Soil Fertilization
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Horticulturae ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 61
Niaz Ahmad ◽  
Sajjad Hussain ◽  
Muhammad Arif Ali ◽  
Asif Minhas ◽  
Waqar Waheed ◽  

Soil with low fertility is a big problem for achieving citrus productivity. In this regard, the management of macro and micronutrients is essential. Macro and micronutrient deficiency decreased the yield and the quality of citrus fruit. It is the need of the hour to classify the soil fertility status under changing climatic scenarios. The current soil fertility survey was conducted to examine the macro and micronutrient status in the citrus production area. In soil, three depths (0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm) were taken for sampling. For leaves, 4–6-months-old non-bearing twigs were sampled from 20 trees per orchard at breast height. Results showed that soil pH (7.1–8.4) was slightly alkaline, electrical conductivity (EC) was non-saline (<4 dSm−1), soil organic matter (SOM) was deficient (<0.86%), and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was slight calcareous (<8%), at 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm depths. The majority of soil samples were low in nitrogen (N) contents at all depths, i.e., (<0.043) 0–15 (85%), 15–30 (97%), and 30–45 (100%) cm depths. Phosphorus (P) was medium (7–15 mg kg−1) at 0–15 cm (60%) but low (<7 mg kg−1) at 15–30 (63%) and 30–45 cm (82%) depths. Potassium (K) was medium (80–180 mg kg−1) at 0–15 (69%), 15–30 (69%), and 30–45 cm (10%) depths. Boron (B) and manganese (Mn) were medium, and Cu was high in 0.15 cm, but all were low at 15–30 and 30–45 cm depths. Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) were low at depths of 0–15, 15–30, and 30–45 cm. Most citrus leaves were deficient in N (94%), Fe (76%), Zn (67%), and B (67%). In conclusion, soil fertilization is not sufficient for optimum citrus yield because of alkaline pH and slight calcareous soil conditions in this region. Foliar application of nutrients is suggested instead of only soil fertilization, for better nutrient management in citrus orchards.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 162
Eleonora Cataldo ◽  
Maddalena Fucile ◽  
Giovan Battista Mattii

Climate change and disproportionate anthropogenic interventions, such as the excess of phytopharmaceutical products and continuous soil tillage, are jeopardizing viticulture by subjecting plants to continuous abiotic stress. One of the main physiological repercussions of abiotic stress is represented by the unbalanced redox homeostasis due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ultimately leading to a state of oxidative stress (detrimental to grape quality). To these are added the direct and indirect damages caused by pathogens (biotic stresses). In light of this scenario, it is inevitable that sustainable techniques and sensitivity approaches for environmental and human health have to be applied in viticulture. Sustainable viticulture can only be made with the aid of sustainable products. Biostimulant (PB) applications (including resistance inducers or elicitors) in the vineyard have become interesting maneuvers for counteracting vine diseases and improving grape quality. These also represent a partial alternative to soil fertilization by improving nutrient absorption and avoiding its leaching into the groundwater. Their role as elicitors has important repercussions in the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by triggering the activation of several enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase, lipoxygenase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase (with the accumulation of phenolic compounds). The present review paper summarizes the PBs’ implications in viticulture, gathering historical, functional, and applicative information. This work aims to highlight the innumerable beneficial effects on vines brought by these products. It also serves to spur the scientific community to a greater contribution in investigating the response mechanisms of the plant to positive inductions.

The work focused on assessing an overview of the agricultural economy in terms of the sustainability of agricultural systems adapted to climatic disturbances that allow ecological agricultural practices. Changing paradigms in agriculture with climate change involves adapting agricultural systems to the risks of using fertilizers in soil treatment, the interdependence of plant-soil water in agricultural practice, and the reduction of nitrate waste are also highlighted in the paper. Expectations regarding the reduction of greenhouse gases in the agricultural system have a long concern, what we propose in this study is that, at the same time, local traditions, the balance of the biosphere must be maintained with local nutrient needs based on climatic and soil characteristics. In the research, we analyzed some of the vulnerabilities, in the sense that, the agricultural practice and tradition must have a denominator in terms of fertilizers considering the risks of pollution or waste.

2021 ◽  
pp. 495-504
Vasilica Stefan ◽  
Ana Zaica ◽  
Adrian Iosif

In this paper are presented the results of experimental research conducted in order to improve the uniformity of organic fertilizers distribution (compost and semi-fermented manure) used for soil fertilization, if the administration is done with a machine with a distributor with continuous spiral centrifugal beaters, arranged vertically. The uniformity of organic fertilizers distribution depends on a number of factors such as: the speed and angle of inclination of the distribution device, the distance between the distribution beaters, the humidity and the density of the material, wind speed, the size of the fertilizer particles. The determinations were performed under working conditions and the various parameters were the beaters speed, beaters inclination angle and the feed rate of the distribution device, choosing 3 situations (minimum, average and maximum) for each of them. Based on the obtained results, the multivariable functions of polytropic form was determined, which characterize the degree of uniformity of the spread material, function that can be the basis for the elaboration of constructive solutions to ensure the optimum uniformity of distribution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (37) ◽  
pp. 103-114
Claudia Nicola ◽  
Mihaela Paraschiv ◽  

This study shows the influence of compost fertilization derived from sludge obtained from wastewater treatment on the nutrition of an eight-year-old apple orchard, ʹJonathanʹ cv. A field experiment was conducted to demonstrate the beneficial and negative aspects of (urban) sludge compost fertilization in apples and to assess the risk of soil contamination with heavy metals from municipal sewage sludge compost. The experimental factor was the compost with the following gradations: V1 = 0 t/ha, V2 = 20 t/ha, V3 = 40 t/ha, V4 = 60 t/ha, V5 = 80 t/ha. After two years (2019-2021) from soil fertilization with compost, the nitrogen content of the leaves increased in the treatment with the maximum fertilization dose (80 t/ha) by 30% compared to the unfertilized control, while the phosphorus content of leaves increased by 80% compared to non-fertilization control. The potassium content of the leaves increased by 36% in the 80 t/ha treatment compared to the unfertilized control, but still remained at a deficit level. The results showed that growth and yield were improved by using sewage sludge compost. However, sewage sludge compost applications have not significantly altered the heavy metal content of plant tissues. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil did not exceed the maximum permissible thresholds according to standards established in other EU countries, where compost from sewage sludge is considered product, not waste. However, the calculation of the Igeo index (geoaccumulation index of heavy metal in soil) showed certain levels of soil pollution already installed with Cd Zn, Pb in all variants fertilized with compost.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (16) ◽  
pp. e366101623558
Ana Luiza Privado Martins Feitosa ◽  
Glécio Machado Siqueira ◽  
Emanoel Gomes de Moura ◽  
Francisca Ferreira Farias ◽  
Alana das Chagas Ferreira Aguiar

We hypothesize that there is a linkage among different soil fertilization regimes, soil chemical attributes and maize grains yield. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between different soil fertilization regimes, soil chemical properties and maize grains yield. The experiment was performed in northeastern Brazil, in a randomized block design, at an area divided into 24 plots with six treatments and four replicates (Nitrogen (N); Leucaena (L); Nitrogen+Leucaena (N+L); Humic Acid+Leucaena (HA+L); Humic Acid+Nitrogen (HA+N) and Humic Acid+Nitrogen+Leucaena (HA+N+L)). Each plot was cropped with maize (Zea mays L.) and the grains yield was estimated. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0–5 cm, 5–10 cm and 10–20 cm. Potential acidity, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium, cation exchange capacity (CEC), sum of basic cations (SBC) and base saturation (BS) were determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate soil chemical attributes with maize yield. Calcium, magnesium, available P and SBC were related to the maize grains yield in upper soil layer, especially at nitrogen fertilization. This research confirms the hypothesis that there is a linkage between different soil fertilization regimes, soil properties and the maize grains yield.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 7685
Karolina Matej-Łukowicz ◽  
Ewa Wojciechowska ◽  
Joanna Strycharz ◽  
Marta Szubska ◽  
Karol Kuliński ◽  

Every year, huge amounts of bottom sediments are extracted worldwide, which need to be disposed. The recycling of bottom sediments for soil fertilization is in line with the long-promoted circular economy policy and enables the use of micro and macronutrients accumulated in sediments for soil fertilization. When considering potential agricultural reuse of the dredge sediments, the first necessary step should be to analyze whether the heavy metal content meets the obligatory criteria. Then, the contents of valuable elements required for plant growth and their ratios should be assessed. In this study, the content of nitrogen, organic carbon, phosphorus, and potassium was tested and iron, sulfur, calcium, and magnesium were also analyzed along vertical profiles of sediments extracted from four urban retention tanks in Gdańsk (Poland). The sediments were indicated to have a low content of nutrients (Ntot 0.01–0.52%, Corg 0.1–8.4%, P2O5 0.00–0.65%, K 0.0–1.0%), while being quite rich in Fe and S (0.2–3.3%, 0.0–2.5%, respectively). The C/N ratio changed in the range of 17.4–28.4, which proved good nitrogen availability for plants. The mean values of the Fe/P ratio were above 2.0, which confirms that phosphorus in the sediments would be available to the plants in the form of iron phosphate. To summarize, the bottom sediments from municipal retention reservoirs are not a perfect material for soil fertilization, but they are a free waste material which, when enriched with little cost, can be a good fertilizer. Future research should focus on cultivation experiments with the use of sediments enriched with N, P, Corg.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 2422
Jadwiga Stanek-Tarkowska ◽  
Małgorzata Szostek ◽  
Mateusz Rybak

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of fertilization with various doses of ash from biomass combustion (balanced to the amount of K2O introduced into the soil) on the growth of representatives of soil microorganisms, i.e., diatoms. In a one-factor field experiment (control, NPK, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 kg/ha), soil samples were collected from the 0–5 cm layer of podzolic soil under the cultivation of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) at the end of August 2019 and 2020. The biomass combustion ash used for soil fertilization was characterized by an alkaline reaction (pH = 12.83 ± 0.68) and high levels of basic macroelements required for proper plant growth and development. The particle size distribution in each plot was identified as loamy silt (pgl). Before the experiment (autumn 2018), the soil exhibited an acidic reaction (pHH2O = 5.8), low conductivity (EC = 68 µS), and 19.09% moisture at the 0–5 cm level. In total, 23 diatom species were identified in the material collected from the topsoil in all variants of the experiment. Hantzschia amphioxys, Mayamaea atomus, Mayamaea permitis, Nitzschia pusilla, Pinnularia obscura, Pinnularia schoenfelderi, and Stauroneis thermicola were the most abundant populations.

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