Failure Rate
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2021 ◽  
Vol 45 (4) ◽  
pp. 769-778
Sharon M. Herkes ◽  
Clare Gordon-Thomson ◽  
Isabel A. Arnaiz ◽  
Meloni M. Muir ◽  
Dewa Wardak ◽  

A digital mobile card-matching game called eFlip was developed to assist second-year undergraduate medical science students to learn core content and understand key associations in physiology. Our team developed customized content of core physiological associations, of increasing difficulty, for upload on a generic card-matching platform. The generic game was extended with add-ons coded to allow identification and access of student usage data for students who consented to have their game usage linked to academic performance such as final course marks and grades. Here, we describe the development of the eFlip game content, the student usage profile, and the game’s impact on learning. Students were invited to use eFlip prior to and during the final examination period. Of those who used eFlip, 152 students consented to participate in a study of game use on learning performance outcomes. Within the students who consented, 74 played the game and 78 did not play the game (nonplayers). The mean course mark of the students who played the game [69.57%; 95% confidence level (CI) (67.22, 71.92)] was higher than that of the nonplayers [65.33%; 95% CI (62.67, 67.99)] ( P = 0.02). Playing eFlip was also associated with reduced failure rates in students who played the game (1% failure rate) compared with the students who did not play the game (10% failure rate; P = 0.02). The number of games played by students peaked just prior to the course final examination. Overall, students who chose to play eFlip demonstrated improved grades that were associated with a higher probability of passing the physiology course.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (3) ◽  
pp. 260-276
Mohamed Habachi ◽  
Salim El Haddad

This study proposed a method for constructing rating tools using logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis to determine the risk profile of SME portfolios. The objective, firstly, is to evaluate the impact of the crisis due to the Covid-19 by readjusting the profile of each company by using the expert opinion and, secondly, to evaluate the efficiency of the measures taken by the Moroccan state to support the companies during the period of the pandemic. The analysis in this paper showed that the performance of the logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis models is almost equivalent based on the ROC curve. However, it was revealed that the logistic regression model minimizes the risk cost represented in this study by the expected loss. For the support measures adopted by the Moroccan government, the study showed that the failure rate (critical situation) of the firms benefiting from the support is largely lower than that of the non-beneficiaries.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Navid Mohammadi ◽  
Maysam Shafiee

Purpose To avoid wastage of resources of a startup accelerator, this paper aims to present a model for accelerator managers’ decision-making to enter startups into acceleration and initial capitalization using a fuzzy Delphi approach and an affinity diagram is one of the design thinking tools. Design/methodology/approach The high failure rate of startups has led to a waste of resources and a lot of capital. This failure rate is much higher in the early stages of startups and subsequently higher risk. This is where startup accelerators play a role in supporting startups and provide startups with the capital needed to accelerate. The point to note at this point is that choosing the team with the lowest success potential by the accelerators will eliminate their capital and energy. The purpose of this research is to avoid this wastage. Findings In this research, using the Fuzzy Delphi method and aggregation of opinions of 5 experts and managers of the acceleration field, additional criteria were eliminated and 35 criteria were considered as final criteria of the evaluation model. In the final stage, a 10-member committee of managers, specialists and faculty members was formed and the criteria were grouped using the affinity diagram method. Finally, the final model was presented considering the components of a business plan. Originality/value Using design thinking methods and a combination of that with a fuzzy and quantitative method is one of the contributions of this research. Also, making a model for selection startups in the acceleration stage of fundraising is another value of this research.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
E. Suhir

The two analytical (“mathematical”) probabilistic predictive models considered in this analysis suggest that (1) the nonrandom time-derivative of the long-term mortality rate at a rather arbitrary initial moment of time for a particular type of species of interest can be viewed as a suitable physical or biological criterion, a sort of a figure of merit (FoM), of its long-term viability/survivorship and that (2) this derivative can be determined as the variance of the random mortality rate for the significantly shorter, of course, lifespan of the individual organisms that the type of species as a whole, addressed by the first model, is comprised of. This suggestion is obtained as a modification and extension of and as an “analogy” to a concept that the author developed earlier in application to microelectronics products. So, it is assumed in our approach that the long-term survivorship of a species comprised of numerous individual organisms is analogous to the long-term performance of an electronic product comprised of numerous mass-produced components. In the original research, it was shown that the time-derivative at the initial moment of time of the nonrandom infant mortality portion (IMP) of the bathtub curve (BTC) for an electronic product is, in effect, the variance of the random failure rate (RFR) of the mass-produced components that this product is comprised of, and it is assumed that such an analogy is applicable also to the long-term survivorship of a species comprised of numerous individual organisms. The larger this variance, the shorter is the expected long-term lifetime (survivorship) of the species as a whole. Future work should be focused, first of all, on the verification of the trustworthiness of our basic assumption for different species, including humans, and on the accumulation of statistical data for long-term survivorship of various species and their existing or future habitats, with consideration of the roles of gravity, temperature, level of radiation, attributes of the atmosphere, if any, etc., as well as on calculating lifespan variances for the organisms that the species of interest are comprised of.

Hong Luo ◽  
Yanping Xiao ◽  
Yaping Hang ◽  
Yanhui Chen ◽  
Hongying Zhu ◽  

Abstract Background Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a public health concern. This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of patients with nonurinary source bacteraemia caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-producing EK) receiving β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLICs) versus carbapenem treatment and assess the risk factors of mortality with these two drugs. Methods We conducted a retrospective single-centre study of adult hospitalised patients with ESBL-producing EK bloodstream infection (BSI) from nonurinary source at our centre over a 4-year period. One hundred and eighty patients who received BLICs or carbapenems were included in the analysis. The outcome variables were 14-day treatment failure and 30-day mortality. For more reliable results, propensity score analysis was performed to compare the efficacy of the two drugs and analyse their risk factors for 30-day mortality. Results Out of 180 patients, 114 received BLICs, and 66 received carbapenem therapy. Compared to carbapenem-treated patients, those treated with BLICs were older and had higher age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index, but they had shorter stay in the hospital. Additionally, their Pitt bacteraemia score, SOFA score, rate of leukaemia, and immune compromise were lower. After propensity score matching (PSM), the baseline characteristics of patients in the two treatment groups were balanced. BLICs were associated with a higher 14-day treatment failure rate (20.6%, 13/63) than carbapenems (16.3%, 7/43), although the difference was not significant in either univariate analysis (P = 0.429) or multivariate analysis (P = 0.122). And the 30-day mortality rate in BTG (11.1%, 7/63) and CTG (11.6%, 5/43) did not significantly differ (univariate analysis, P = 0.926; multivariate analysis, P = 0.420). In the multivariate analysis, after PSM, leukaemia was the only independent predictor of mortality in both BTG and CTG. Conclusions Our study showed that BLICs had higher 14-day treatment failure rate compared with carbapenems, although there were no statistically significant differences because of the small number of patients, therefore, further evaluation of the efficacy of BLICs is needed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (4) ◽  
pp. 57-67
D. N. Nashatyreva ◽  
A. D. Botvinkin ◽  
E. M. Poleshchuk ◽  
G. N. Sidorov ◽  
N. V. Rudakov

Relevance. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the most effective method for reducing the morbidity and mortality of human rabies. Since 2000, in Russia, domestically produced cultural purified and concentrated rabies vaccine (COCAV) and equine immunoglobulin (AIG) are used as the main drugs for PEP.Aims. To assess the epidemiological effectiveness of post-exposure rabies prophylaxis and possible causes of failure in the Russian Federation in 2001–2018.Materials & methods. A comprehensive retrospective epidemiological study of 167 cases of rabies in humans and PEP statistics in the Russian Federation was carried out. To test the hypotheses about the relationship between PEP failures and risk factors, namely (gender, age, place of residence of the sick, nature of the injuries received, source of infection), two main comparison groups were formed: «vaccinated» (n = 28) and «not vaccinated» (n = 139). In addition, we compared the groups who received PEP correctly and those vaccinated with violations of instructions. The failure rate was assessed in relation to the total number of vaccinated and the number of vaccinated after contact with rabid animals.Results. During the analyzed period, the incidence of human rabies decreased from 0.015 to 0.0013 per 100 thousand population. Of the patients, 83.2% did not receive PEP (did not apply, vaccinations were not prescribed, refused). In the group «vaccinated» in 53.6% (n = 15), the schemes of PEP prescribing and administering were violated, including in 35.7% (n = 10) of cases AIG was not administered. The rest 46.4% (n = 13), received vaccinations in accordance with the instructions. Before the end of the vaccination course, 85.7% (n = 24) fell ill; the rest fell ill with an incubation period of more than three months. Only one person received AIG and all 6 vaccine injections. The group «vaccinated» differed from the group «not vaccinated» by a higher frequency of category III injuries (χ2 = 9.99, p = 0.019) and injuries caused by wild animals, especially wolves (χ2 = 22.24, p < 0.001).Conclusions. Among people who developed rabies in 2001–2018, 16.8% received PEP. The proportion of the number of cases and the total number of those who received PEP was 1: 240.0 thousand. The failure rate of PEP after contact with rabid animals was 0.03% (excluding the nature of the contact and the animal species). More than 70% of all failures are associated with wolf and fox bites, more than 85% with category III injuries.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (8) ◽  
pp. 329-336
Barry van der Ende ◽  
Jakob van Oldenrijk ◽  
Max Reijman ◽  
Peter D. Croughs ◽  
Liza N. van Steenbergen ◽  

Abstract. Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a procedure to treat a periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The timing between the primary procedure and the DAIR is likely a determinant for its successful outcome. However, the optimal timing of a DAIR and the chance of success still remain unclear. We aimed to assess the risk of re-revision within 1 year after a DAIR procedure and to evaluate the timing of the DAIR in primary THA and TKA. We used data from the Dutch Arthroplasty Register (LROI) and selected all primary THA and TKA in the period 2007–2016 which underwent a DAIR within 12 weeks after primary procedure. A DAIR was defined as a revision for infection in which only modular parts were exchanged. A DAIR was defined as successful if not followed by a re-revision within 1 year after DAIR; 207 DAIRs were performed <4 weeks after THA, of which 16 (8 %) received a complete revision within 1 year. DAIR procedures performed between 4 and 12 weeks (n=98) had a failure rate of 9 % (n=9). After TKA 126 DAIRs were performed in less than 4 weeks, of which 11 (9 %) received a complete revision within 1 year; 83 DAIRs were performed between 4 and 12 weeks, of which 14 (17 %) were revised. There was no significant difference in 1-year re-revision rate after a DAIR procedure by timing of the DAIR procedure for total hip and knee arthroplasty based on Dutch registry data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Iraklis Vastardis ◽  
Sofia Fili ◽  
Georgios Perdikakis ◽  
Kalliopi Kontopoulou ◽  
Miltos Balidis ◽  

Abstract Purpose To report preliminary 6-month results on the use of the Preserflo Microshunt implant with and without Ologen in 50 pseudophakic eyes with moderate to advanced primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods Fifty pseudophakic eyes underwent ab externo Preserflo Microshunt implantation. Data was gathered retrospectively and two groups were then created, group A with application of MMC 0.2 mg/ml and group B with MMC 0.2 mg/ml and Ologen collagen matrix (OCM) implantation. Absolute success was regarded as the percentage of eyes achieving: a) 5 ≤ intraocular pressure (IOP) ≤ 13 mmHg, b) 5 ≤ IOP ≤ 16 mmHg, and c) 5 ≤ IOP ≤ 21 mmHg without additional medication or surgery and qualified success was regarded as the percentage of eyes achieving a) IOP ≤ 13 mmHg, b) IOP ≤ 16 mmHg, and c) IOP ≤ 21 mmHg with or without medication. Evaluation was performed using a log-rank Kaplan-Meier test. A scatterplot analysis presented the treatment effect data of all eyes with a minimum of 20% IOP reduction per case. Failure was defined as requiring additional surgery, IOP greater than 21 mmHg with or without medication and failure to reach 20% IOP reduction. Results Mean postoperative IOP was significantly lower in both groups. IOP decreased by 49.06% in group A and by 53.01% in group B at 6 months (P < 0.88), respectively. Medication use was lower in both groups (Wilcoxon test, P < 0.001). The absolute and qualified success rates were not statistically significant between the groups (all P > 0.05). Cumulative IOP results per case were not statistically different in group A compared with group B. One revision surgery in group A (4% failure rate) and three in group B (12% failure rate) were performed. Conclusions Both groups showed equal results in terms of cumulative and mean IOP reduction, medication reduction as well as in absolute and qualified success rates. No significant difference was found in any parameters tested between Preserflo Microshunt with MMC 0.2 mg/ml and with or without OCM implantation at 6 months. Long-term follow-up is required to further evaluate this data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (9) ◽  
pp. 735-742
Abdus S. Burahee ◽  
Andrew D. Sanders ◽  
Dominic M. Power

Cubital tunnel decompression is a commonly performed operation with a much higher failure rate than carpal tunnel release. Failed cubital tunnel release generally occurs due to an inadequate decompression in the primary procedure, new symptoms due to an iatrogenic cause, or development of new areas of nerve irritation. Our preferred technique for failed release is revision circumferential neurolysis with medial epicondylectomy, as this eliminates strain, removes the risk of subluxation, and avoids the creation of secondary compression points. Adjuvant techniques including supercharging end-to-side nerve transfer and nerve wrapping show promise in improving the results of revision surgery. Limited quality research exists in this subject, compounded by the lack of consensus on diagnostic criteria, classification, and outcome assessment. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:735-742. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200135

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