scholarly journals Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potential of Scenedesmus obliquus Microalgae in the Context of Integral Biorefinery Concept

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 519
Maya Margaritova Zaharieva ◽  
Dimitrina Zheleva-Dimitrova ◽  
Snezhana Rusinova-Videva ◽  
Yana Ilieva ◽  
Anna Brachkova ◽  

Small-scale photobioreactors (PBRs) in the inoculum stage were designed with internal (red or green) and external white LED light as an initial step of a larger-scale installation aimed at fulfilling the integral biorefinery concept for maximum utilization of microalgal biomass in a multifunctional laboratory. The specific growth rate of Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing biomass for given cultural conditions was analyzed by using MAPLE software. For the determination of total polyphenols, flavonoids, chlorophyll “a” and “b”, carotenoids and lipids, UHPLC-HRMS, ISO-20776/1, ISO-10993-5 and CUPRAC tests were carried out. Under red light growing, a higher content of polyphenols was found, while the green light favoured the flavonoid accumulation in the biomass. Chlorophylls, carotenoids and lipids were in the same order of magnitude in both samples. The dichloromethane extracts obtained from the biomass of each PBR synergistically potentiated at low concentrations (0.01–0.05 mg/mL) the antibacterial activity of penicillin, fluoroquinolones or oregano essential oil against the selected food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium) without showing any in vitro cytotoxicity. Both extracts exhibited good cupric ion-reducing antioxidant capacity at concentrations above 0.042–0.08 mg/mL. The UHPLC-HRMS analysis revealed that both extracts contained long chain fatty acids and carotenoids thus explaining their antibacterial and antioxidant potential. The applied engineering approach showed a great potential to modify microalgae metabolism for the synthesis of target compounds by S. obliquus with capacity for the development of health-promoting nutraceuticals for poultry farming.

HortScience ◽  
2018 ◽  
Vol 53 (4) ◽  
pp. 541-546 ◽  
Ruining Li ◽  
Wenwen Huang ◽  
Xiaoxiao Wang ◽  
Xiaoying Liu ◽  
Zhigang Xu

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of yellow light (Y), green light (G), and two blue lights (B) at different wavelengths in conjunction with red light (R) on the growth and morphogenesis of potato plantlets in vitro. Randomized nodal explants were cut into 1.0–1.5 cm pieces and were grown under five different light conditions: fluorescent white light (FL); the combined spectra of R, Y, and B at 445 nm (R630B445Y); the combined spectra of R, G, and B at 445 nm (R630B445G); the combined spectra of R, Y, and B at 465 nm (R630B465Y); and the combined spectra of R, G, and B at 465 nm (R630B465G). Morphogenesis and physiological parameters were investigated. The results showed that R630B445Y and R630B465Y increased the fresh weight (FW), dry weight (DW), stem diameter, blade number, leaf area, specific leaf weight (SLW), and the health index of potato plantlets in vitro; root activity increased significantly; and soluble sugar, soluble protein, and starch also increased. The addition of Y to the combined spectra of R and B contributed to the growth, development, and morphogenesis more than the combined spectra of R and B with G, and B at 445 nm was more effective at promoting plant growth than was B at 465 nm.

2013 ◽  
Vol 48 (2) ◽  
pp. 105-111 ◽  
Eleonora Gabryszewska ◽  
Ryszard Rudnicki

The effect of white, blue, green, red and UV + white light on the growth and development of shoots and roots of Gerbera jamesonii cv. Queen Rebecca in relation to the presence of kinetin or IAA were investigated. The highest number of axillary shoots was obtained in red and green light on the medium with 5 mg l<sup>-1</sup> kinetin. Also, green and red light markedly increased the number of leaves developed on the plantlets on the medium supplemented with kinetin. Light quality and IAA added to culture medium variously affected the development of root system: roots were regenerated under all light treatments, higher root number was recorded under red light when 5 mg l<sup>-1</sup> IAA was added to the media, the shortest roots were found in red light on the medium supplemented with IAA. The greatest fresh weight of shoots was found under white light on the medium with kinetin. Red light markedly decreased shoot fresh weight on hormone-free medium. Blue and white light caused increase in fresh weight of roots.

2019 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 5539-5542

The automobile industries are concentrating to develop the design for self-driving cars. Nowadays they are many possibilities to implement the automated vehicle, but the drawbacks for implementing are also very high. In this paper, the miniature model of self-driving robot is created and demonstrated using the Raspberry pi with supporting sensors and motor drivers. So, this was mainly because of the security concerns that have raised in the initial testing stages. So, this paper could best describe an application that deals with the safety measures of the autonomous vehicles that are going to be dealt with in the nearer future. This paper tells us about how an application can be implemented using Raspberry Pi, camera module and the ultrasonic Sensor. Considering the different features and the cost, on a small scale a two-wheel vehicular robotic prototype has been designed. In the Autonomous car Raspberry pi is the central processor. Different type of images are captured by the camera module, and if these images have captured the color of traffic lights, then if the captured image is of the Red light then the motors of the vehicle should stop such that breaks of the car in real world should work. If the captured image is of Green light then the motors of the car should run and the vehicle should start to move in the direction it want to move and also using the Ultrasonic sensor if any of the objects that are nearby to the vehicle, then the vehicle should change the direction from which it is moving and this is well described throughout the paper.

Manal Mortady Hamed ◽  
Mona Abdel Motagally Mohamed ◽  
Wafaa Sabry Ahmed

Objective: Phoenix dactylifera Linn (Fam.: arecaceae)or date fruits are commercial crops that notarized in holy quran. 70% aqueous MeOH extract of the fruits led to isolation of six compounds; its chemical structures were determined as, β-sitosterol (1), caffeic acid (2), ferulic acid (3), protocatechuic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (5) and luteolin (6).Methods: The accurately weighed date fruits were washed, sliced and socked freshly in 70% methanol then exhaustively extracted under reflux for about 2 w and filtered, then fractionated by different solvent; finaly the butanol extract evaporated and fractionated on a polyamide glass column. Using Sephadex LH-20 column to purify the compounds obtained. In our preliminary study, the extracts and compounds were subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity against HepG2 cell line through the MTT assay and the antioxidant potential of the extracts and pure compounds were assayed through in vitro model using (DPPH) and phosphomolybdenum assays.Results: Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited promising antitumor activity with IC50 values of 6 and 10 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover compounds 1, 4, 5 and 6 showed cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 13, 15, 21 and 35 μg/ml, respectively. The antioxidant potential of the compounds showed the inhibition percentage values (SC50) ranged from 4.36 to 10.25 μg/ml, while the total antioxidant capacity ranged from (583.66 to 702.00 mg AAE/g compound).Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that; dates constituents are powerful as antioxidant and antitumor; hence it is the best potential for pharmaceutical applications.

2021 ◽  
Massimo Caruso ◽  
Rosalia Emma ◽  
Sonja Rust ◽  
Alfio Distefano ◽  
Giuseppe Carota ◽  

AbstractElectronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), i.e., electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) and Tobacco Heating Products (THPs), are rapidly growing in popularity. The marketing of these products is regulated by specific rules in the European Union and in the US, which permit their legal sales. Nonetheless, comprehensive quality and safety requirements for regulatory purposes are still under development. Cytotoxicity studies are an important initial step in appraising the potential toxicity of ENDS. The aim of the present study was to screen a battery of different in vitro cytotoxicity methods for the assessment of toxicity induced by ENDS. We evaluated different cytotoxicity assays, including neutral red uptake (NRU), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Annexin V apoptosis, High Content Screening (HCS) assays and Real Time Cell Analysis (RTCA), to compare two e-cigs (Vype ePen 3 and Vype eStick Maxx) and two THPs (IQOS and GLO™) with the 1R6F reference tobacco cigarette. Human bronchial epithelial cells (H292) were exposed to 1R6F smoke (5 puffs by HCI regime), ePen vapor (10 puffs by modified HCI regime), eStick vapor (25 puffs by CRM81 regime), IQOS vapor (7 puffs by HCI regime) and GLO vapor (8 puffs by HCI regime) at air-liquid interface. All tests showed reduced cell viability following 1R6F smoke exposure and slight or no reduction with ENDS at 24 hours compared to controls. In addition, Annexin V and RTCA exhibited a further significant reduction in cell viability following 1R6F exposure compared with other assays. Furthermore, Annexin V allowed to discriminate viable cells from those in early/late apoptosis. Finally, RTCA and HCS being time-resolved analyses allowed also to determine the kinetic dependency parameter for toxicity of smoke/vapor chemicals on cell viability. In conclusion, NRU assay may be considered a suitable test, especially when combined with a time-resolved test, for assessing the kinetic of cytotoxicity induced by these products.

2013 ◽  
Vol 93 ◽  
pp. 191-197 ◽  
Gopalu Karunakaran ◽  
Rangaraj Suriyaprabha ◽  
Palanisamy Manivasakan ◽  
Rathinam Yuvakkumar ◽  
Venkatachalam Rajendran ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 21 (21) ◽  
pp. 7846
Adil Bakayan ◽  
Sandrine Picaud ◽  
Natalia P. Malikova ◽  
Ludovic Tricoire ◽  
Bertrand Lambolez ◽  

Considerable efforts have been focused on shifting the wavelength of aequorin Ca2+-dependent blue bioluminescence through fusion with fluorescent proteins. This approach has notably yielded the widely used GFP-aequorin (GA) Ca2+ sensor emitting green light, and tdTomato-aequorin (Redquorin), whose bioluminescence is completely shifted to red, but whose Ca2+ sensitivity is low. In the present study, the screening of aequorin mutants generated at twenty-four amino acid positions in and around EF-hand Ca2+-binding domains resulted in the isolation of six aequorin single or double mutants (AequorinXS) in EF2, EF3, and C-terminal tail, which exhibited markedly higher Ca2+ sensitivity than wild-type aequorin in vitro. The corresponding Redquorin mutants all showed higher Ca2+ sensitivity than wild-type Redquorin, and four of them (RedquorinXS) matched the Ca2+ sensitivity of GA in vitro. RedquorinXS mutants exhibited unaltered thermostability and peak emission wavelengths. Upon stable expression in mammalian cell line, all RedquorinXS mutants reported the activation of the P2Y2 receptor by ATP with higher sensitivity and assay robustness than wt-Redquorin, and one, RedquorinXS-Q159T, outperformed GA. Finally, wide-field bioluminescence imaging in mouse neocortical slices showed that RedquorinXS-Q159T and GA similarly reported neuronal network activities elicited by the removal of extracellular Mg2+. Our results indicate that RedquorinXS-Q159T is a red light-emitting Ca2+ sensor suitable for the monitoring of intracellular signaling in a variety of applications in cells and tissues, and is a promising candidate for the transcranial monitoring of brain activities in living mice.

Planta Medica ◽  
2011 ◽  
Vol 77 (12) ◽  
L Moldovan ◽  
O Craciunescu ◽  
L Toma ◽  
A Gaspar ◽  
D Constantin

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