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Machines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Author(s):  
Lihuan Chen ◽  
Muzheng Cheng ◽  
Yi Cai ◽  
Liwen Guo ◽  
Dianrong Gao

The technology of increasing coal seam permeability by high-pressure water jet has significant advantages in preventing and controlling gas disasters in low-permeability coal seam. The structural parameters of a nozzle are the key to its jet performance. The majority of the current studies take strike velocity as the evaluation index, and the influence of the interaction between the nozzle’s structural parameters on its jet performance is not fully considered. In practice, strike velocity and strike area will affect gas release in the process of coal breaking and punching. To further optimize the structural parameters of coal breaking and punching nozzle, and improve water jet performance, some crucial parameters such as the contraction angle, outlet divergence angle, and length-to-diameter ratio are selected. Meanwhile, the maximum X-axis velocity and effective Y-axis extension distance are used as evaluation indexes. The effect of each key factor on the water jet performance is analyzed by numerical simulation using the single factor method. The significance and importance effect of each factor and their interaction on the water jet performance are quantitatively analyzed using the orthogonal experiment method. Moreover, three optimal combinations are selected for experimental verification. Results show that with an increase in contraction angle, outlet divergence angle, and length-to-diameter ratio, the maximum X-axis velocity increases initially and decreases thereafter. The Y-direction expansion distance of the jet will be improved significantly with an increase in the outlet divergence angle. Through field experiments, the jet performance of the improved nozzle 3 is the best. After optimization, the coal breaking and punching diameter of the nozzle is increased by 118%, and the punching depth is increased by 17.46%.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Author(s):  
Shang Yang ◽  
Xuehui Li ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Shuhao Yang ◽  
Zhen Shen ◽  
...  

To solve the problem of strong ground pressure behaviour under a residual coal pillar in the overlying goaf of a close-distance coal seam, this paper proposes the technology of weakening and relieving the residual coal pillar in the overlying goaf by a high-pressure water jet. Based on the geological occurrence of the No. 3 coal seam and mountain No. 4 coal seam in the Yanzishan coal mine, the high-pressure water jet pressure relief technology of residual coal pillars in the overlying goaf of close-distance coal seams was studied by theoretical analysis and field industrial tests. First, the elastic-plastic zone of the residual coal pillar and the stress distribution law of the floor are obtained by theoretical analysis, and the influence degree of the residual coal pillar on the support of the lower coal seam working face is revealed. Then, a high-pressure water jet combined with mine pressure is proposed to weaken the residual coal pillar. Finally, through the residual coal pillar hydraulic cutting mechanical model and “double-drilling double-slot” model, the high-pressure water jet drilling layout parameters are determined, and an industrial field test is carried out. The single knife cutting coal output and 38216 working face hydraulic support monitoring data show that high-pressure hydraulic slotting can weaken the strength of the coal body to a certain extent, destroy the integrity of the residual coal pillar, cut off the load transmission path of the overlying strata, and reduce the working resistance of the hydraulic support under the residual coal pillar to a certain extent, which is beneficial to the safe mining of the working face.


Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 153
Author(s):  
Stéphane Terrier ◽  
Michael Pfister ◽  
Anton J. Schleiss

Stepped spillways are frequently limited to specific discharges under around 30 m2/s due to concerns about potential cavitation damages. A small air concentration can prevent such damages and the design of bottom aerators is well established for smooth chutes. The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate the performance of a deflector aerator at the beginning of stepped chutes. Six parameters (chute angle, step height, approach flow depth, approach flow Froude number, deflector angle and deflector height) are varied in a physical model. The spatial air concentration distribution downstream of the aerator, the cavity sub-pressure, water discharge and air discharges are measured. The results describe the commonly used air entrainment coefficient, the jet length, as well as the average and bottom air concentration development to design an aerator. The lowest bottom air concentration measured in all tests is higher than the air concentration recommended in literature to protect against cavitation damages. And, unlike smooth chutes, there appears to be no significant air detrainment downstream of the jet impact. One deflector aerator seems therefore sufficient to provide protection of a stepped spillway.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 70
Author(s):  
Yibing Zhao ◽  
Canjun Yang ◽  
Yanhu Chen ◽  
Jia Li ◽  
Siyue Liu ◽  
...  

In order to adhere to the wall stably in an underwater environment, a vortex suction cup that injects high-pressure water inside via two axisymmetrically side-distributed inlets to create a negative pressure area in the center is the necessary component for the underwater climbing robot (UCR). However, the suction force of this vortex suction cup is reduced and periodically unstable due to unstable cavitation. The aim of this paper is to propose a cavitation reduction optimization method for vortex suction cups and to verify the effectiveness of the optimization. Analyses of this vortex flow, including streamlines, pressure, and cavitation number fluctuations, were carried out by the introduced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulating methods based on the multiphase RNG k−ε model to study the periodic fluctuations of the suction force of the original suction cup and the optimized ones. Force measurement and vortex observation experiments were conducted to compare the suction force of the original vortex suction cup and the optimized suction cup, as well as the cavitation and pressure fluctuation phenomenon. Results of simulation and experiments prove the existence of the effect of vortex cavitation on the suction performance and verify the rationality of optimization as well.


Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 307 ◽  
pp. 121795
Author(s):  
Jian Chen ◽  
Weimin Cheng ◽  
Gang Wang ◽  
Haomiao Li

2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (2) ◽  
pp. 022069
Author(s):  
O Y Derevenskaya

Abstract Ponds rehabilitation projects for the purpose of eco - rehabilitation following significant anthropogenic impacts or degradation are becoming more frequent but not always successful. Therefore, the experience of the restoration of the Lebyazhye system lakes in Kazan city (Russia) is interesting. Previously, the lake system used to consist of four ponds, but due to water catchment area reduction, the area of the lake system also decreased, and only one lake remained. The restoration of the Lebyazhye system lakes was carried out in 2017 and included the deepening of the basin of the Bolshoe and Svetloe Lebyazhye lakes to 4 m, the sealing of the bed of future ponds with bentonite mats, supplying water from Izumrudnoye lake through a pressure water conduit and filling the basin of the lakes with water. The research is devoted to the study of the restoration of zooplankton communities in the Lebyazhye system lakes. For this purpose, the indicators of zooplankton communities before and after eco-rehabilitation measures were compared. After the implementation of eco-rehabilitation measures, significant changes in environmental parameters were observed: the salinity of water decreased, the oxygen content in the water, pH increased. In zooplankton communities, the species richness and diversity increased, new species appeared, as well as those that lived in the lake system earlier before eco-rehabilitation measures were taken.


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