Epithelial cells fluidize upon adhesion but display mechanical homeostasis in the adherent state

Peter Nietmann ◽  
Jonathan E.F. Bodenschatz ◽  
Andrea M. Cordes ◽  
Jannis Gottwald ◽  
Helen Rother-Nöding ◽  
V. F. Allison ◽  
G. C. Fink ◽  
G. W. Cearley

It is well known that epithelial hyperplasia (benign hypertrophy) is common in the aging prostate of dogs and man. In contrast, little evidence is available for abnormal epithelial cell growth in seminal vesicles of aging animals. Recently, enlarged seminal vesicles were reported in senescent mice, however, that enlargement resulted from increased storage of secretion in the lumen and occurred concomitant to epithelial hypoplasia in that species.The present study is concerned with electron microscopic observations of changes occurring in the pseudostratified epithelium of the seminal vescles of aging rats. Special attention is given to certain non-epithelial cells which have entered the epithelial layer.

C.N. Sun

The present study demonstrates the ultrastructure of the gingival epithelium of the pig tail monkey (Macaca nemestrina). Specimens were taken from lingual and facial gingival surfaces and fixed in Dalton's chrome osmium solution (pH 7.6) for 1 hr, dehydrated, and then embedded in Epon 812.Tonofibrils are variable in number and structure according to the different region or location of the gingival epithelial cells, the main orientation of which is parallel to the long axis of the cells. The cytoplasm of the basal epithelial cells contains a great number of tonofilaments and numerous mitochondria. The basement membrane is 300 to 400 A thick. In the cells of stratum spinosum, the tonofibrils are densely packed and increased in number (fig. 1 and 3). They seem to take on a somewhat concentric arrangement around the nucleus. The filaments may occur scattered as thin fibrils in the cytoplasm or they may be arranged in bundles of different thickness. The filaments have a diameter about 50 A. In the stratum granulosum, the cells gradually become flatted, the tonofibrils are usually thin, and the individual tonofilaments are clearly distinguishable (fig. 2). The mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are seldom seen in these superficial cell layers.

Odell T. Minick ◽  
Hidejiro Yokoo ◽  
Fawzia Batti

To learn more of the nature and origin of alcoholic hyalin (AH), 15 liver biopsy specimens from patients with alcoholic hepatitis were studied in detail.AH was found not only in hepatocytes but also in ductular cells (Figs. 1 and 2), although in the latter location only rarely. The bulk of AH consisted of a randomly oriented network of closely packed filaments measuring about 150 Å in width. Bundles of filaments smaller in diameter (40-90 Å) were observed along the periphery of the main mass (Fig. 1), often surrounding it in a rim-like fashion. Fine filaments were also found close to the nucleus in both hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells, the latter even though characteristic AH was not present (Figs. 3 and 4). Dispersed among the larger filaments were glycogen, RNA particles and profiles of endoplasmic reticulum. Dilated cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum were often conspicuous around the periphery of the AH mass. A limiting membrane was not observed.

D.G. Osborne ◽  
L.J. McCormack ◽  
M.O. Magnusson ◽  
W.S. Kiser

During a project in which regenerative changes were studied in autotransplanted canine kidneys, intranuclear crystals were seen in a small number of tubular epithelial cells. These crystalline structures were seen in the control specimens and also in regenerating specimens; the main differences being in size and number of them. The control specimens showed a few tubular epithelial cell nuclei almost completely occupied by large crystals that were not membrane bound. Subsequent follow-up biopsies of the same kidneys contained similar intranuclear crystals but of a much smaller size. Some of these nuclei contained several small crystals. The small crystals occurred at one week following transplantation and were seen even four weeks following transplantation. As time passed, the small crystals appeared to fuse to form larger crystals.

U.I. Heine ◽  
G.R.F. Krueger ◽  
E. Munoz ◽  
A. Karpinski

Infection of newborn mice with Moloney leukemia virus (M-MuLV) causes a T-cell differentiation block in the thymic cortex accompanied by proliferation and accumulation of prethymic lymphoblasts in the thymus and subsequent spreading of these cells to generate systemic lymphoma. Current evidence shows that thymic reticular epithelial cells (REC) provide a microenvironment necessary for the maturation of prethymic lymphoblasts to mature T-lymphocytes by secretion of various thymic factors. A change in that environment due to infection of REC by virus could be decisive for the failure of lymphoblasts to mature and thus contribute to lymphoma development.We have studied the morphology and distribution of the major thymic cell populations at different stages of tumorigenesis in Balb/c mice infected when newborn with 0.2ml M-MuLV suspension, 6.8 log FFU/ml. Thymic tissue taken at 1-2 weekly intervals up to tumor development was processed for light and electron microscopy, using glutaraldehyde-OsO4fixation and Epon-Araldite embedding.

W.T. Gunning ◽  
M.R. Marino ◽  
M.S. Babcock ◽  
G.D. Stoner

The role of calcium in modulating cellular replication and differentiation has been described for various cell types. In the present study, the effects of Ca++ on the growth and differentiation of cultured rat esophageal epithelial cells was investigated.Epithelial cells were isolated from esophagi taken from 8 week-old male CDF rats by the enzymatic dissociation method of Kaighn. The cells were cultured in PFMR-4 medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/ml dialyzed fetal bovine serum, 5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor, 10-6 M hydrocortisone 10-6 M phosphoethanolamine, 10-6 M ethanolamine, 5 pg/ml insulin, 5 ng/ml transferrin, 10 ng/ml cholera toxin and 50 ng/ml garamycin at 36.5°C in a humidified atmosphere of 3% CO2 in air. At weekly intervals, the cells were subcultured with a solution containing 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 0.01% EGTA, and 0.05% trypsin. After various passages, the replication rate of the cells in PFMR-4 medium containing from 10-6 M to 10-3 M Ca++ was determined using a clonal growth assay.

Raoul Fresco ◽  
Mary Chang-Lo

Confusion surrounds the nature of the “adenomatoid tumor” of the testis, as evidenced by the large number of synonyms which have been ascribed to it. Various authors have considered the tumor to be of endothelial, mesothelial or epithelial origin. There appears to be no controversy as to the stromal elements of the tumor, which consists mainly of smooth muscle and fibrous tissue. It is the irregular gland-like spaces which have given rise to the numerous theories as to its histogenesis, and even recent ultrastructural studies fail to agree on the origin of these structures.Electron microscopy of a typical intrascrotal adenomatoid tumor showed the gland-like spaces to be lined by epithelial cells (Fig. 1), rich in cytoplasmic tonofibrils and united to each other by numerous desmosomes (Fig. 2). The most salient feature of these epithelial cells was the presence on their luminal surface of numerous long and repeatedly branching microvillous structures of the type known as stereocilia (Fig. 3). These are extremely long slender cell processes which are as much as three to four times the length of those in brush borders.

A. C. Enders

The alteration in membrane relationships seen at implantation include 1) interaction between cytotrophoblast cells to form syncytial trophoblast and addition to the syncytium by subsequent fusion of cytotrophoblast cells, 2) formation of a wide variety of functional complex relationships by trophoblast with uterine epithelial cells in the process of invasion of the endometrium, and 3) in the case of the rabbit, fusion of some uterine epithelial cells with the trophoblast.Formation of syncytium is apparently a membrane fusion phenomenon in which rapid confluence of cytoplasm often results in isolation of residual membrane within masses of syncytial trophoblast. Often the last areas of membrane to disappear are those including a desmosome where the cell membranes are apparently held apart from fusion.

S. Mukherjee ◽  
T. Guha ◽  
B. Chakrabarti ◽  
P. Chakrabarti

The cervix is an important organ in reproduction. Its malfunction is frequently a factor for infertility. Ectocervix region does not appear to have received much attention although many studies have been reported on the endocervix. We report here our SEM observations on ectocervix in certain pathological conditions compared to normal ectocervix.Ectocervix specimens from human females with specific pathological disorders were processed for Scanning Electron Microscopy by conventional method and they were examined in a Philips SEM.The normal ectocervix is lined by flat layer of squamous epithelial cells with microridges (Fig. 1). These cells are known to be formed from columnar cells through metaplastic transformation. The cells of carcinoma-bearing ectocervix show a disorganised appearance (Fig. 2). In non-malignant tumour surface some cuboidal and few columnar cells were seen (Fig. 3). A cyst appears like an overgrowth on the surface of the squamous epithelium (Fig. 4). In ulcerated ectocervix a marked reduction of epithelial cells are observed (Fig. 5); the cells are devoid of microridges and, the large polygonal cells, as observed in normal tissues, have somehow acquired comparatively small hexagonal shape

Rick L. Vaughn ◽  
Shailendra K. Saxena ◽  
John G. Sharp

We have developed an intestinal wound model that includes surgical construction of an ileo-cecal patch to study the complex process of intestinal wound healing. This allows approximation of ileal mucosa to the cecal serosa and facilitates regeneration of ileal mucosa onto the serosal surface of the cecum. The regeneration of ileal mucosa can then be evaluated at different times. The wound model also allows us to determine the rate of intestinal regeneration for a known size of intestinal wound and can be compared in different situations (e.g. with and without EGF and Peyer’s patches).At the light microscopic level it appeared that epithelial cells involved in regeneration of ileal mucosa originated from the enlarged crypts adjacent to the intestinal wound and migrated in an orderly fashion onto the serosal surface of the cecum. The migrating epithelial cells later formed crypts and villi by the process of invagination and evagination respectively. There were also signs of proliferation of smooth muscles underneath the migratory epithelial cells.

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