381 article(s) in Respectus Philologicus

Peculiarities Of Multilingual Films In The Context Of Audio Visual Translation

the present article investigates the most topical issues of the genre and translation of the multilingual film (also referred to as „polyglot film“). the definition of this type of film is based on the use of several different languages and their ‘collision’ in a feature film. in this sense, the multilingual film is a formal genre similar to, e.g., the musical, where, instead of a combination of movement and singing, a combination of several languages prevails. it is also denoted by reiterating combinations of actions and character constellations, specific patterns (odyssey, integraa the present article investigates the most topical issues of the genre and translation of the multilingual film (also referred to as “polyglot film”). the definition of this type of film is based on the use of several different languages and their “collision” in a feature film. in this sense, the multilingual film is a formal genre similar to, e.g., the musical where instead of a combination of movement and singing a combination of several languages prevails. it is also denoted by reiterating combinations of actions and character constellations, specific patterns (odyssey, integration, translation), aptitude to puns, search for internationally clear vocabulary. on the other hand, a question may be raised whether the creator of a film deliberately selects the tradition of multilingualism, whether a multilingual film is consciously intended. in this case, the concept of the genre is heavily debatable.  the multilingual film was developed in the 1930s, after the completion of the epoch of silent film. since the 1990s, the multilingual film has been employed to draw attention to the issues of migration and diasporas. in the context of audio-visual translation, the multilingual film is prominently challenging. when dubbing, the film is adapted to the language and culture of translation while eliminating multilingualism. when subtitling, multilingualism is preserved by keeping the original soundtrack, and different languages may be highlighted by employing subtitles of different types (differentiating by font, colour, etc.). when employing voice-over, synchrony and isochrony of various types are essential. tion, translation), aptitude to puns, search for internationally clear vocabulary. on the other hand, a question may be raised whether the creator of a film deliberately selects the tradition of multilingualism, whether a multilingual film is consciously intended. in this case, the concept of the genre is heavily debatable. multilingual film was developed in the 1930s, after the completion of the epoch of silent film. since the 1990s, multilingual film has been employed to draw attention to the issues of migration and diasporas. in the context of audio visual translation, multilingual film is prominently challenging. when dubbing, the film is adapted to the language and culture of translation while eliminating multilingualism. when subtitling, multilingualism is preserved by keeping the original soundtrack, and different languages may be highlighted by employing subtitles of different types (differentiating by font, colour, etc.). when employing voice-over, synchrony and isochrony of various types are essential Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Present Article
  • Silent Film
  • The Other
  • Feature Film
  • Different Types
Changing Definitions Of Climate In Polish And English Dictionaries

the present article sets out to examine the dictionary definition entries concerning the concept of climate. both polish and english dictionaries are included, as well as historical and contemporary entries. the data is composed of thirteen dictionary entries, published in the last two hundred years. the material is examined qualitatively. the results are presented in the form of a table, where one may find all the aspects of meanings identified in the definitions. a supplement data extracted from the english historical corpus is also provided. the results have revealed that semantic change did occur in both the polish and the english language. however, the change is more visible in the polish dictionaries. the subsidiary differences could influence the way the word is employed in certain contexts and thus, differentiate the employment of the same concept in the two languages. nevertheless, the contemporary definitions are almost identical in both languages, in contrast to the historical ones Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Present Article
  • English Language
  • Semantic Change
  • The Way
Human’S Experience At Turning-Point In Vytautas Martinkus’S Novel “Simonija”: The Aspect Of Literary Ethics

the author of the thesis uses literary ethics as a theoretical instrument and analyses the portrait of human dealing with turning-point in vytautas martinkus’s novel simonija. the novel corresponds to the features of the turning-point literature marked in the dissertation of v. katinienė: the thematic level emphasizes a change of historical (political) order and its existential problems; in thoughts, dreams, memories characters go back to the period of totalitarianism; the contrast between “homo sovieticus” and individuals of the free world is emphasized. the analysis of ethical conflicts in simonija is presented, having in mind specific cultural context during the soviet period and emphasizing the process of writing as a particular ethical situation and a way to reflect human’s experience. vytautas martinkus offers appropriate “snoumenizm” notion for summarizing human’s experience during the soviet periodperiod. in essence, dehumanizing, painful experience of the soviet era does not abandon human even in the period of freedom and forces him to go back to the past – physical presence in the world of restored independence does not free him from inner stagnation. in this paper, it is shown that literary ethics is asuitable theoretical instrument in order to analyze text about human’s experience at turning-point Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Turning Point
  • Literary Ethics
  • Physical Presence
  • The World
  • Ethical Situation
Metaphor Or Not Metaphor: Is That The Question

this review concerns the volume metaphor identification in multiple languages. mipvu around the world, edited by susan nacey, aletta g. dorst, tina krennmayr and w. gudrun reijnierse, published by john benjamins publishing company, amsterdam & philadelphia, 2019 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Publishing Company
  • The World
  • Multiple Languages
Provocation As A Genre: Rhetorical Definitions Of Metoo Discourse

modern media has led to changes in the scope, intensity and effectiveness of communication. the internet medium, which offers almost unlimited dialogue and polylogue possibilities, has become an attractive place for provocation to be born and function. the provocative narrative not only inspires these processes, but also becomes as a result of such a genre modification. this article analyzes a provocative discourse, the lithuanian version of the global movement metoo, which promotes the publication of cases of sexual harassment: testimonies of women who have been sexually harassed, publications in the media discussing the issue, interviews with discourse participants, another type of comments. the metoo discourse is characterized by a rhetorical aspect: the concept of provocation as an effective communication strategy is explored; the relationship of the provocative narrative to the genre category is discussed; characteristic rhetorical elements – invention, disposition, elocution – have been distinguished Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Sexual Harassment
  • Effective Communication
  • Communication Strategy
  • The Internet
  • Modern Media
Quantitative Data Analysis Of Water Concept In English Water Management Metadiscourse

this paper deals with the comparative analysis of the possibility to apply both linguo-cognitive and quantitative methods in the study of structure of mental units, e.g. concepts. the current research continues our overall and integrated study of english ecological discourse and is the next in a number of logical research series of this scientific challenge (ковалик 2017; ковалик, тимочко 2018). the study object of this paper is water concept in english water management metadiscourse. the research is carried out on the basis of the original text of the eu water framework directive 2000/60 / ec. the aim of the paper is not only to conduct a frame-based analysis of water concept using svitlana zhabotynska’s methodology of conceptual analysis (жаботинська 1999) but also to analyse the concept occurrences in the researchable metadiscourse. in the present investigation, the conceptual structure of water concept is modelled through basic frame schemas and is considered as an open system. the research takes a new look at the application of linguo-cognitive and quantitative data analyses in the study of water concept in english water management metadiscourse Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Water Management
  • Data Analyses
  • Quantitative Data Analysis
  • Integrated Study
The Duration Of Pauses Between Phrases In Reading Language

the aim of this research is to determine the duration of the pauses between paragraphs and sentences in reading language and their connection with the length and reading speed of said language units. the research material consists of 48 sound recordings (eight lithuanian speakers read six texts representing different functional styles). the results show that all readers usually pause between paragraphs and the duration of those pauses depend on the reading speed: faster readers pause for approximately 400–1340 ms, while slower readers pause for 750–1800 ms. pauses are the shortest after short paragraphs and they are 1.2 times longer after longer paragraphs. all the readers usually pause between sentences as well. faster readers on average pause for 200–980 ms, slower readers pause for 340–1360 ms. the longer the sentence, the longer the pause after that sentence (up to 1.4 times). however, the pause can be the same duration after both long and medium length sentences Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Reading Speed
  • Sound Recordings
  • Research Material
  • Medium Length
Silence As A Specific Kind Of Communication In Legal Discourse

the article is devoted to the description of modifying reality through non-verbal speech acts. the subject of the study are non-verbal signs referring to the category of legal communication. this study included acts of legal communication that are expressed or can be expressed using various forms of silence. the first aim of the study was to determine whether silence can be classified as a speech act in the strict sense. the secondary aim was to determine the usefulness of silence in legal communication. the methodological basis of the analysis was the assumptions of pragmatism in the approach of w. james and the concept of performative acts of speech by j. l. austin Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Legal Communication
  • Speech Act
  • Strict Sense
  • Specific Kind
  • The Subject
Oral Narrative Genres As Communicative Dialogic Resources And Their Correlation To African Short Fiction

oral and written storytelling traditions in africa developed at the same time and influenced each other in many ways. in the twentieth century, the relation between the deeply rooted oral tradition and literary traditions intensified.we aim to reveal literary analysis tools that help to trace ways how oral narrative genres found reflection in african short fiction under analysis. a case study is based on two short stories by women writers, the rain came by grace ogot and the lovers by bessie head. images and symbols both, in oral and written traditions in africa, as well as the way they evolved and extended in a literary genre of short fiction are considered within the framework of hermeneutics, reader reception theory and feminist literary criticism.the results obtained in the study prove that oral narrative genres interact with literary genres, though most importantly, women’s writing as a literary category and images embodied in the short stories play a decisive role and deviation from the images embodied in african oral tradition Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Short Fiction
  • Oral Narrative
  • Short Stories
  • Oral Tradition
  • Women Writers
Means Of Creating The Media Image Of A Candidate To The Post Of Mayor Through Contextual Argumentation (On The Materials Of The Texts About The 2018–2019 Elections In Moscow, Vilnius And Belgrade

in political cultures of a number of countries, the creation of a politician’s media image is based on the fundamental principle of his/her work being formulated as the achievement of the goal of ensuring a nation’s well-being and a country’s development. the present article demonstrates concrete similarities and differences discernible in the construction of a politician’s media image in the russian, lithuanian and serbian media discourses from a rhetorical perspective. the methodological basis of the investigation is provided by the ideas of the new rhetoric and ch. perelman and l. olbrechts-tyteca’s assumption concerning the fact that the speaker’s ideas are accepted (or not accepted) by the audience not depending on the degree of the strictness of logical propositions and conclusions, but rather on the fact of whether the hearers have adhered to the grounds given by the speaker. consequently, a researcher analysing the ways text influences the consciousness of those receiving it may identify shared truths and value judgements. on the basis of the analysis of contextual argumentation used for the creation of the media image of the candidates for the post of mayor in the three media discourses, an attempt to establish shared truths and values as well as certain regularities in the process of media image creation characteristic of the russian, lithuanian and serbian media discourses has been made Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Media Image
  • Media Discourses
  • The Media
  • The Creation
  • Similarities And Differences
Acquisition Of Noun Inflection In Lithuanian As A Foreign Language: A Qualitative Study

the aim of the research was to investigate how native speakers of russian, which is a highly complex inflectional language, cope with the acquisition of the similar by structure and complexity lithuanian language. the subjects were adults of different age and education who learned lithuanian in belarus. i analyse errors related to the acquisition of noun case. the errors are divided into formal (acquisition of endings) and conceptual ones (choice of the appropriate case). i shortly compare my results with the results of similar research conducted in lithuania where the subjects were native speakers of different languages.the results of the study show that similar errors are typical for native speakers of different languages irrespective of their morphological complexity. a complex inflectional system of a native language is not necessarily beneficial, but it seems to give some advantages for the acquisition of semantic (not syntactic) cases Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Native Speakers
  • Qualitative Study
  • Foreign Language
  • Native Language
  • Morphological Complexity
An Image Of A Person With An Autism Spectrum Disorder In Popular Literature (On The Example Of The Hero Of Jodi Picoult's Novel “House Rules

in this article, the case of eighteen-year-old jacob hunt, the main character of jodi picoult’s book entitled house rules (w naszym domu in polish translation) is discussed. jacob is an example of a literary character with features similar to those of people with autism spectrum disorders (asd). he suffers from asperger syndrome, which belongs to asd (autism spectrum disorder). that is why he finds it difficult to develop communication skills, which translates into disturbed communication. the disturbances involve difficulties in acquiring and applying social rules as well as having specific narrow interests. the author of this article points out the linguistic, as well as non-linguistic behaviour of the protagonist, which are specific for autism spectrum disorder. she also draws attention to the role that popular literature plays in creating the image of people with asd and in popularizing information about this disorder Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Popular Literature
  • Spectrum Disorders
Nostalgia And National Identity: Idea Of Revisiting The Past In Latvian Fiction

one of the most popular themes in latvian literature which has regularly arisen at different stages of its development since the 19th century is the idea of returning to the roots, the depiction of a mythological world scene when people lived according to the rhythms of nature, in full harmony with themselves and the world. ancient times are depicted as a time when latvians felt free living at their farms and followed the rules of the mythical time. this peculiar feature which we analyse on the basis of literary works, describes vividly the nation’s collective consciousness, desires, and needs. the need for emphasizing the idealised ancient times in the nation’s consciousness is related to the most significant transitional stages in the development of the country, which are characterised by the increased attention to the issues of national identity. during difficult stages in history, nosta lgia is a security mechanism which looks for stability in the past which we do not have in the present. the aim of the paper is to see how the nostalgic reflection on the idealized ancient times in the latvian literature is related to the pivotal stages in the country’s history when special attention was paid to the national awareness and identity issues Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Ancient Times
  • National Identity
  • The Past
  • 19Th Century
  • The World
The Anti-Language In The English As A Foreign Language Curriculum

the aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the significance of slang in educating well-rounded efl learners. the study, first, uncovers the most salient features of slang, distinguishing it from jargon, argot, cant, etc. it also discusses the reasons why slang springs to life; the users of slang and functions it performs, as well as the word-formation processes employed in its creation.the paper further investigates the familiarity of macedonian undergraduate students of english with currently relevant english and american slang, the main hypothesis being that they lack knowledge of slang due to insufficient exposure and instruction. the instruments used are a questionnaire and a quiz comprising 60 slang terms, intended to inspect informants’ knowledge of slang.the results obtained from this research confirm that slang is disregarded in efl acquisition, and that no steady progress is made in the students’ knowledge of slang in the course of their university studies Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Foreign Language
  • Word Formation
  • Formation Processes
  • Efl Learners
  • Made In
The Genre Conference Brought Together Scholars From Different Fields

spalio 11 dieną vilniaus universiteto kauno fakulteto kalbų, literatūros ir vertimo studijų institute įvyko tarpdalykinė mokslinė žanro konferencija. renginio dalyves sveikino konferencijos sumanytoja ir mokslinio komiteto pirmininkė profesorė gabija bankauskaitė Show More ... ... Show Less

Interview With Prof. Frederic Chaume

on the 19th of september 2019 vilnius university, kaunas faculty welcomed a world-class researcher, professor of audiovisual translation at universitat jaume i (spain) and honorary professor at university college london (uk) frederic chaume. during a five-day visit, he presented a series of lectures and workshops titled multimodal research in audiovisual translation: translation paradigm of avt products in 2019 Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Audiovisual Translation
  • World Class
  • University College London
  • Vilnius University
Spatiality Of The City In Literature: Possibilities And Limits Of The Semiotic Approach

the article attempts to delineate adequate ways of thinking about the spatiality of the city in literature. it examines two semiotic approaches to the problematic of the city, namely jurij lotman’s semiotics of culture and algirdas julius greimas’ urban semiotics, and their applicability to the analysis of its literary representation. lotman’s concept of semiosphere is invoked to outline the complex, two-way relationship between consciousness and the city. highlighting the communicative and autocommunication processes of culture helps to establish a link with greimas’ interpretive and generative methodological approaches. both greimas and lotman treat the city as a virtual reality concentrating on the ideological, symbolical and philosophical aspects of it. their theories regard language primarily as an acoustic phenomenon (as speech), and consequently tend to disregard its visual (e. g. graphic) features. the article considers possible combinations of the different branches of semiotics. the special attention is focused on demonstrating the importance of the (inter)medial aspects of the literary representation. a case study of the photo-essay helps to expose similarities and differences of the semiotic and the intermedial approaches. the article demonstrates how recognizing specific (inter)medial aspects of the text allows regarding the literary city as a topological object Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The City
  • Literary Representation
  • Methodological Approaches
  • Ways Of Thinking
  • Acoustic Phenomenon
Proposing A Workshop On Art Evaluation In University Teaching

the article presents a workshop on art evaluation addressed at university students of the humanities. the aims of the workshop involve defining the terms ‘art’ and ‘kitsch’, analysing the functions of art throughout the ages, understanding the difference between an educated and uneducated art viewer, the importance of a canon of masterpieces of art for preserving the cultural heritage of europe, and the problem of personal expectations concerning art. scholarly content is presented to the students via a workshop based on coaching methods developed by cognitive psychology. the choice of this mode of work allows students to express themselves freely, teaches them how to defend their own opinions, improves their ability to see different points of view, and develops creativity. the workshop begins with a preliminary survey to identify the issues the students need help. it consists of 4 sessions (1.5 hours each) and ends with an evaluation. the proposed workshop can be extended with additional modules, tailored to the participants’ specific needs Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Art Evaluation
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • University Students
  • Cultural Heritage
  • Points Of View
Selected Problems Of Generating Apposition Groups In Old Polish

the subject of interest in this chapter is the concepts of creating apposition groups that appear in the literature on the subject, e.g. zbawiciel jesus, dziewica maryja, matka jego, słudze bryjidzie. opposing theories on this topic indicated on the one hand that apposition was an element added to the parent unit, and on the other hand, that apposition was the effect of transforming the deep structure into surface constructs. these approaches were, usually intuitive, reflected by language courts describing the title expressions since the beginning of the 19th century. in this study, they were traced and proved the dominance of opinions about the syntactic starting point in the derivative of apposition. in addition, other aspects of the characteristics of the groups of positions are discussed, placing them in the basic dichotomy of the derivation of positions Show More ... ... Show Less

  • The Subject
  • 19Th Century
  • Deep Structure
  • The Other
  • Starting Point
Reflection Of Cultural Identity In The Latest Diary Fragments Of Alfonsas Nyka-Niliūnas (2009–2012) And Essay Book “Levels Of Life” By Julian Barnes

the article compares the following two texts: the latest dairy fragments of alfonsas nyka-niliūnas (2014) and the essay book “levels of life” by julian barnes. both writers aim to reveal personal experiences through cultural texts: the relationship with the other enables us to identify ourselves and helps to describe our inner world. the article focuses on how the memory is created and what is the most important in culture for both writers. several meaningful aspects are emphasized by both writers: they both raise existential questions, search for possible answers in culture, as well as search for links with a particular place and focus on art. the study has revealed that that culture, especially classic european culture, is an essential support that allows us to reflect our being. special attention is paid to french culture, which could be perceived as a benchmark for the european mentality. although the books refer to different cultural sources, they both focus on a great respect of the art of the word as capable of preserving memory Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Julian Barnes
  • Cultural Identity
  • Personal Experiences
  • French Culture
  • Essential Support
The Image Of The Homeland In The Letters Of Antanas Vaičiulaitis

 the reflection of the homeland, the lithuanian nation, the native land is very important in antanas vaičiulaitis’ creative work and personal correspondence. letters, written 1924–1992 reveal a creative being, closely related to the formation of the image of lithuania, its embodiment and the preservation of the memory of the motherland. the image of the homeland is often conveyed by the symbolism of a lost paradise, accompanied by the feelings of a tragic denouement. the construct of homeland as a paradise began to emerge in the writer’s early childhood, in letters it is portrayed as a mythical eden. through the mother, the space of home and the nature surrounding it, the metaphor of the motherland-fortress was formed. by comparing the homeland with his beloved mother, antanas vaičiulaitis conveyed the great pain, caused by the lithuanian occupation. the letters’ image of homeland-paradise is associated with the ideals of patriotism, holiness of childhood and family, faith and also motives of loss and return, conveyed by the symbols of the tree and the bird. in the writer’s correspondence, through the personal context, complex emotional states reveal the cultural memory of the nation Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Early Childhood
  • Cultural Memory
  • Creative Work
  • Emotional States
  • Great Pain
Thinking Through Translation With Theodoros Angelopoulos: Journeys, Border Crossings, Liminality

in this paper, i propose to examine the question of journeys, borders, and translation in theodoros angelopoulos’ trilogy of borders: the suspended step of the stork (1991), ulysses’ gaze (1995) and eternity and a day (1998), winner of the palme d’or at the cannes film festival. it is my aim to contribute, in a small way, to the ongoing discussion about the role of translation in creating understanding, using as a case in point the work of a major contemporary poet of the screen who created his own aesthetics of the journey and whose films are vehicles of discovery, taking the viewer across many borders, on a fabulous – but often unsettling and perilous – voyage which challenges long-held assumptions about self, others, and translation. i suggest there is a plausible link between translation and liminality, a concept introduced in anthropology by arnold van gennep in the beginning of the 20th century and later brought to the fore by victor turner. i contend that, since in translation there is a tension between the (permanent) source text and the potentially unlimited number of translations, insights from anthropology can shed light on this complex relationship which resembles, in more ways than one, that between liminal experiences and the establishment of permanent structures (which are, usually, born in liminality Show More ... ... Show Less

  • 20Th Century
  • Complex Relationship
  • Film Festival
  • Shed Light
The Image Of A Lithuanian And A Samogitian In The Cultural Press Of Warsaw In Late 1800S. The (Non-)Stereotyped Case Of Nikodem Erazm Iwanowski, The Landlord Of A Small Manor

at the end of july 1885, nikodem erazm iwanowski, the landlord of a small manor in samogitia, brought his son to warsaw for studies, and spent two years there. he maintained correspondence with eliza orzeszkowa, became acquainted with the poetess maria konopnicka, himself wrote poetry and prose, and painted. however, in his letters, he wrote that, being a newcomer from the province, he felt somewhat clumsy and uncomfortable. this confession encouraged the author of the present paper to review the cultural press of warsaw published during the 1880s. the aim of the review was to investigate in which context lithuanians/samogitians were mentioned and how depicted, and to determine whether the fiction published in the aforementioned press contained satirical characters associated with lithuania/samogitia. the investigation revealed a number of publications about lithuania/samogitia – for example, descriptions of travels and places. here we can find stereotypical pictures of lithuanians and samogitians. the investigation also revealed the presence of fiction containing satirical, comical depictions of lithuanians or samogitians. here, two plotlines may be identified: characters in a foreign land, and characters in a large city Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Large City
  • Foreign Land
  • Number Of Publications
Esperanto As An Auxiliary Language And A Possible Solution To The BRICS Language Dilemma: A Case Study

research demonstrates that there are over 6,000 languages in the world and countries believe that their national interest should come first, and in this case the national language(s) must be prioritized. however, it became imperative for people, let alone countries, to use a language they can understand for trade (economy) and socio-political or cultural relations. this raised a number of problems including the fact that colonial masters’ language was upheld to the detriment of their once “slaves” language which they called a dialect. with the advent of democracy and improvement in international bilateral and multilateral relations, linguistic rights were recognized as part and parcel of other human rights, and subsequently, a win-win approach became reasonably what countries would expect in international co-operation. today the reality is that english serves as a lingua franca in trade and co-operation but this is to some extent abusive to people’s democratic and linguistic rights. the study is predominantly qualitative although a survey is also used to balance the findings. further research is recommended in the future especially on the same or similar topics in any other brics country Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Linguistic Rights
  • Human Rights
  • Case Study
  • The Future
  • The World
The Diversity Of Body And Translation: Just A Matter Of Perspective

the following review concerns the volume corps et traduction, corps en traduction [body and translation, body in translation] edited by solange hibbs, adriana şerban and nathalie vincent-arnaud, published in 2018 by lambert-lucas publishing house in limoges, france Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Publishing House
„Lubmy Swoje” Or, Winged Words Coming From Songs

the present paper discusses winged words having a source in the lyrics of songs written by w. młynarski and a. osiecka. the article also contains examples of such units derived from the texts of other authors, including j. przybora. the authors chose winged words having their source in the song, because this genre has a strong impact on the polish language. there are recorded in polish language, first of all, song titles, repetitive fragments, first of all parts of their choruses. repeatability of the word relationship in the song favors its recording. in addition to the canonical forms of the analyzed word combinations, for example: w co się bawić; róbmy swoje; niech żyje bal! czy jak dobrze mieć sąsiada, the authors also discuss their various modifications, for example: lubmy swoje; jak dobrze znać swojego sąsiada; jak dobrze mieć tatę. in their considerations, the authors refer to the study of winged words conducted by a. m. lewicki, w. chlebda, j. tarsa and j. ignatowicz-skowrońska Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Polish Language
  • Strong Impact
  • Canonical Forms
Urban Existence In The Interwar English Literature

the paper highlights the peculiarities of the artistic modifications of urban existence in the english literature of the interwar period. we have analysed such novels as death of a hero by richard aldington, antic hay by aldous huxley, and mrs. dalloway by virginia woolf, in which in the light of m. heidegger’s analytic of dasein, we investigated the ways of the main characters’ awareness of their own possibilities in a city. the article follows through the correlation between the heroes’ existence and urban reality, in which it is projected. we have discovered that in the novels death of a hero and antic hay urban discourse is characterised by eschatological markers, in which the semantics of the heroes’ loss of spiritual values and beliefs is expressed. because of the lack of understanding of the world, george winterbourne and theodore gumbrill are not capable to perceive true nature of their own selves and achieve maturity. this leads to self-alienation and dissolving in the ‘they’, which is a manifestation of falling into average everydayness. the mode of pr ojection of oneself into the future is illustrated by the image of mrs. dalloway from the eponymous novel by virginia woolf, in which the horizon of existence is revealed as a free choice in the face of finitude. the study demonstrates how differently characters can perceive the city in the face of a choice between true and untrue existence, between themselves and others, between freedom and dependence Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Virginia Woolf
  • English Literature
  • The Face
  • The Future
  • The World
Morphology And Adaptation Features Of The Slang Suffixal Adverbs In Lithuanian Language: Hybrid Derivatives Of Suffix -Ai From Suffixal Adjectives Of Russian

this article analyses 127 suffixal adverbs from lithuanian slang and non-standard dictionary (kaunas, 2012). the suffixal adverbs of lithuanian slang have not been researched systematically according to grammatical classification. this research is based on the morphological analysis. the suffixal adverbs are divided into groups: every group includes some subgroups. first, the most productive derivatives groups are analyzed, then the less productive groups are involved. in each subgroup are described derivatives of individual suffixes; where necessary, due consideration is given to the underlying structure and various morphological properties. every subgroup has a small description of the accentuation and the pronunciation or the root vocalism Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Morphological Analysis
  • Morphological Properties
  • Underlying Structure
Emotions And Images In Li Qingzhao’S Cipoetry: Quantitative Analysis

this article deals with ci written by the outstanding chinese poetess of the song dynasty li qingzhao (李清照, 1084–1155?) and her poetic style yi’an ti (易安體). the empirical material for this research is the extant 60 ci of li qingzhao which are presented in one of the most famous collections compiled by xu peijun (徐培均). having analyzed these ci i have found several correlations concerning her poetic style. firstly, in li qingzhao’s poetry ci form is positively related to ci rank: the longer ci, the higher its chance of being perceived as an “outstanding” one by commentators and poets. secondly, the way of expressing emotions is one of the main elements that make li qingzhao’s long ci (zhongdiao 中調 and changdiao 長調) to be perceived as the “outstanding” ones by commentators and poets and her short ci (xiaoling 小令) as nothing very distinctive. thirdly, negatively marked emotions are dominant in li qingzhao’s ci, but in most cases the poetess did not mention the reason of the sorrow of the lyrical persona or the persona this emotion was connected with. forthly, there is a strong correlation between ci form, ci rank and types of floral images in her poetry Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Poetic Style
  • Quantitative Analysis
  • Strong Correlation
  • The Song Dynasty
  • Empirical Material
Toponyms From Appellative Personal Names In The Southern Highlands Region

the aim of this article is to discuss the formation of toponyms derived from various kinds of appellatives originating from personal names of the southern part of lithuania – south highlands (lith. pietų aukštaitija). this is one of the semantic groups of toponyms, differentiating in specificity and meaning from the base words (toponyms consist of appellative personal names). research into toponyms of appellative personal names reveals how proper names reflect the worldview of the residents of the aforementioned region. the material for the article was collected from the geoinformation data base of lithuanian toponyms (lvvgdb). to explain the origin of toponyms with reference to the base words, the dictionary of lithuanian surnames (lith. lpže), the dictionary of the lithuanian language (lith. lkže), geoinformation data base of lithuanian toponyms (lvvgdb) were employed. focusing on word-formation under the structural-grammatical classification of hydronyms developed by aleksandras vanagas, the toponyms of each group are divided into primary and secondary. ethnonyms are classified as primary, derivatives, composites and compounds Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Personal Names
  • Data Base
  • Proper Names
  • Word Formation
Means Of Expression Of Epistemic Modality In Russian Political Discourse

this paper discusses the means of epistemic modality used in russian political discourse. russian political leaders most often use epistemic modal adverbs and mental state predicates in their speeches for hedging purposes. modal particles and modal expressions are employed more often than predicatively used adjectives, modal auxiliaries are never used due to the peculiarities of the russian language. most commonly used words expressing epistemic modality in russian belong to the group of modal adverbs. due to the structure of russian, groups of particles and modal expressions conveying epistemic modality are analysed. the study reveals that russian politicians use words with epistemic meanings mainly to convince the listener that the information is reliable, and rarely to mitigate the content of the proposition or to reduce the author’s responsibility for what is being claimed. the cognitive processes help to recognize the ideas encoded in epistemic utterances. those processes are based on the shared knowledge and understanding of the context Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Epistemic Modality
  • Political Discourse
  • Modal Adverbs
  • Modal Auxiliaries
  • The Russian Language
Modern English Dictionaries. A Foreign User’S View

the article is devoted to the description of new trends in theory and dictionary making process of modern english lexicography. at the same time the paper also covers the main historic steps of formation and development of national english lexicography with special reference to the most reliable english dictionaries for general purposes (early glossaries and concordances, samuel johnson’s dictionary, oxford english dictionary, etc.) and special purposes (english writers’ glossaries, concordances, lexicons to the complete and separate works of chaucer, shakespeare, and other famous english men of letters). the main accent is made on the digital époque of english national lexicography, describing innovative features of both printed and internet dictionaries of various types and formats from the point of view of a user studying english as a foreign language. the paper touches upon new branches of english lexicography (collaborative, volunteer) with users’ needs and demands at the centre of dictionary making process Show More ... ... Show Less

  • English As A Foreign Language
  • Special Reference
  • Oxford English Dictionary
  • Point Of View
On The Social And Empirical Nature Of Kant’S Transcendental Anthropocentrism: The Problem Of Human Nature

this paper presents a conceptual-discursive analysis of immanuel kant’s texts from the viewpoint of the ontological essence of humanity (the so-called human nature). on the basis of a functional-pragmatic methodology, the author proposes a metalanguage for a pragmatic conceptual analysis of kant’s philosophical discourse, together with his own idea of a human as a person, human being, individual, character, and bearer of human traits. the paper consists of two parts. part one presents the principles by which the human personality is structured, as well as the fundamental methodological questions of the essence of humanity. part two analyzes kant’s notion of “human nature” in both the formal aspect and that of systematic localization. it also considers the issues of social pragmatics and the empirical motivation of “human nature,” which arise from a discursive analysis of texts by kant. the author attempts to demonstrate that kant was one of the first philosophers to discern the specificity of human nature in social relations of human personality, which he presented neither in a causal-deterministic form (as a spiritual substance handed down from generation to generation) nor an essentialist one (as a timeless transcendental essence), but rather as a function of social experience for a particular human being (both pragmatic-teleological and transcendental-a posteriori Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Nature
  • Human Being
  • Human Personality
  • Discursive Analysis
  • Individual Character
Propaganda In The Context Of “Parable – Paradigm

this article presents two strategies of manipulation: metaphoric and metonymic. metaphoric type is a foundation of the totalitarian propaganda. the optimal environment for this type of propaganda is a new urban population, the former peasants. its best information distribution channel is a newspaper. its achilles’ heel is the involvement of population masses in creating and developing of metaphors, which makes perception of metaphors less “automatic” and more thought-provoking. metonymic type of propaganda is based on categorization of reality through the understanding of what is typical. such propaganda does not create a holistic worldview and is suitable for an authoritarian rather than classical totalitarian government. its optimal environment is people who have experience in virtual reality. the ideal information channel is tv. the recipient of this propaganda is not involved in its co-creation, which makes the system more resistant to self-analysis. nevertheless, like in case of any hidden linguistic manipulation, the intensive use of metonymic type of propaganda reduces its manipulative potential Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Virtual Reality
  • Urban Population
  • Distribution Channel
  • Intensive Use
  • The Ideal
The “Human-Animal” Relationship In Psychological Definition Chains

[full article and abstract in english] the article presents the results of research on definition chains carried out among polish and german students. definition chains are systematized hierarchical collections, in which the next lexeme is the superordinate of the previous one, e.g.: alsatian wolfdog – dog – animal – living creature. the research on definition chains was initiated by r. martin, french linguist, in the 1970s. similar analyses were conducted in poland and germany 10 years later. the text draws attention to both the inclusive chains, as well as those in which the relation of inclusions does not occur. non-inclusive definition chains, referred to as psychological chains, indicate the occurrence of the features related to the lexeme of the lowest level, which belong to the linguistic picture of the described word. the relation between “human-animal” and the common top-level domains in both language groups deserve special emphasis Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Human Animal
  • Full Article
  • Language Groups
  • The Common
  • Living Creature
Aktyvios Veiklos Veiksmažodžių Semantika Kristijono Donelaičio „Metuose

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] šiame straipsnyje nagrinėjama aktyvios veiklos veiksmažodžių semantika kristijono donelaičio poemoje „metai“. siekiama ištirti aktyvios veiklos veiksmažodžių reikšmes. taikant kokybinės turinio analizės ir freimų semantikos metodus, nagrinėjamas 51 veiksmažodis, kuris geriausiai atskleidžia analizuojamas situacijas. taikant kokybinės turinio analizės metodą, atrenkami geriausiai freimus ir pofreimius reprezentuojantys veiksmažodžiai. freimų semantikos metodu tyrinėjami darbo, žalos darymo, kalbinės veiklos, judėjimo, fizinių poreikių ir pramogų freimai bei jų pofreimiai, kuriuos suponuoja minėtieji veiksmažodžiai. išskiriami pagrindiniai ir šalutiniai freimų bei pofreimių elementai. taip pat analizuojama, kokiomis raiškos priemonėmis jie perteikiami. tyrimo rezultatai parodė, kad aktyvios veiklos veiksmažodžiai gali sudaryti minėtųjų freimų ir pofreimių branduolį, tačiau ne visos framenet sistemoje pateikiamos situacijos atitiko darbe išskirtus konceptualiuosius scenarijus Show More ... ... Show Less

Objektyvusis Tarmiškumas: Požymiai Ir Vertė

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] straipsnyje plėtojamas perceptyviosios dialektologijos diskursas – svarstomas objektyviojo tarmiškumo klausimas. siekis svarstyti objektyviojo tarmiškumo, kaip tarmėtyrinio parametro, klausimą iš esmės yra siekis identifikuoti tas kalbines tarmės artefakto charakteristikas, kurios skiria šį artefaktą nuo kitų stebėjimo artefaktų paprastojo kalbos bendruomenės nario požiūriu. taigi straipsnyje, remiantis kalbinių nuostatų ir variantų percepcijos duomenimis, plėtojamas iliustruojamasis diskursas, atskleidžiąs objektyviojo tarmiškumo požymius ir vertę iš paprastojo lietuvių kalbos bendruomenės nario perspektyvos. iš tyrimo duomenų išaiškėja, kad paprastųjų kalbos bendruomenės narių objektyviojo tarmiškumo bruožų sistema aprėpia ir skiriamuosius (pirminius), ir būdinguosius (antrinius), ir blankiuosius (tretinius) tarminius požymius. tik dažnesni, intensyvesni antrinių (būdingųjų) ir tretinių (blankiųjų) požymių iškilumai horizontaliajame regioninio kalbos variantiškumo kontinuume lemia, kad paprastieji kalbos bendruomenės nariai (re)konstruoja tarmės artefaktą būtent iš pastarųjų Show More ... ... Show Less

Alfonso Nykos-Niliūno Eilėraščiai Intermedialumo Aspektu: Poezijos Ir Dailės Dialogo Atvejis

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] straipsnyje analizuojami penki alfonso nykos-niliūno eilėraščiai, kuriuose itin ryškus poezijos ir dailės dialogas. pasirinkta taikyti intermedialiąją analizę, kuri suteikia analitinius įrankius, padedančius tirti šio dialogo parametrus. svarbi ekfrazės sąvoka, numatanti medijos keitimo gestą – vizualaus kūrinio įžodinimą. remiamasi lauros m. sager eidt ekfrazių tipologija, leidžiančia matyti, kad analizuotuose a. nykos-niliūno eilėraščiuose dominuoja draminė ekfrazė, kurios pagrindinis bruožas – intensyvi autorefleksija. straipsnyje gilinamasi į intermedialaus dialogo specifiką: tiriama, kaip šis dialogas yra įreikšminamas ir kokį prasmės priaugį numato. analizuojama, kaip dailės intertekstai eilėraščiuose steigia naujas prasmes, aptariamas kalbinio vizualumo aspektas. pamatyta, kad intermediali skaitymo strategija dažniausiai formuojama eilėraščių pavadinimuose, kurie įveda į dialogo su vizualiąja medija situaciją. dailės citatos analizuotuose tekstuose atlieka skirtingas funkcijas – aktyvuoja reprezentacijos problemiškumo ir recepcijos variantiškumo temas, padeda kurti įtampą tarp vizualumo ir akustikos, stiprina egzistencinės filosofijos idėjas Show More ... ... Show Less

Liaudies Leksikografija. Pagrindiniai Naiviosios Eksplikacijos Ypatumai

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] kartu su popierine, tradicine leksikografija, teikiančia tikslią informaciją apie žodį, internetinėje erdvėje vystosi liaudies leksikografija. tai šiuolaikinės kalbinės kultūros fenomenas, taikomasis metakalbinės veiklos rezultatas ir viena iš svarbiausių „naiviosios“ lingvistikos apraiškų. internetiniai, liaudies leksikografų kurti slengo žodynai tampa svarbia tyrimų erdve ir dosniu informacijos šaltiniu tradiciniam leksikografui. šie žodynai padeda atrasti naujausius slengo vienetus, stebėti, kaip jie vartojami šiuolaikiniuose kontekstuose, analizuoti gyvą kalbinės kūrybos procesą. bendriausiu požiūriu šie kūriniai greičiau priskiriami prie enciklopedinių žodynų, kadangi jų straipsnių aprašymo vienetais dažniau tampa atskiros realijos, sąvokos, leksinės reikšmės, o ne gramatinės formos. tokio enciklopedinio aprašymo dėka mėgėjiški žodynai kuria „daugiamatį žodžio atvaizdą“ įtraukdami savo skaitovą į lingvistinę intrigą. straipsnyje bandoma apžvelgti pagrindines vieno ryškiausių lietuvių „liaudies leksikografijos“ pavyzdžių – „jaunimo žodyno“ – ypatybes ir išnagrinėti apibrėžimo srities (tiksliau, naiviosios eksplikacijos) ypatumus Show More ... ... Show Less

Tarmiškumo Bruožų Nomenklatūra: Nuo Tarminių Požymių Prie Tarmiškumo Žymenų

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] tarmiškumas esti susijęs su tam tikrais tarminės kalbos požymiais, iš kurių gana dažnai galima atpažinti kalbantįjį, t. y. numanyti, kad jis yra kitoks, nes kalba kitaip nei aplinkiniai, t. y. priklauso kitai tarminei bendruomenei. tradiciškai manoma, kad tarmiškumas pirmiausia rodo tarmiškai kalbančio žmogaus sąsajas su vieta, t. y. vietove, kurioje ta tarme kalbama ir iš kurios tikriausiai jis yra kilęs. sparčiai kintant tradicinėms tarmėms ir formuojantis regioniniams dialektams (regiolektams), pamažu kinta ir tarmiškumo samprata. multimodaliosios dialektologijos požiūriu, tarmiškumas jau apima ne tiek vietos, kiek, apskritai, – erdvės matmenį, į kurį įkomponuota ir nemažai sociolingvistinių kintamųjų: pavyzdžiui, tarmiškai kalbančio asmens lyties, amžiaus, išsilavinimo ir kt. tam tikromis sąlygomis (pavyzdžiui, iš kaimo persikėlus gyventi į didmiestį) vieta tampa visai nesvarbus tarmiškumo kriterijus, jei gyventojas nepakeitė savojo kalbinio kodo. šiame straipsnyje nagrinėjami keli garsiniai tarminių tekstų fragmentai-stimulai, kurie parengti vykdant projektą „regioninių variantų ir tariamosios bendrinės kalbos (kvazistandarto) sklaida xxi amžiaus pradžioje: percepcinis tyrimas“. jais remiantis siekiama sistemiškai įvertinti sunkiau kalbos vartotojų identifikuojamus tarminius blankiuosius požymius, kurie, net ir kintant tradicinėms (pa)tarmėms dėl konvergencijos, divergencijos ar analoginio išlyginimo, vartotojų kalboje išlieka ilgiausiai. būtent jie dažniausiai ir tampa esminiais skiriamaisiais regiolektų tarmiškumo žymenimis. straipsnyje aptariama tarminių požymių nomenklatūra: skiriamieji, būdingieji ir blankieji tarminiai požymiai, – tam tikru mastu atitinka johano taeldemano pasiūlytą trinarę tarminių ypatybių tipologiją, tačiau visiškai su ja nesutampa, nes pastaroji tarminius požymius vertina ne tiek iš pačios kalbos (resp. tarmės) sistemos, kiek iš vartotojo perspektyvos Show More ... ... Show Less

Algirdo Landsbergio Kritika: Lietuvių–Lenkų Kultūrų Dialogas

[straipsnis ir santrauka lietuvių kalba; santrauka anglų kalba] algirdas landsbergis (1924–2004) buvo vienas iš nedaugelio kritikų, kurio erudicija, kūrybinės intencijos, komparatyvistinis išsilavinimas, kalbų mokėjimas ir tarptautinė kompetencija, veikla suteikė galimybių peržengti lietuvių literatūros ribas, išvengiant literatūros „provincialumo“. straipsnyje analizuojama a. landsbergio literatūros ir teatro kritika, susijusi su lenkų kultūra. pasirinktas šios kritikos tekstų dalies tyrimas novatoriškas, nes netirtas. 1969–1998 metais paskelbtuose kritikos straipsniuose, recenzijose, anotacijose išryškėja kritiko misija – vertinti lenkų–lietuvių literatūrą vidurio rytų europos kontekste. kritikos tekstų analizė leido atskleisti lietuvių ir lenkų literatūrų, kultūrų dialogą. kritikoje, susijusioje su lenkų kultūra, rašytojas analizavo naujausius lenkakalbių rašytojų kūrinius, dažniausiai jų vertimus, siekdamas įvertinti estetinę kūrinio vertę, struktūrą, stilių, apibūdinti rašytojo augimą, nusakyti jo kūrinio vietą recenzuojamo autoriaus kūrybos ar lenkų literatūros kontekste (lyginimo pagrindas – lietuvių literatūra ar kita vidurio rytų europos šalių literatūra). taip kritikas atliko švietėjišką misiją – adresatą (lietuvį išeivį ir lietuvį už geležinės uždangos) supažindino su vidurio rytų europos regiono ar pasaulinės kultūros, literatūros situacija, drąsino priešinantis sovietiniam režimui Show More ... ... Show Less

Nomina Appellativa W Funkcji Imion Własnych Postaci Literackich – Zagadnienia Ortograficzne

[full article in polish, abstract in english and polish] artykuł podejmuje problem pisowni nazw pospolitych (nomina appellativa) w funkcji nazw własnych (nomina propria) postaci literackich. nazwy jednowyrazowe nie sprawiają na ogół kłopotów, ponieważ pisane są wielkimi literami, np. sędzia, wojski, asesor, podkomorzy, woźny, hrabia (postacie z „pana tadeusza”); cześnik, rejent (postacie z „zemsty”); pustelnik (postać z „dziadów”). zdecydowanie mniej jednoznaczne są zwyczaj ortograficzny oraz reguła, które dotyczą nazw dwu- i więcejwyrazowych, typu: królowa śniegu, mały książę, śpiąca królewna, królewna śnieżka, kot w butach, starosta gadulski, pan kleks. w praktyce ortograficznej pojawiają się trzy wersje: 1. obydwa wyrazy wielką literą, 2. pierwszy wyraz wielką literą, drugi małą, 3. obydwa wyrazy małą literą. wiele zależy od tego, w jakiej postaci wyrażenie występuje w tekście literackim i w jego ewentualnym tłumaczeniu na język polski. nazwy własne w utworach literackich są efektem wyboru autora, a to nie sprzyja ujednoliceniu ich postaci ortograficznej (ta sama nazwa postaci może być odmiennie zapisywana w różnych utworach). jeśli nie znamy intencji autora, należałoby polecić pisownię wszystkich wyrazów (z wyjątkiem spójników i przyimków) wielką literą, tym bardziej że drugie składniki tych wyrażeń mogą w odpowiednim kontekście występować samodzielnie: książę, śnieżka, królewna. nomina appellativa as proper names of literary characters – spelling issues the article deals with the problem of spelling common names functioning as proper names of literary characters. in general, single word names pose no problems as they are written in capital letters, e.g. sędzia, wojski, asesor, podkomorzy, woźny, hrabia (characters from “pan tadeusz”); cześnik, rejent (characters from “zemsta”); pustelnik (figures from “dziady”). definitely less clear is the usage and rule in terms of spelling that applies to names composed of two and more words, such as królowa śniegu, mały książę, śpiąca królewna, królewna śnieżka, kot w butach, starosta gadulski, pan kleks. there are three versions of spelling as far as usage is concerned: 1) both words in capital letters, 2) the first word in capital letters, the second word in lower case, 3) both words in lower case. much depends on the form in which the expression appears in the literary text and in its possible translation into polish. proper names in literary works are the result of the author’s choice, and this does not contribute to the unification of their spelling form (the same name of a character may be written differently in different works). if the author’s intentions are not known, we should recommend that all words (except for conjunctions and prepositions) be spelt in capital letters, especially as the other components of these expressions may appear in their own context: książę, śnieżka, królewna Show More ... ... Show Less

  • Proper Names
  • Lower Case
  • Literary Characters
  • Full Article
  • The Other