scholarly journals Faecal immunochemical test for patients with ‘high-risk’ bowel symptoms: a large prospective cohort study and updated literature review

Helga E. Laszlo ◽  
Edward Seward ◽  
Ruth M. Ayling ◽  
Jennifer Lake ◽  
Aman Malhi ◽  

Abstract Background We evaluated whether faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) can rule out colorectal cancer (CRC) among patients presenting with ‘high-risk’ symptoms requiring definitive investigation. Methods Three thousand five hundred and ninety-six symptomatic patients referred to the standard urgent CRC pathway were recruited in a multi-centre observational study. They completed FIT in addition to standard investigations. CRC miss rate (percentage of CRC cases with low quantitative faecal haemoglobin [f-Hb] measurement) and specificity (percentage of patients without cancer with low f-Hb) were calculated. We also provided an updated literature review. Results Ninety patients had CRC. At f-Hb < 10 µg/g, the miss rate was 16.7% (specificity 80.1%). At f-Hb < 4 µg/g, the miss rate was 12.2% (specificity 73%), which became 3.3% if low FIT plus the absence of anaemia and abdominal pain were considered (specificity 51%). Within meta-analyses of 9 UK studies, the pooled miss rate was 7.2% (specificity 74%) for f-Hb < 4 µg/g. Discussion FIT alone as a triage tool would miss an estimated 1 in 8 cases in our study (1 in 14 from meta-analysis), while many people without CRC could avoid investigations. FIT can focus secondary care diagnostic capacity on patients most at risk of CRC, but more work on safety netting is required before incorporating FIT triage into the urgent diagnostic pathway.

Esther E. Avendano ◽  
Gowri Raman ◽  
Jeffrey Chan ◽  
Eilish McCann

Abstract Background Owing to their resistance to an important class of antibiotics, the prevention and treatment of carbapenem-resistant (CR)/non-susceptible Gram-negative (GN) infections has become an important public health objective. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature to evaluate the burden of CR GN infections, focusing on high-risk patients such as transplant recipients, or patients with cancer, renal impairment, or sepsis. Methods MEDLINE®, Cochrane Central, and Embase® were searched between 2010 and March 2019. Abstracts and full-text articles were screened in duplicate. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted when reported outcomes were sufficiently similar. Results Twenty-six publications were eligible. Meta-analyses found increased mortality associated with CR infections among high-risk patients in both unadjusted analysis (8 studies; summary unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 5.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.69, 9.26; I2 = 19.8%) and adjusted analysis (5 studies; summary hazard ratio [HR]: 4.67; 95% CI: 2.18, 9.99; I2 = 77.7%), compared to patients with carbapenem-susceptible (CS) infections or no infection. Increased mortality was also seen in subgroup analyses by length of follow-up (either short-term or long-term) or causative pathogen. A limited number of studies found that CR GN infections increased the risk for mechanical ventilation, adverse events such as graft failure or acute rejection in solid organ transplant recipients, increased renal failure or nephrotoxicity, and an increase in readmissions and costs, though the findings reported in the literature were not consistent. Conclusion This systematic literature review and meta-analysis indicates that CR GN infections in high-risk patients are associated with increased mortality, emphasizing the need for antimicrobial stewardship and infection control in hospitals which treat high-risk patients and for the development of effective antimicrobials with favorable efficacy and safety profiles for the treatment of CR GN infections.

2019 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 17-43 ◽  
Patrick Velte

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to summarize the key findings of meta-analyses in accounting, auditing and corporate governance research.Design/methodology/approachA structured literature review on 63 meta-analyses related to financial accounting, management accounting, auditing, and corporate governance is conducted.FindingsMost of the previous meta-analyses have been focused on the topic of corporate governance with a clear focus on board composition as an independent variable and by integrating research- and country-specific moderating variables. Meta-analyses in management accounting are rare; furthermore, no meta-analysis in tax accounting has been published yet.Originality/valueMeta-analyses on these topics are expected to become increasingly important in the following years because of the increased number of empirical quantitative research. This literature review gives useful insights for research, practice and regulation.

2020 ◽  
Frank Weber ◽  
Guido Knapp ◽  
Anne Glass ◽  
Günther Kundt ◽  
Katja Ickstadt

There exists a variety of interval estimators for the overall treatment effect in a random-effects meta-analysis. A recent literature review summarizing existing methods suggested that in most situations, the Hartung-Knapp/Sidik-Jonkman (HKSJ) method was preferable. However, a quantitative comparison of those methods in a common simulation study is still lacking. Thus, we conduct such a simulation study for continuous and binary outcomes, focusing on the medical field for application.Based on the literature review and some new theoretical considerations, a practicable number of interval estimators is selected for this comparison: the classical normal-approximation interval using the DerSimonian-Laird heterogeneity estimator, the HKSJ interval using either the Paule-Mandel or the Sidik-Jonkman heterogeneity estimator, the Skovgaard higher-order profile likelihood interval, a parametric bootstrap interval, and a Bayesian interval using different priors. We evaluate the performance measures (coverage and interval length) at specific points in the parameter space, i.e. not averaging over a prior distribution. In this sense, our study is conducted from a frequentist point of view.We confirm the main finding of the literature review, the general recommendation of the HKSJ method (here with the Sidik-Jonkman heterogeneity estimator). For meta-analyses including only 2 studies, the high length of the HKSJ interval limits its practical usage. In this case, the Bayesian interval using a weakly informative prior for the heterogeneity may help. Our recommendations are illustrated using a real-world meta-analysis dealing with the efficacy of an intramyocardial bone marrow stem cell transplantation during coronary artery bypass grafting.

Anna Ali ◽  
Zohra S Lassi ◽  
Kostas Kapellas ◽  
Lisa Jamieson ◽  
Alice R Rumbold

Abstract Background The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is increasing globally. Common oral conditions such as periodontitis may contribute. We undertook a meta-analysis to quantify the association between periodontitis, oral HPV and OPSCCs. Methods Multiple electronic databases were searched until 12 February 2020. Studies conducted in males and/or females aged ≥ 18 years that examined periodontitis, periodontal procedures, oral HPV infection, and where possible, oral cancers, were eligible. Meta-analyses were conducted and the GRADE approach was used to examine the quality of evidence. Results Of 2709 studies identified, 13 met the eligibility criteria. Five studies could be included in the meta-analyses. There was no significant increase in the odds of high-risk oral HPV infection among individuals with confirmed periodontitis (odds ratio 4.71, 95% confidence interval 0.57–38.97). Individuals with periodontitis had a 3.65 times higher odds of having any type of oral HPV infection compared with those without periodontitis (95% confidence interval 1.67–8.01). The overall body of evidence was rated as low to very-low certainty. Conclusion Meta-analysis confirms there is a positive association between periodontitis and oral HPV infection, although the overall quality of this evidence is low. Evidence for an association between periodontitis and high-risk oral HPV infection is inconclusive.

2017 ◽  
Vol 210 (6) ◽  
pp. 387-395 ◽  
Gregory Carter ◽  
Allison Milner ◽  
Katie McGill ◽  
Jane Pirkis ◽  
Nav Kapur ◽  

BackgroundPrediction of suicidal behaviour is an aspirational goal for clinicians and policy makers; with patients classified as ‘high risk’ to be preferentially allocated treatment. Clinical usefulness requires an adequate positive predictive value (PPV).AimsTo identify studies of predictive instruments and to calculate PPV estimates for suicidal behaviours.MethodA systematic review identified studies of predictive instruments. A series of meta-analyses produced pooled estimates of PPV for suicidal behaviours.ResultsFor all scales combined, the pooled PPVs were: suicide 5.5% (95% CI 3.9–7.9%), self-harm 26.3% (95% CI 21.8–31.3%) and self-harm plus suicide 35.9% (95% CI 25.8–47.4%). Subanalyses on self-harm found pooled PPVs of 16.1% (95% CI 11.3–22.3%) for high-quality studies, 32.5% (95% CI 26.1–39.6%) for hospital-treated self-harm and 26.8% (95% CI 19.5–35.6%) for psychiatric in-patients.ConclusionsNo ‘high-risk’ classification was clinically useful. Prevalence imposes a ceiling on PPV. Treatment should reduce exposure to modifiable risk factors and offer effective interventions for selected subpopulations and unselected clinical populations.

1990 ◽  
Vol 24 (3) ◽  
pp. 405-415 ◽  
Nathaniel McConaghy

Meta-analysis replaced statistical significance with effect size in the hope of resolving controversy concerning evaluation of treatment effects. Statistical significance measured reliability of the effect of treatment, not its efficacy. It was strongly influenced by the number of subjects investigated. Effect size as assessed originally, eliminated this influence but by standardizing the size of the treatment effect could distort it. Meta-analyses which combine the results of studies which employ different subject types, outcome measures, treatment aims, no-treatment rather than placebo controls or therapists with varying experience can be misleading. To ensure discussion of these variables meta-analyses should be used as an aid rather than a substitute for literature review. While meta-analyses produce contradictory findings, it seems unwise to rely on the conclusions of an individual analysis. Their consistent finding that placebo treatments obtain markedly higher effect sizes than no treatment hopefully will render the use of untreated control groups obsolete.

Metabolites ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 362 ◽  
Kian Boon Lee ◽  
Lina Ang ◽  
Wai-Ping Yau ◽  
Wei Jie Seow

Globally, lung cancer is the most prevalent cancer type. However, screening and early detection is challenging. Previous studies have identified metabolites as promising lung cancer biomarkers. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis aimed to identify metabolites associated with lung cancer risk in observational studies. The literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases, up to 31 December 2019, for observational studies on the association between metabolites and lung cancer risk. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic and Cochran’s Q test. Meta-analyses were performed using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model, depending on study heterogeneity. Fifty-three studies with 297 metabolites were included. Most identified metabolites (252 metabolites) were reported in individual studies. Meta-analyses were conducted on 45 metabolites. Five metabolites (cotinine, creatinine riboside, N-acetylneuraminic acid, proline and r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene) and five metabolite groups (total 3-hydroxycotinine, total cotinine, total nicotine, total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (sum of concentrations of the metabolite and its glucuronides), and total nicotine equivalent (sum of total 3-hydroxycotinine, total cotinine and total nicotine)) were associated with higher lung cancer risk, while three others (folate, methionine and tryptophan) were associated with lower lung cancer risk. Significant heterogeneity was detected across most studies. These significant metabolites should be further evaluated as potential biomarkers for lung cancer.

2000 ◽  
Vol 32 (3) ◽  
pp. 459-470 ◽  
Randall S. Rosenberger ◽  
John B. Loomis

AbstractStatistical summarizations of literature review databases using meta-regression analysis provide insight into the differences in past estimates of economic variables such as benefits and price elasticities. The panel nature of the data is an issue that has not received adequate attention in past meta-analyses. This paper conceptually and empirically explores the complexity of stratifying data into panels that model the potential correlation and heterogeneity of past outdoor recreation benefit research. Although our tests of three stratifications of the data did not discern panel effects, the inherent complexity of the data maintains a strong presumption of heterogeneous strata.

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