failure rate
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Haris Khan ◽  
Samer Mheissen ◽  
Ayesha Iqbal ◽  
Ali Raza Jafri ◽  
Mohammad Khursheed Alam

Failure of brackets is a common problem in orthodontics. This affects the treatment time, cost, and compliance of the patient. This study was conducted to estimate the bracket failure rate and the related factors for the long term. Methodology. This ambidirectional cohort study included 150 nonsyndromic orthodontic patients undergoing fixed appliance therapy for the last two years. The same patients were followed for 7 months. Different variables related to bracket failure were evaluated. The available data were analyzed descriptively, and the Kaplan-Meier estimate was used to measure the bracket survival rate from the date of bonding to failure. Results. A total of 180 bracket bond failures in the 150 included patients (52.2% males and 47.8% females) with a median age of 17 years (range 10-25 years). 69% of brackets failures were reported within the first 6 months after bonding. About 58.3% of bracket failure was noticed in adolescent patients before the age of 18 years. The majority of the cohort (81.1%) has good oral hygiene. The failure rate in patients with normal overbite was 41.1%, in decreased overbite cases was 15%, while in deep bite cases the failure rate was 43.9% with a statistically significant difference. Adults show less bracket failure (41.7%) than adolescent patients (58.3%). More bracket failure was noted in the lower arch (55%) than the upper arch (45%), and there were more bond failures posteriorly (61%) than on the anterior teeth (39%). Majority (41.1%) of the bracket failed on round NiTi wires. Conclusion. The bracket failure rate was 6.4%, with most bracket failure occurring in the first 6 months after bonding with individual difference. There was more incidence of bond failure in an increased overbite, adolescents, lower arch, posterior teeth, and lighter alignment wires.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 531
Maria Francesca Sfondrini ◽  
Maurizio Pascadopoli ◽  
Simone Gallo ◽  
Federico Ricaldone ◽  
Davide Dirk Kramp ◽  

Bonding failure is a clinical issue frequently encountered in orthodontic practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate enamel pretreatment both in vitro and clinically using agents with different RDA values before brackets’ bonding, to assess if RDA can affect the Shear Bond Strength (SBS), Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) and clinical failure rate of orthodontic brackets. For the in vitro study, 220 bovine teeth were pretreated with agents with different RDA values. Subsequently, brackets were bonded. For the clinical study, 20 patients underwent bonding of 20 brackets each with a split-mouth design. Low and high RDA toothpastes were used for enamel pretreatment. SBS, ARI and failures were recorded. Higher SBS values were found for teeth pretreated with lower RDA agents; conversely, lower SBS values were found for teeth pretreated with higher RDA agents (p < 0.05). For high ARI values, RDA increased too (p > 0.05). In the clinical study, a significantly lower failure rate was reported for teeth pretreated with low RDA toothpaste (2.5% in low RDA group, 7.0% in high RDA group; p < 0.05). No significant differences were assessed comparing the two dental arches and anterior and posterior sites. Enamel pretreatment with low RDA toothpastes could increase brackets’ survival rate. Further in vitro and clinical studies would be welcomed to confirm these findings.

Palvi Banotra

Background: Preeclampsia, a serious pregnancy complication which is commonly characterized by high blood pressure, presence of protein in the urine and sometimes swelling in women's feet, legs and hands. With this condition, patient’s high blood pressure often results in seizures. Generally, the outcome remains good, however, eclampsia can be life threatening and disastrous.Methods: This cross-sectional study considered 114 patients who meet inclusion criteria and agreed to will-fully participate in the study were evaluated for different parameters. Patients who developed eclampsia during intra-natal and postnatal period were included in the study. The aim of the study was to evaluate the maternal outcome among all patients of eclampsia treated with low magnesium sulphate dosage therapy.  Results: The present study revealed, very low fit recurrence rate, low mortality rate, zero treatment failure rate, no toxicity and (99.12%) success rate.Conclusions: Apart from zero percent treatment failure rate, Low maternal mortality and fit recurrence rate encouraged us to continue the treatment with low dose MGSO4 regimen. Thus, low dose magnesium sulphate has been found very effective in treating the eclmpsia and at the same time maintains the high safety margin.

2021 ◽  
Yoan Bourgeault-Gagnon ◽  
Keith Alexandre Leang ◽  
Frédéric Balg ◽  
Sonia Bédard ◽  
Karina Lebel ◽  

Abstract Background The failure rate for ACL reconstruction varies between 5 to 25% depending on the population. Recent studies found a higher failure rate with grafts of 8 millimeters in diameter or less. Various options are described when the graft’s diameter is inferior to the target value, but little literature helps us predict the final diameter during surgeries. Therefore, this study’s goal is to describe a new technique supplementing a hamstring graft folded in half with a quadricipital tendon band of partial width and thickness (4S+Q), and to predict the final diameter. Methods Thirty-three cadaveric knees were dissected in order to harvest semitendinosus and gracilis tendons (4S) along with a 6mm wide tendon band from the rectus femoris. Harvesting was done according to the usual surgical technique. Measures of length and diameter in 4S and 4S+Q configurations were performed separately by three evaluators. Results The threshold diameter of 8,5 mm was attained in only 30% of 4S grafts within our population in comparison with 88% when augmented with a quadriceps band. The average diameter increase with the 4S+Q configuration was 1,49 mm. A threshold of 7,5 mm was established for the applicability of this augmentation technique considering that 93% of the grafts measuring 7,5 mm or more reached the 8,5mm target. Conclusions The 4S+Q configuration offers a salvage option worth adding to one’s arsenal, significantly increasing the graft’s diameter. The width of the quadricipital tendon sample can be adjusted and will need further study.

Dependability ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 31-37
I. B. Shubinsky ◽  
H. Schäbe ◽  
E. N. Rozenberg

The paper examines the automatic train operation system as part of the locomotive control and protection system, the remote supervision centre’s means for control of onboard and trackside machine vision facilities. The focus is on the dependence of the system’s safety and dependability on the dependability characteristics of its components and adverse weather effects. The criteria of a system’s wrong-side and right-side failures were defined, the graph models were constructed of the safety and dependability states of an automatic train operation system. The Markovian graph method of calculating the safety and dependability of complex systems was substantiated. That allowed defining such key safety indicators of an automatic train operation system as the mean time to wrong-side failure, probability of wrong-side failure, wrong-side failure rate. The study established that the safety of an automatic train operation system primarily depends on the dependability of machine vision facilities. The growth of the system’s wrong-side failure rate is limited to half the failure rate of machine vision facilities. It was also established that the dependability of an automatic train operation system is defined by the failure rate of a locomotive control and protection system and the failure rate of machine vision facilities. The conducted analysis allows concluding that in order to achieve an acceptable level of safety of an automatic train operation system, efforts should focus on machine vision redundancy, ensuring the SIL4 functional safety of on-board and trackside machine vision facilities, as well as regular comparison of the outputs of on-board and trackside machine vision facilities, redundant output comparison, integration of the outputs in motion. Additionally, adverse weather effects are to be countered by improving the efficiency of machine learning of the machine vision software.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Hefei Hu ◽  
Chen Yang ◽  
Lingyi Xu ◽  
Tangyijia Song ◽  
Bonaho Bocochi Dalia

With network function virtualization (NFV) expanding from network center to edge, the service function chain (SFC) will gradually approach users to provide lower delay and higher-quality services. User mobility seriously affects the quality of service (QoS) provided by the mobile-aware SFC. Therefore, we must migrate the SFC to provide continuous services. In the user estimable movement scenario with a known mobile path and estimable arrival time, we establish the estimation model of user arrival time to obtain the estimated arrival time. Then, to reduce the time that the user is waiting for the migration completion, we propose a softer migration strategy migrating mobile-aware SFC before the user arrives at the corresponding access node. Moreover, for the problem of routing and bandwidth allocation (RBA), to reduce the migration failure rate, the paper proposes a path load adaptive routing and bandwidth allocation (PLARBA) algorithm adjusting the migration bandwidth according to the path load. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has significant advantages in reducing the user’s waiting time by more than 90%, decreasing migration failure rate by up to 75%, and improving QoS compared to the soft migration strategy and two RBA algorithms.

Richárd Wéber ◽  
Tamás Huzsvár ◽  
Csaba Hős

Abstract Reasons for occasional, random pipe bursts in water distribution networks (WDNs) might come from numerous factors (e.g. pH value of the soil, the pipeline material). Still, the isolation of the damaged section is inevitable. While the corresponding area is segregated by closing the isolation valves, there is a shortfall in drinking water service. This paper analyses the vulnerability of segments of WDNs from the viewpoint of the consumers that is the product of the failure rate and the relative demand loss. Real pipe failure database, pipe material and pipe age data are used to increase the accuracy of the failure rate estimation for 27 real-life WDNs from Hungary. The vulnerability analysis revealed the highly exposed nature of the local vulnerabilities; the distribution of local vulnerability values follows a power-law distribution. This phenomenon is also found by investigating the artificial WDNs from the literature using N rule in terms of isolation valve layout, namely the ky networks, with similar results.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Vernon Wheeler ◽  
Kayla Carman

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (9) ◽  
pp. 457-466
Germán Garabano ◽  
Hernán del Sel ◽  
Joaquin Anibal Rodriguez ◽  
Leonel Perez Alamino ◽  
Cesar Angel Pesciallo

Abstract. Background: The first objective of this retrospective study was to assess infection control rates in patients with chronic post-traumatic osteomyelitis (CPTO) of the femur or tibia treated with antibiotic cement-coated nails. The second objective was to compare the efficacy of custom-made nails versus commercially available antibiotic-coated nails in terms of infection control and need for reoperation. Methods: We reviewed a consecutive series of CPTO patients treated with antibiotic-coated nails who had a minimum follow-up of 24 months. We recorded the characteristics of the initial injury, the type of nail used, cement–nail debonding, infecting microorganisms, operating time, infection control, need for reoperation, and failure rate. We performed a comparative analysis between nails manufactured in the operating room (i.e., custom-made) and those commercially available. Results: Thirty patients were included. The affected bones were the femur (n=15) and the tibia (n=15). Twenty-one of the 30 initial injuries were open fractures. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism (50 %). Sixteen patients were treated with custom-made nails and 14 with commercially available antibiotic-coated nails. At the time of extraction, four out of five custom-made antibiotic-coated nails experienced cement–bone debonding. Commercial nails were associated with shorter operating times (p<0.0001). The overall infection control rate was 96.66 %. Eight (26.66 %) patients needed reoperation. There was one failure (3.33 %) in the group treated with custom-made antibiotic-coated nails. We did not find significant differences between nail types in terms of reoperation, infection control, and failure rate. Conclusions: The use of antibiotic cement-coated nails proved useful in CPTO treatment. Commercially available nails had significantly shorter operating times and did not present cement–bone debonding during removal. Our results seem to indicate that both nail types are similar in terms of infection control and reoperation rates.

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