rna splicing
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Malik Bisserier ◽  
Nathaniel Saffran ◽  
Agnieszka Brojakowska ◽  
Aimy Sebastian ◽  
Angela Clare Evans ◽  

During spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to multiple unique environmental factors, particularly microgravity and ionizing radiation, that can cause a range of harmful health consequences. Over the past decades, increasing evidence demonstrates that the space environment can induce changes in gene expression and RNA processing. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) represent an emerging area of focus in molecular biology as they modulate chromatin structure and function, the transcription of neighboring genes, and affect RNA splicing, stability, and translation. They have been implicated in cancer development and associated with diverse cardiovascular conditions and associated risk factors. However, their role on astronauts’ health after spaceflight remains poorly understood. In this perspective article, we provide new insights into the potential role of exosomal lncRNA after spaceflight. We analyzed the transcriptional profile of exosomes isolated from peripheral blood plasma of three astronauts who flew on various Shuttle missions between 1998–2001 by RNA-sequencing. Computational analysis of the transcriptome of these exosomes identified 27 differentially expressed lncRNAs with a Log2 fold change, with molecular, cellular, and clinical implications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaorui Liu ◽  
Lingling Xie ◽  
Zhixu Fang ◽  
Li Jiang

We investigated the existence and potential pathogenicity of a SLC9A6 splicing variant in a Chinese boy with Christianson Syndrome (CS), which was reported for the first time in China. Trio whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in the proband and his parents. Multiple computer prediction tools were used to evaluate the pathogenicity of the variant, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and cDNA sequencing were performed to verify the RNA splicing results. The patient presented with characteristic features of CS: global developmental delay, seizures, absent speech, truncal ataxia, microcephaly, ophthalmoplegia, smiling face and hyperkinesis with electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) detected in an electroencephalogram (EEG). A SLC9A6 splicing variant was identified by WES and complete skipping of exon 10 was confirmed by RT-PCR. This resulted in altered gene function and was predicted to be pathogenic. ESES observed early in the disease course is considered to be a significant feature of CS with the SLC9A6 variant. Combined genetic analysis at both the DNA and RNA levels is necessary to confirm the pathogenicity of this variant and its role in the clinical diagnosis of CS.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 332
Yan Zhao ◽  
Hongling Peng

Epigenetics is identified as the study of heritable modifications in gene expression and regulation that do not involve DNA sequence alterations, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, etc. Importantly, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation modification is one of the most common epigenetic modifications of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), which plays a key role in various cellular processes. It can not only mediate various RNA metabolic processes such as RNA splicing, translation, and decay under the catalytic regulation of related enzymes but can also affect the normal development of bone marrow hematopoiesis by regulating the self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in the hematopoietic microenvironment of bone marrow. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that m6A methylation modifications play an important role in the development and progression of hematologic malignancies (e.g., leukemia, lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes [MDS], multiple myeloma [MM], etc.). Targeting the inhibition of m6A-associated factors can contribute to increased susceptibility of patients with hematologic malignancies to therapeutic agents. Therefore, this review elaborates on the biological characteristics and normal hematopoietic regulatory functions of m6A methylation modifications and their role in the pathogenesis of hematologic malignancies.

2022 ◽  
Feng Xu ◽  
Ling-Yun Wu ◽  
Juan Guo ◽  
Qi He ◽  
Zheng Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background The transformation biology of secondary AML from MDS is still not fully understood. Here, we performed a large cohort of paired self-controlled sequences including target, whole-exome and single cell sequencing to search AML transformation-related mutations (TRMs). Methods 39 target genes from paired samples from 72 patients with MDS who had undergone AML transformation were analyzed by next generation target sequencing. Whole exome and single-cell RNA sequencing were used to verify the dynamics of transformation. Results The target sequencing results showed that sixty-four out of the 72 (88.9%) patients presented presumptive TRMs involving activated signaling, transcription factors, or tumor suppressors. Of the 64 patients, most of TRMs (62.5%, 40 cases) emerged at the leukemia transformation point. All three of the remaining eight patients analyzed by paired whole exome sequencing showed TRMs which are not included in the reference targets. No patient with MDS developed into AML only by acquiring mutations involved in epigenetic modulation or RNA splicing. Single-cell sequencing in one pair sample indicated that the activated cell signaling route was related to TRMs which take place prior to phenotypic development. Of note, target sequencing defined TRMs were limited to a small set of seven genes (in the order: NRAS/KRAS, CEBPA, TP53, FLT3, CBL, PTPN11 and RUNX1, accounted for nearly 90.0% of the TRMs). Conclusions Somatic mutations involving in signaling, transcription factors, or tumor suppressors appeared to be a precondition for AML transformation from MDS. The TRMs may be considered as new therapy targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Valeria Lodde ◽  
Matteo Floris ◽  
Rachel Munk ◽  
Jennifer L. Martindale ◽  
Davide Piredda ◽  

AbstractRNA-binding proteins (RBPs) interact with and determine the fate of many cellular RNAs directing numerous essential roles in cellular physiology. Nuclear Factor 90 (NF90) is an RBP encoded by the interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3 (ILF3) gene that has been found to influence RNA metabolism at several levels, including pre-RNA splicing, mRNA turnover, and translation. To systematically identify the RNAs that interact with NF90, we carried out iCLIP (individual-nucleotide resolution UV crosslinking and immunoprecipitation) analysis in the human embryonic fibroblast cell line HEK-293. Interestingly, many of the identified RNAs encoded proteins involved in the response to viral infection and RNA metabolism. We validated a subset of targets and investigated the impact of NF90 on their expression levels. Two of the top targets, IRF3 and IRF9 mRNAs, encode the proteins IRF3 and IRF9, crucial regulators of the interferon pathway involved in the SARS-CoV-2 immune response. Our results support a role for NF90 in modulating key genes implicated in the immune response and offer insight into the immunological response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2021 ◽  
Fang Deng ◽  
Shaofen Huang ◽  
Xiaoqiang Xiao

Abstract Pre-mRNA processing factor 31(PRPF31) is a key component of RNA splicing and also a disease-causing gene of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). Previously, we found that the nonsense mutation R354X in PRPF31induces RP in a Chinese RP family. In order to investigate the underlining molecular mechanisms of RP pathogenesis induced by this mutation, we generated cell lines stably expressing R354X mutant, wild type (WT) of PRPF31 and corresponding empty vector using HEK293T cells ,the resulting cell lines were used for Long non-coding RNA sequencing(LncRNA -sequencing). The results of LncRNA sequencing showed that, comparing to WT, R354X mutation changed the expression and splicing of coding and non-coding transcripts. Interestingly, in HEK293T and APRE-19 cells, inflammation-associated genes such as IFI6, OAS3and STAT3, enhanced their expression in response to the overexpression of WT PRPF31; however, in R354X mutation cells, those genes’ expression remained basal levels. Moreover, increased H2AFX expression and attenuated growth capacity were found in cells expressing R354X PRPF31. In contrast with WT, R354X mutant showed varied splicing model for dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in HEK293T , reduced CPSF1 and SORBS1 mRNAs binding in ARPE-19 ,and its binding with CTNNBL1 was also interfered in ARPE-19 cells. On the other hand, the R354X mutant also increased the level of transcripts read-through. Taken together, R354X mutation in PRPF31 affected cell survival, changed gene’s expression and splicing. Those findings indicate that inflammation and oxidation might contribute the pathogenesis of RP induced by the R354X mutation.

Hengzhen Li ◽  
WenFeng Xiao ◽  
Yuqiong He ◽  
Zeqin Wen ◽  
Siyuan Cheng ◽  

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an important modification of eukaryotic mRNA. Since the first discovery of the corresponding demethylase and the subsequent identification of m6A as a dynamic modification, the function and mechanism of m6A in mammalian gene regulation have been extensively investigated. “Writer”, “eraser” and “reader” proteins are key proteins involved in the dynamic regulation of m6A modifications, through the anchoring, removal, and interpretation of m6A modifications, respectively. Remarkably, such dynamic modifications can regulate the progression of many diseases by affecting RNA splicing, translation, export and degradation. Emerging evidence has identified the relationship between m6A modifications and degenerative musculoskeletal diseases, such as osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, sarcopenia and degenerative spinal disorders. Here, we have comprehensively summarized the evidence of the pathogenesis of m6A modifications in degenerative musculoskeletal diseases. Moreover, the potential molecular mechanisms, regulatory functions and clinical implications of m6A modifications are thoroughly discussed. Our review may provide potential prospects for addressing key issues in further studies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2111703119
Yen K. Lieu ◽  
Zhaoqi Liu ◽  
Abdullah M. Ali ◽  
Xin Wei ◽  
Alex Penson ◽  

SF3B1 is the most frequently mutated RNA splicing factor in cancer, including in ∼25% of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients. SF3B1-mutated MDS, which is strongly associated with ringed sideroblast morphology, is characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, leading to severe, often fatal anemia. However, functional evidence linking SF3B1 mutations to the anemia described in MDS patients harboring this genetic aberration is weak, and the underlying mechanism is completely unknown. Using isogenic SF3B1 WT and mutant cell lines, normal human CD34 cells, and MDS patient cells, we define a previously unrecognized role of the kinase MAP3K7, encoded by a known mutant SF3B1-targeted transcript, in controlling proper terminal erythroid differentiation, and show how MAP3K7 missplicing leads to the anemia characteristic of SF3B1-mutated MDS, although not to ringed sideroblast formation. We found that p38 MAPK is deactivated in SF3B1 mutant isogenic and patient cells and that MAP3K7 is an upstream positive effector of p38 MAPK. We demonstrate that disruption of this MAP3K7-p38 MAPK pathway leads to premature down-regulation of GATA1, a master regulator of erythroid differentiation, and that this is sufficient to trigger accelerated differentiation, erythroid hyperplasia, and ultimately apoptosis. Our findings thus define the mechanism leading to the severe anemia found in MDS patients harboring SF3B1 mutations.

2021 ◽  
Mehdi Ghram ◽  
Gavin Morris ◽  
Biljana Culjkovic-Kraljacic ◽  
Patrick Gendron ◽  
Lucy Skrabanek ◽  

Aberrant RNA splicing contributes to the pathogenesis of many malignancies including Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). While mutation is the best described mechanism underpinning aberrant splicing, recent studies show that predictions based on mutations alone likely underestimate the extent of this dysregulation1 . Here, we show that elevation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E reprogrammes splicing of nearly a thousand RNAs in model cell lines. In AML patient specimens which did not harbour known splice factor mutations, ~4000 transcripts were differentially spliced based on eIF4E levels and this was associated with poor prognosis. Inhibition of eIF4E in cell lines reverted the eIF4E-dependent splice events examined. Splicing targets of eIF4E act in biological processes consistent with its role in malignancy. This altered splicing program likely arose from eIF4E-dependnet increases in the production of many components of the spliceosome including SF3B1 and U2AF1 which are frequently mutated in AML. Notably, eIF4E did not drive mutation of these factors, only their production. eIF4E also physically associated with many splice factors including SF3B1, U2AF1, and UsnRNAs. Importantly, many eIF4E-dependent splice events differed from those arising from SF3B1 mutation, and were more extensive highlighting that these splicing profiles arise from distinct mechanisms. In all, our studies provide a paradigm for how dysregulation of a single factor, eIF4E, can alter splicing.

Greesham Tripathi ◽  
Avantika Tripathi ◽  
Joel Johnson ◽  
Manoj Kumar Kashyap

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