Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
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Published By Innovare Academic Sciences

2455-3891, 0974-2441


Objective: The extreme and constant use of internet use has been reported to be associated with depression and other adverse physical health conditions. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the frequency of internet usage among the university students of Visakhapatnam, India, and their health problems and depression levels. Methods: The study sample consists of 100 university students studying at a university in Visakhapatnam, India. Distribution of the sample by gender was 43 males and 50 females. Questionnaires were administered to students in groups, in a class environment, by the author. Participation was voluntary. In total, 100 students participated in this study. Seven of them had to be excluded for not responding properly to all questionnaires, so the final sample consisted of 93 participants. Results: The results indicate a significant association between depression and the intense internet usage (>5–7 h/daily), with Chi-square value 23.80 and p<0.01. Furthermore, as the internet usage increases, there is a significant rise in systolic blood pressure with F=3.74 and p<0.05. Conclusion: This study indicates that intense internet usage is definitely leading to mental health problems like depression and also other physical health issues like increased blood pressure.


Objective: The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the dried Punica granatum peel (PGE) on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Methods: Colitis was induced in rats using 50% acetic acid and then PGE extract was administered by oral route daily for 14 days to those rats. Optimal healing was observed by the administration of a 100 mg/kg dose of PGE extract. Effectiveness of the above-mentioned dosage of PGE on biochemical parameters, basically free radicals – nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was studied on 18 hours fasting rats on the 15th day of the experiment. Results: The results were suggestive of the healing properties of PGE extract by reduction of the inflammation and mucosal damage in the colon of those rats. The healing effects were established by the estimation and study of free radicals taken from the mucosal samples of the rat’s colon. The safety of extract was established by the effective administration of 10 times the therapeutic dose, that is, 1000 mg/kg dosage of the PGE extract with no noticeable adverse effects or side effects related to ANS or central nervous system. Conclusion: PGE extract was found to be effective in healing mucosal damage due to colitis by controlling the infection and reducing the inflammation.


Objectives: The worldwide spread of COVID-19 is an emergent issue to be tackled. Currently, several works in various field have been made in rather short period. The present study aimed to assess bioactive compounds found in medicinal plants as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors using molecular docking study. Methods: The docking analyses were performed by using Autodock, Discovery Studio Visualiser and Igemdock. Results: The binding energy obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand cupressuflavone is -8.9 kcal/mol. Conclusion: These findings will provide the opportunities to identify the right drug to combat COVID-19.


Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the pharmacoeconomic impact of gastro-protective agents (GPA) by carrying out cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effective analysis (CEA). Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out by simple randomization technique at Karnataka Institute of Medical Science, Hubballi. Data used were socio-economic details based on modified B. G Prasad scale. Current Index of Medical Specialists updated version March 2021 was used for CBA and CEA. Regression analysis was the statistical tool used in the study. Results: A total of 120 participants were included in the study. 57.5% were male and 42.5% were female. 3.33% were pediatrics, 32.5% were young adults, 37.5% were elder adults and 26.67% were geriatrics. Out of 120 samples, 94 participants were prescribed with pantoprazole, other drugs prescribed include domperidone and pantoprazole, rabeprazole, and ranitidine. The CBA revealed ratio of benefits over costs for pantoprazole was 3.86, ranitidine was 9.31, pantoprazole and domperidone was 0.84 and rabeprazole was 0.84. Additional cost of 138.30 Indian Rupee must be spent on pantoprazole over ranitidine to get cost-effective treatment without disease for one whole year. Conclusion: The CBA revealed that maximum patients received benefits for pantoprazole. CEA gives an idea on best effective treatment over two drugs of different class. Our study concludes that pantoprazole is deemed to be superior over other drugs of GPA prescribed among study participants.


Objective: The present study envisages a series of oxadiazole fluoroquinolone derivatives that were synthesized (D1–D12) with added derivatives such as phenyl, aminophenyl, amino hydroxyphenyl along with cyclopropyl, ethyl, piperazine, and imidazole. Methods: All of the newly produced molecules were characterized by infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis technique and screened for docking stimulation to find out binding modes of synthesized derivatives with 3FV5, 5IMW, and 5ESE and evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activity. Results: From this study, it was found that the compound D8 showed good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus), compound D9 showed good antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli), and compound D3 showed good antifungal activity against fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in comparison with standard drugs (Ciprofloxacin and fluconazole). The zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration studies was performed on synthesized compounds. Conclusion: The analogs of oxadiazole flouroquinolone are suggested to be potent inhibitors with sufficient scope for further exploration.


Objective: Andrographis lawsonii Gamble is a medicinal herb species, Endemic to India: Karnataka (Dakshina kannada or south Canara district), Kerala (Palakkad district), and Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore and Nilgiris districts). The Andrographis is a large genus of the family Acanthaceae. This study focused to check the preliminary phytochemical nutritive analysis, leaf stem and root and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis leaf methanol extract. Methods: The plant samples were subjected to Soxhlet extraction for phytochemical analysis and further experimental studies. The test on phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, and flavonoids glycosides within the plant parts, respectively. The estimation of carbohydrate protein starch methanol leaves extracts to have high activity compared to others. Results: Preliminary phytochemical and Nutritional analysis in A. lawonii. Nutritional analysis in carbohydrate protein and starch content was found to be high in leaf methanol extract. Highly medicinal compound analysis in this GC-MS Analysis 50 compound present in methanol leaf extract. Conclusion: The leaf methanol extract of A. lawsonii has exhibited remarkable preliminary phytochemical analysis and nutritional analysis GC-MS analysis to the medicinal plant.


Objective: The objective of this review is to put a light on the development of lamotrigine and its active pharmaceutical ingredients formulation with proper demonstration. Method: In the present work, one of the most imperative spectrophotometric method which is RP-HPLC method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of lamotrigine in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. UV spectrophotometric method which involves the determination of Lamotrigine in bulk and in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulation has maximum absorption at 307.5nm in methanol. It obeys Beer’s and Lambert’s law in the concentration range of 5-45 µg/ml. A rapid and sensitive RP- HPLC Method with UV detection (270 nm) for routine analysis of Lamotrigine formulation was developed. Chromatography was performed with mobile phase containing a mixture of methanol and Phosphate buffer (65:35v/v) with flow rate 1.0 ml/min. In the range of 20-100 µg/ml, the linearity of lamotrigine shows a correlation co-efficient of 0.9998. The proposed method was validated by determining sensitivity and system suitability parameters.


Objective: The objective of the study was to know the frequency and histomorphological patterns of ovarian neoplasms concerning age. Methods: A 2-year retrospective study was done in the pathology department, GITAM Institute of Medical Sciences and Research. Data were retrieved from laboratory records, H & E slides of ovarian biopsies of diagnosed neoplasms were screened. Results: During the study period, 70 ovarian neoplasms were reported. Ovarian tumors were categorized according to the WHO classification. In this study surface, epithelial tumors were most common at 87.14% followed by germ cell tumors at 11.42% and sex cord-stromal tumors at 1.42%. Serous cystadenoma was the most common benign surface epithelial tumor. Conclusion: Histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosing ovarian neoplasms. Newer diagnostic techniques such as immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis help decide management and prognosis.


Objectives: Enuresis or bedwetting is considered to be an underreported ADR of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). This study assesses the incidence and comparative rate of occurrence of enuresis in children with epilepsy who are on AEDs treatment such as sodium valproate (SV); carbamazepine and levetiracetam (LEV). Methods: The study was conducted with a sample size of 32 patients. Both inpatients and outpatients between the age group >5–18 years of age previously diagnosed with epilepsy that is on monotherapy and polytherapy with SV or carbamazepine or LEV were included in the study. Patients with urinary complications or urogenital abnormalities past 3 months before admission were excluded from the study. Assessment of enuresis was done based on a questionnaire prepared from NICE guidelines and analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Results: Of 44 patients who were included in the study, only 34 came for review. Analysis of the questionnaire showed the occurrence of enuresis in 12 patients. Drugs prescribed versus assessment questions showed potent significance with eight questions; hence the hypothesis that the prescribed drugs can cause enuresis can be taken into consideration. The rate of occurrence of enuresis was analyzed in all the drugs with their respective doses, but the significant values were found only for SV 200 mg. Conclusion: This study shows the possibility of enuresis in LEV and SV treatment with a significant difference in SV. Furthermore, it showed a relation between the duration of treatment and the occurrence of enuresis.


Objectives: The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of retrograde intramedullary interlocking supracondylar nailing and distal femoral locking compression plate in the management of distal femur fractures. Methods: The present prospective study consists of a total of 36 cases with extra-articular supracondylar fractures of the femur between the age group of 21–70 years. Participants were randomly allocated to group 1 treated with distal femoral locking compression plate fixation and group 2 treated with retrograde intramedullary interlocking supracondylar nailing technique. Post-operatively, all the cases were followed up in regular intervals to assess the functional outcome using the American Knee Society score. Results: Road traffic accidents (80.56%) were the most common cause of injury. The average surgical duration (108 min and 90.14 min), duration of fracture union (12.48 weeks and 11.08 weeks), and blood loss (339.8 ml and 236.6 ml) was better in the nailing group than the plating group, respectively. The overall outcome was comparable between the two study groups. Conclusion: The supracondylar nailing technique has better functional outcomes in terms of less fracture union time, less operative duration, and minimal operative blood loss. Supracondylar nailing technique was effective and better in soft tissue damage control.

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