparison (p < 0.001). No differences were noted in hyperemic AUC index (3 and 6 months), whilst there were significant differences in time trends of rreatment (p < 0.001) and placebo (p < 0.05) groups and their comparison (p < 0.001). DFHPT difference between groups was significant at 3 and 6 months (p < 0.05). The overall time trend was significant exclusively in Treatment group between 3 and 6 months (p < 0.05). Correlation with anthropometrics was found for DF and body mass index (r = 0.677 6 months, p < 0.05), as well as for hyperemic AUC index and males (r = 0.348, p < 0.05), while DFHPT showed no correlation. Conclusion Curcumin, resveratrol, zinc, magnesium, selenium, and vitamin D appear to be promising in enhancing endothelial function by improvement of both DF in the PORH test and DF in the HPT, lowering the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in overweight and obese pediatric subjects.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 241
Ana López-Moreno ◽  
Ángel Ruiz-Moreno ◽  
Jesús Pardo-Cacho ◽  
Klara Cerk ◽  
Alfonso Torres-Sánchez ◽  

Integrated data from molecular and improved culturomics studies might offer holistic insights on gut microbiome dysbiosis triggered by xenobiotics, such as obesity and metabolic disorders. Bisphenol A (BPA), a dietary xenobiotic obesogen, was chosen for a directed culturing approach using microbiota specimens from 46 children with obesity and normal-weight profiles. In parallel, a complementary molecular analysis was carried out to estimate the BPA metabolising capacities. Firstly, catalogues of 237 BPA directed-cultured microorganisms were isolated using five selected media and several BPA treatments and conditions. Taxa from Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant in normal-weight and overweight/obese children, with species belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, and Clostridium. Secondly, the representative isolated taxa from normal-weight vs. overweight/obese were grouped as BPA biodegrader, tolerant, or resistant bacteria, according to the presence of genes encoding BPA enzymes in their whole genome sequences. Remarkably, the presence of sporobiota and concretely Bacillus spp. showed the higher BPA biodegradation potential in overweight/obese group compared to normal-weight, which could drive a relevant role in obesity and metabolic dysbiosis triggered by these xenobiotics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Rasmus Møller Jørgensen ◽  
Bjarke Bøttger ◽  
Esben Thyssen Vestergaard ◽  
Britta Kremke ◽  
Rikke Frederiksen Bahnsen ◽  

Introduction: Childhood obesity is an increasing condition associated with continuous obesity into adulthood and development of comorbidities. Adult studies show an association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and body mass index (BMI). The aim of this retro perspective exploratory study was to investigate SUA in obese children and adolescents and the effects of a subsequent weight reduction.Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy-one children (age 4–18), with obesity (i.e. BMI-SDS of +2 or higher) were included in a multifactorial lifestyle intervention. The children participating were annually measured for anthropometrics, blood samples and DEXA-scans for up to 3 years. Eighty-nine children were included for follow-up analysis.Results: After a follow-up of 20.7 ± 9.4 months a reduction in BMI-SDS of −0.34 ± 0.53 (p &lt; 0.01) was observed. SUA was found to be positively associated with changes in BMI-SDS. SUA levels decreased in the 65 children who lost weight during the trial, conversely, SUA increased in the 23 children who gained weight during the trial (p &lt; 0.01 between groups).Conclusion: SUA was found to correlate with measures of obesity and for the first time, this intervention demonstrates a positive relationship between SUA and weight reduction in children with obesity.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 204
Teofana Otilia Bizerea-Moga ◽  
Laura Pitulice ◽  
Cristina Loredana Pantea ◽  
Orsolya Olah ◽  
Otilia Marginean ◽  

Small and large birth weights (BWs) for gestational age (GA) represent extremes, but the correlation between extreme BW and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we examined this correlation in obese children based on changes in their metabolic profile from childhood to adolescence. A retrospective observational study was performed on 535 obese patients aged 0–18 years in the Clinical and Emergency Hospital for Children “Louis Turcanu” in Timisoara, Romania, based on clinical and biological data from January 2015 to December 2019. We emphasized the links between extreme BW and obesity, extreme BW and cardiometabolic risk, obesity and cardiometabolic risk, and extreme BW, obesity and MetS. Children born large for gestational age (LGA) predominated over those born small for gestational age (SGA). Our findings showed that BW has an independent effect on triglycerides and insulin resistance, whereas obesity had a direct influence on hypertension, impaired glucose metabolism and hypertriglyceridemia. The influences of BW and obesity on the development of MetS and its components are difficult to separate; therefore, large prospective studies in normal-weight patients are needed.

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