Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) refers to bleeding in the brain and is associated with the release of large amount of inflammasomes, and the activation of different cell death pathways. These cell death pathways lead to removal of inactivated and damaged cells and also result in neuronal cell damage. Pyroptosis is a newly discovered cell death pathway that has gained attention in recent years. This pathway mainly depends on activation of caspase-1-mediated cascades to cause cell death. We tested a well-known selective inhibitor of caspase-1, AC-YVAD-CMK, which has previously been found to have neuroprotective effects in ICH mice model, to ascertain its effects on the activation of inflammasomes mediated pyroptosis. Our results showed that AC-YVAD-CMK could reduce caspase-1 activation and inhibit IL-1β production and maturation, but has no effect on NLRP3 expression, an upstream inflammatory complex. AC-YVAD-CMK administration also resulted in reduction in M1-type microglia polarization around the hematoma, while increasing the number of M2-type cells. Furthermore, AC-YVAD-CMK treated mice showed some recovery of neurological function after hemorrhage especially at the hyperacute and subacute stage resulting in some degree of limb movement. In conclusion, we are of the view that AC-YVAD-CMK could inhibit pyroptosis, decrease the secretion or activation of inflammatory factors, and affect the polarization of microglia resulting in improvement of neurological function after ICH.
In the central nervous system (CNS), connexin 43 (Cx43) is mainly expressed in astrocytes and regulates astrocytic network homeostasis. Similar to Cx43 overexpression, abnormal excessive opening of Cx43 hemichannels (Cx43Hcs) on reactive astrocytes aggravates the inflammatory response and cell death in CNS pathologies. However, the role of excessive Cx43Hc opening in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) injury is not clear.
Hemin stimulation in primary cells and collagenase IV injection in C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used as ICH models in vitro and in vivo. After ICH injury, the Cx43 mimetic peptide Gap19 was used for treatment. Ethidium bromide (EtBr) uptake assays were used to measure the opening of Cx43Hcs. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to measure protein expression. qRT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the levels of cytokines. Coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) and the Duolink in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) were applied to measure the association between proteins.
In this study, Cx43 expression upregulation and excessive Cx43Hc opening was observed in mice after ICH injury. Delayed treatment with Gap19 significantly alleviated hematoma volume and neurological deficits after ICH injury. In addition, Gap19 decreased inflammatory cytokine levels in the tissue surrounding the hematoma and decreased reactive astrogliosis after ICH injury in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, Cx43 transcriptional activity and expression in astrocytes were significantly increased after hemin stimulation in culture. However, Gap19 treatment downregulated astrocytic Cx43 expression through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway without affecting Cx43 transcription. Additionally, our data showed that Gap19 increased Yes-associated protein (YAP) nuclear translocation. This subsequently upregulated SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression and then inhibited the TLR4-NFκB and JAK2-STAT3 pathways in hemin-stimulated astrocytes. Finally, the YAP inhibitor, verteporfin (VP), reversed the anti-inflammatory effect of Gap19 in vitro and almost completely blocked its protective effects in vivo after ICH injury.
This study provides new insight into potential treatment strategies for ICH injury involving astroglial Cx43 and Cx43Hcs. Suppression of abnormal astroglial Cx43 expression and Cx43Hc opening by Gap19 has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects after ICH injury.
Aging has been shown to contribute to both the declined biofunctions of aging brain and aggravation of acute brain damage, and the former could be reversed by young plasma. These results suggest that young plasma treatment may also reduce the acute brain damage induced by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we first found that the administration of young plasma significantly reduced the mortality and neurological deficit score in aging ICH rodents, which might be due to the decreased brain water content, damaged neural cells, and increased survival neurons around the perihematomal brain tissues. Then, proteomics analysis was used to screen out the potential neuroprotective circulating factors and the results showed that many factors were changed in health human plasma among young, adult, and old population. Among these significantly changed factors, the plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level was significantly decreased with age, which was further confirmed both in human and rats detected by ELISA. Additionally, the brain IGF-1 protein level in aging ICH rats was markedly decreased when compared with young rats. Interestingly, the relative decreased brain IGF-1 level was reversed by the treatment of young plasma in aging ICH rats, while the mRNA level was non-significantly changed. Furthermore, the IGF-1 administration significantly ameliorated the acute brain injury in aging ICH rats. These results indicated that young circulating factors, like IGF-1, may enter brain tissues to exert neuroprotective effects, and young plasma may be considered as a novel therapeutic approach for the clinical treatment of aging-related acute brain injury.
<b><i>Background:</i></b> Elevation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) signaling can suppress intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced neurological impairments. As an isoquinoline alkaloid, Berberine exerts neuroprotective effects in neurological disease models with activated AMPK/PGC1α signaling. <b><i>Aim:</i></b> We aim to study the effect of Berberine on ICH-induced brain injury and explore the potential molecular mechanism. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> ICH model was established in mice through intracerebral injection of autologous whole blood, followed by treatment with Berberine. Neurological impairments were assessed by the modified neurological severity score and behavioral assays. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were assessed by water content in the brain, amount of extravasated Evans blue, and BBB tight junction components. Neuroinflammatory responses were assessed by inflammatory cytokine levels. AMPK/PGC1α signaling was examined by AMPK mRNA expression and phosphorylated AMPK and PGC1α protein levels. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Berberine (200 mg/kg) attenuated ICH-induced neurological deficits, motor and cognitive impairment, and BBB disruption. Berberine also suppressed ICH-induced inflammatory responses indicated by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines. Finally, Berberine drastically elevated AMPK/PGC1α signaling in the hemisphere of ICH mice. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our findings suggest that Berberine plays an important neuroprotective role against ICH-induced neurological impairments and BBB injury, probably by inhibition of inflammation and activation of AMPK/PGC1α signaling.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) causes an accumulation of blood in the brain parenchyma that disrupts the normal neurological function of the brain. Despite extensive clinical trials, no medical or surgical therapy has shown to be effective in managing ICH, resulting in a poor prognosis for the patients. Urocortin (UCN) is a 40-amino-acid endogenous neuropeptide that belongs to the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family. The effect of UCN is activated by binding to two G-protein coupled receptors, CRH-R1 and CRH-R2, which are expressed in brain neurons and glial cells in various brain regions. Current research has shown that UCN exerts neuroprotective effects in ICH models via anti-inflammatory effects, which generally reduced brain edema and reduced blood-brain barrier disruption. These effects gradually help in the improvement of the neurological outcome, and thus, UCN may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of ICH. This review summarizes the data published to date on the role of UCN in ICH and the possible protective mechanisms underlined.
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease worldwide with increasing mortality. The present study investigated whether minocycline was neuroprotective and induced M2 microglial polarization via upregulation of the TrkB/BDNF pathway after ICH. ICH was induced via injection of autologous blood into 150 Sprague-Dawley rats. A selective TrkB antagonist [N2–2-2-oxoazepan-3-yl amino] carbonyl phenyl benzo (b) thiophene-2-carboxamide (ANA 12)] and agonist [ N-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl) ethyl]-2-oxopiperidine-3-carboxamide (HIOC)] were used to investigate the mechanism of minocycline-induced neuroprotection. Minocycline improved ICH-induced neurological deficits and reduced M1 microglia marker protein (CD68, CD16) expression as well as M2 microglial polarization (CD206 and arginase 1 protein). Minocycline administration enhanced microglia-neuron cross talk and promoted the proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells, such as DCX- and Tuj-1-positive cells, 24 h after ICH. Minocycline also increased M2 microglia-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and the upstream TrkB pathway. ANA 12 reversed the neuroprotective effects of minocycline. HIOC exhibited the same effects as minocycline and accelerated neurogenesis after ICH. This study demonstrated for the first time that minocycline promoted M2 microglia polarization via upregulation of the TrkB/BDNF pathway and promoted neurogenesis after ICH. This study contributes to our understanding of the therapeutic potential of minocycline in ICH. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study gives several novel points: 1) Minocycline promotes neurogenesis after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats. 2) Minocycline induces activated M1 microglia into M2 neurotrophic phenotype. 3) M2 microglia secreting BDNF remodel the damaged neurocircuit.