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Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 233
Elia M. Tapia-Villaseñor ◽  
Eylon Shamir ◽  
Mary-Belle Cruz-Ayala ◽  
Sharon B. Megdal

The impact of climate uncertainties is already evident in the border communities of the United States and Mexico. This semi-arid to arid border region has faced increased vulnerability to water scarcity, propelled by droughts, warming atmosphere, population growth, ecosystem sensitivity, and institutional asymmetries between the two countries. In this study, we assessed the annual water withdrawal, which is essential for maintaining long-term sustainable conditions in the Santa Cruz River Aquifer in Mexico, which is part of the U.S.–Mexico Transboundary Santa Cruz Aquifer. For this assessment, we developed a water balance model that accounts for the water fluxes into and out of the aquifer’s basin. A central component of this model is a hydrologic model that uses precipitation and evapotranspiration demand as input to simulate the streamflow into and out of the basin, natural recharge, soil moisture, and actual evapotranspiration. Based on the precipitation record for the period 1954–2020, we found that the amount of groundwater withdrawal that maintains sustainable conditions is 23.3 MCM/year. However, the record is clearly divided into two periods: a wet period, 1965–1993, in which the cumulative surplus in the basin reached ~380 MCM by 1993, and a dry period, 1994–2020, in which the cumulative surplus had been completely depleted. Looking at a balanced annual groundwater withdrawal for a moving average of 20-year intervals, we found the sustainable groundwater withdrawal to decline from a maximum of 36.4 MCM/year in 1993 to less than 8 MCM/year in 2020. This study underscores the urgency for adjusted water resources management that considers the large inter-annual climate variability in the region.

Annie Jane Keeney ◽  
Amy Quandt ◽  
Mercy D. Villaseñor ◽  
Daniela Flores ◽  
Luis Flores

Hispanic/Latino and migrant workers experience high degrees of occupational stress, constitute most of California’s agricultural workforce, and were among the most impacted populations by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, relatively little is known about the occupational stress experienced by farmworkers who commute daily between the US and Mexico. Occupational stress is considered an imbalance between the demands at work and the capabilities to respond in the context of the workforce. The goal of this study is to determine the type and severity of stressors in daytime and resident farmworkers and how COVID-19 vaccination status contributes to these stressors. Interviews containing the Migrant Farmworker Stress Inventory (MSWSI) were administered to a sample of 199 Hispanic/Latino farmworkers in Imperial County, a multi-billion-dollar agriculture sector in the US. Principal factor analysis differentiated latent factors in the MFSWI. Simple linear regression models and correlations identified associations between MFWSI scores and sample characteristics. The MFWSI reduced to five stressor domains: Health and Well-Being Vulnerabilities, Inadequate Standards of Living/Unknown Conditions of Living, Working Conditions, Working Environment, and Language Barriers. Approximately 40 percent of the respondents reported significant stress levels, with foreign-born (p = 0.014) and older respondents (p = 0.0415) being more likely to experience elevated stress regardless of their nighttime residence. We found that Spanish-language COVID-19 outreach might have been particularly effective for workers who reported high stress from English-language communication (p = 0.001). Moreover, our findings point to the importance of worker and human rights to mitigate the high-stress foreign-born workers who live in Mexico and the US experience.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 603
Ziyue Zhang ◽  
Bo Su ◽  
Yuanyuan Chen ◽  
Jinjing Lan ◽  
Muhammad Bilal ◽  

The optical characteristics of vertically distributed aerosols over Saudi Arabia were investigated using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) data from 2007 to 2019. The study region was divided into three parts (Region I: Tabuk, Makkah, Al Madinah, Asir, Al Bahah, Jizan, Riyadh, Mecca, Medina, the eastern region, Kassim, Hale, Asir, Baha, Tabuk, the northern border region, Jizan, Najilan, and Jufu. Region II: Ar, Al, Ha, Al, and Najran. Region III Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah and Ash Sharqiyah) to understand regional aerosol characteristics by performing interannual and seasonal analysis for nine aerosol types during the day and nighttime. We found that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates were the highest over eastern Saudi Arabia (region III) and were seemingly driven by the presence of an expansive desert in the region. As anticipated, the AOD observations were substantially higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter owing to the frequent occurrence of dust events during the former. Daytime observations exhibited higher AOD values than those at nighttime, which might be related to higher daytime anthropogenic activities. The estimates of the base height of the lowest aerosol layer (HB1) and the top altitude of the highest aerosol layer (TAH) were altered depending on the topography (the higher the altitude, the higher the annual mean value of HB1 and TAH). The aerosol layers (N) were relatively abundant over region III, seemingly due to the relatively stronger atmospheric convection over this region. The volume depolarization ratio of the lowest aerosol layer (VDR1) was considerable during the night due to deposition at nighttime, and VDR1 was relatively substantial in spring and summer. The color ratio of the lowest aerosol layer (CR1) estimates over regions II and III was higher at night. We report a weak positive correlation between the thickness of the lowest aerosol layer (HTH1) and the AOD of the lowest aerosol layer (AOD1) in the three regions, a strong positive correlation between TAH and N, and a negative correlation between the AOD proportion of the lowest aerosol layer (PAOD1) and N in Saudi Arabia. In this paper, the optical and physical properties of aerosols in Saudi Arabia have been studied for 13 years. Our results could provide references for researchers and the government, and relevant departments with data support on the aerosol layer to help control air pollution in Saudi Arabia.

I. Mosca ◽  
S. Sargeant ◽  
B. Baptie ◽  
R. M. W. Musson ◽  
T. C. Pharaoh

AbstractWe present updated seismic hazard maps for the United Kingdom (UK) intended for use with the National Annex for the revised edition of Eurocode 8. The last national maps for the UK were produced by Musson and Sargeant (Eurocode 8 seismic hazard zoning maps for the UK. British Geological Survey Report CR/07/125, United Kingdom, 2007). The updated model uses an up-to-date earthquake catalogue for the British Isles, for which the completeness periods have been reassessed, and a modified source model. The hazard model also incorporates some advances in ground motion modelling since 2007, including host-to-target adjustments for the ground motion models selected in the logic tree. For the first time, the new maps are provided for not only peak ground acceleration (PGA) but also spectral acceleration at 0.2 s (SA0.2s) and 1.0 s for 5% damping on rock (time-averaged shear wave velocity for the top 30 m Vs30 ≥ 800 m/s) and four return periods, including 475 and 2475 years. The hazard in most of the UK is generally low and increases slightly in North Wales, the England–Wales border region, and western Scotland. A similar spatial variation is observed for PGA and SA0.2s but the effects are more pronounced for SA0.2s. Hazard curves, uniform hazard spectra, and disaggregation analysis are calculated for selected sites. The new hazard maps are compared with the previous 2007 national maps and the 2013 European hazard maps (Woessner et al. in Bull Earthq Eng 13:3553–3596, 2015). There is a slight increase in PGA from the 2007 maps to this work; whereas the hazard in the updated maps is lower than indicated by the European maps.

2022 ◽  
Samantha Yeager ◽  
Daniela Abramovitz ◽  
Alicia Y. Harvey-Vera ◽  
Carlos F. Vera ◽  
Angel B. Algarin ◽  

People who inject drugs (PWID) are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. We examined correlates of COVID-19 testing among PWID in the U.S.-Mexico border region and described encounters with services or venues representing potential opportunities (i.e., "touchpoints") where COVID-19 testing could have been offered. Between October, 2020 and September, 2021, participants aged ≥18 years from San Diego, California, USA and Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico who injected drugs within the last month completed surveys and SARS-CoV-2, HIV, and HCV serologic testing. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with COVID-19 testing prior to enrollment. Of 583 PWID, 30.5% previously had a COVID-19 test. Of 172 PWID who tested SARS-CoV-2 seropositive in our study (30.1%), 50.3% encountered at least one touchpoint within the prior six months where COVID-19 testing could have been offered. Factors independently associated with at least two fold higher odds of COVID-19 testing were living in San Diego (versus Tijuana), having recently been incarcerated or attending substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and having at least one chronic health condition. In addition, recent homelessness, having had at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose and having been tested for HIV or HCV since the pandemic began were independently associated with COVID-19 testing. We identified several factors independently associated with COVID-19 testing and multiple touchpoints where COVID-19 testing could be scaled up for PWID, such as SUD treatment programs and syringe service programs. Integrated health services are needed to improve access to rapid, free COVID-19 testing in this vulnerable population.

Maria Elena Martinez ◽  
Jesse N. Nodora ◽  
Corinne McDaniels-Davidson ◽  
Noe C. Crespo ◽  
Amir Adolphe Edward

The ongoing 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic continues to impact the health of individuals worldwide, including causing pauses in lifesaving cancer screening and prevention measures. From time to time, elective medical procedures, such as those used for cancer screening and early detection, were deferred due to concerns regarding the spread of the infection. The short- and long-term consequences of these temporary measures are concerning, particularly for medically underserved populations, who already experience inequities and disparities related to timely cancer care. Clearly, the way out of this pandemic is by increasing COVID-19 vaccination rates and doing so in an equitable manner so that communities most affected receive preferential access and administration. In this article, we provide a perspective on vaccine equity by featuring the experience of the California Hispanic community, who has been disproportionately impacted by the pandemic. We first compared vaccination rates in two United States–Mexico border counties in California (San Diego County and Imperial County) to counties elsewhere in California with a similar Hispanic population size. We show that the border counties have substantially lower unvaccinated proportions of Hispanics compared to other counties. We next looked at county vaccination rates according to the California Healthy Places Index, a health equity metric and found that San Diego and Imperial counties achieved more equitable access and distribution than the rest of the state. Finally, we detail strategies implemented to achieve high and equitable vaccination in this border region, including Imperial County, an agricultural region that was California’s epicenter of the COVID-19 crisis at the height of the pandemic. These United States–Mexico border county data show that equitable vaccine access and delivery is possible. Multiple strategies can be used to guide the delivery and access to other public health and cancer preventive services.

2022 ◽  
Teresita Rocha-Jiménez ◽  
Sonia Morales-Miranda ◽  
Carmen Fernández-Casanueva ◽  
Jay G. Silverman ◽  
María Luisa Zúñiga ◽  

AbstractThe goal of this paper is to determine the association between traveling to engage in sex work in another country and recent access to HIV testing among substance-using female sex workers (FSWs) in the Mexico–Guatemala border region. From 2012 to 2015, through modified time-location sampling and peer referral, 255 FSWs were recruited at Mexico’s southern border. Participants completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, migration and mobility experiences, work environment factors, and substance use. A conceptual framework, as depicted by a directed acyclic graph (DAG), guided our analysis. Crude and adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between mobility experiences and HIV testing in the past year. Overall HIV testing was low (41%); after considering relevant covariates (i.e., interaction with health services and organizations, and sex work characteristics) traveling to engage in sex work in another country was found to be positively associated with HIV testing in the past year. Future efforts need to consider voluntary and non-stigmatizing prevention HIV services and focus on reaching out to less mobile women.

Ekaterina A. Antipova ◽  
Aliaksei N. Shavel ◽  
Ilya I. Zaprudski ◽  
Andrei P. Bezruchonak

Geographic research of the phenomenon of inter-capital space of the Belarusian-Russian border region is an actual research area problem for the socio-economic geography of Belarus and Russia. This is due to the objective need to develop mechanisms of overcoming the demographic and economic peripherality of the region and embedding regional economic systems of border regions into the system of local relations. The purpose of the research is to identify the current distinctive features of the demographic and economic development of the inter-capital space of the Belarusian-Russian border region with the establishment of its niche from the point of the central-peripheral approach. During the analysis of the demographic situation of the inter-capital space of the Belarusian-Russian borderlands, it was established that, generally, in 1999–2019, its main feature was peripherality with the three zones established – the central demographic periphery, the buffer demographic periphery and the demographic semi-periphery – with a predominance in the structure of the first zone. Geographically, the central periphery zone is formed mainly by the rural borderland areas. According to the results of the analysis of the industrial development level, it was discovered that the inter-capital space of the Belarusian-Russian borderlands is characterised by a high degree of spatial inequality due to the development of large industrial centers around the existing periphery. This research had established a spatial differentiation of the transportation accessibility (by the connectivity of administrative centers of the borderlands) and the productivity of road transportation. The economicgeographical analysis of the foreign trade had revealed the diversity of directions and intensity of foreign goods trade between the Belarusian-Russian borderlands, mainly expressed in the predominance of the export-oriented regions with the per capita foreign trade turnover estimated at up to 2000 US dollars.

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