order kinetic model
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M. J. Fernández-Rodríguez ◽  
J. M. Mancilla-Leytón ◽  
D. de la Lama-Calvente ◽  
R. Borja

AbstractThis research was carried out with the aim to evaluate the anaerobic digestion (AD) of llama and dromedary dungs (both untreated and trampled) in batch mode at mesophilic temperature (35 °C). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests with an inoculum to substrate ratio of 2:1 (as volatile solids (VS)) were carried out. The methane yield from trampled llama dung (333.0 mL CH4 g−1 VSadded) was considerably higher than for raw llama, raw and trampled dromedary dungs (185.9, 228.4, 222.9 mL CH4 g−1 VSadded, respectively). Therefore, trampled llama dung was found to be the best substrate for methane production due to its high content of volatile solids as well as its high nitrogen content (2.1%) and more appropriate C/N ratio (23.6) for AD. The experimental data was found to be in accordance with both first-order kinetic and transference function mathematical models, when evaluating the experimental methane production against time. By applying the first-order kinetic model, the hydrolysis rate constants, kh, were found to be 19% and 11% higher for trampled dungs in comparison with the raw dung of dromedary and llama, respectively. In addition, the maximum methane production rate (Rm) derived from the transference function model for trampled llama dung (22.0 mL CH4 g−1 VS d−1) was 83.3%, 24.4% and 22.9% higher than those obtained for raw llama manure and for raw and trampled dromedary dungs, respectively.

Yan Sun ◽  
Xiaojun Song ◽  
Jing Ma ◽  
Haochen Yu ◽  
Gangjun Liu ◽  

The polyacrylonitrile/fly ash composite was synthesized through solution polymerization and was modified with NH2OH·HCl. The amidoxime-modified polyacrylonitrile/fly ash composite demonstrated excellent adsorption capacity for Zn2+ in an aqueous medium. Fourier transform-Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the prepared materials. The results showed that the resulting amidoxime-modified polyacrylonitrile/fly ash composite was able to effectively remove Zn2+ at pH 4–6. Adsorption of Zn2+ was hindered by the coexisting cations. The adsorption kinetics of Zn2+ by Zn2+ followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The adsorption process also satisfactorily fit the Langmuir model, and the adsorption process was mainly single layer. The Gibbs free energy ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 were negative, indicating the adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic, and high degree of order in solution system.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
Chunhui Zheng ◽  
Chunlin He ◽  
Yingjie Yang ◽  
Toyohisa Fujita ◽  
Guifang Wang ◽  

The continuous expansion of the market demand and scale of commercial amidoxime chelating resins has caused large amounts of resin to be discarded around the world. In this study, the waste amidoxime chelating resin was reutilized as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the waste amidoxime chelating resin (WAC-resin) from the factory was characterized by the elemental analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The influence of the initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature and the solution pH on the adsorption performance of the metal ions was explored by batch experiments. It was shown that the optimal pH was 4. Kinetic studies revealed that adsorption process corresponded with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption isotherm was consistent with the Langmuir model. At room temperature, the adsorption capacities of WAC-resin for Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ reached 114.6, 93.4, 24.4 and 20.7 mg/g, respectively.

Crystals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 80
N. G. Picazo-Rodríguez ◽  
F. R. Carrillo-Pedroza ◽  
Ma de Jesús Soria-Aguilar ◽  
Gabriela Baltierra ◽  
Gregorio González ◽  

Jarosites are residues generated during the purification of zinc and are composed mainly of iron sulfates ((Na, K)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6). Due to the large volume of jarosite generated during the process, these residues tend to be deposited in large land areas and are not used. In the present work, jarosite was used without heat treatment (JST) as an adsorbent of hexavalent chromium contained in a sample of wastewater from a chrome plating industry under the following conditions: C0 = 200 mg/L of Cr, T = 25 °C, and pH = 3. It was only possible to remove 34% of Cr (VI). Subsequently, a thermal treatment of a jarosite sample (JTT) was carried out at 600 °C. The heat-treated sample was later used as an adsorbent in the same conditions as those for JST. The maximum chromium removal was 53%, and the adsorption capacity was 10.99 mg/g. The experimental data were fitted to the Langmuir model and to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. It was determined that the adsorption process involved electrostatic attractions between the surface of the positively charged adsorbent and the chromium anions contained in industrial wastewater.

2022 ◽  
Ni Tan ◽  
Qiaorong Ye ◽  
Yaqing Liu ◽  
Yincheng Yang ◽  
Zui Ding ◽  

Abstract With polydioxyethylene ether as the bridge chain, a new fungal modified material with diamidoxime groups was prepared by a series of uncomplex synthesis reaction. The orthogonal experiment obtained its optimized adsorption conditions as follows: the initial pH value 6.5, the initial uranyl concentration 40 mg L-1, the contact time 130 min, and the solid-liquid ratio 25 mg L-1. The maximum adsorption capacity of target material was 446.20 mg g-1, and it was much greater than that of the similar monoamidoxime material (295.48 mg g−1). The linear Langmuir (R2 = 0.9856) isotherm models and the linear pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R2 = 0.9931) fit the experimental data of uranium (VI) adsorption better, indicating the adsorption mechanism should mainly be the monolayer adsorption and chemical process. In addition, the relevant experiments exhibited the prepared material was of the good reuse and the excellent anti-interference performance, which suggested the new acquisition should also have well-applied prospect in the future.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 269
Quyun Chen ◽  
Tian C. Zhang ◽  
Like Ouyang ◽  
Shaojun Yuan

Developing an ideal and cheap adsorbent for adsorbing heavy metals from aqueous solution has been urgently need. In this study, a novel, effective and low-cost method was developed to prepare the biochar from lettuce waste with H3PO4 as an acidic activation agent at a low-temperature (circa 200 °C) hydrothermal carbonization process. A batch adsorption experiment demonstrated that the biochar reaches the adsorption equilibrium within 30 min, and the optimal adsorption capacity of Cd(II) is 195.8 mg∙g−1 at solution pH 6.0, which is significantly improved from circa 20.5 mg∙g−1 of the original biochar without activator. The fitting results of the prepared biochar adsorption data conform to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (PSO) and the Sips isotherm model, and the Cd(II) adsorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. The hypothetical adsorption mechanism is mainly composed of ion exchange, electrostatic attraction, and surface complexation. This work offers a novel and low-temperature strategy to produce cheap and promising carbon-based adsorbents from organic vegetation wastes for removing heavy metals in aquatic environment efficiently.

Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 63
Yue-Sheng Chen ◽  
Chien Wei Ooi ◽  
Pau Loke Show ◽  
Boon Chin Hoe ◽  
Wai Siong Chai ◽  

Electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofiber membrane was functionalized with chitosan and proteins for use in the treatment of dye-containing wastewater. The PAN nanofiber membrane was subjected to alkaline hydrolysis, before being grafted with chitosan and subsequently the proteins from chicken egg white. The resultant nanofiber membrane (P-COOH-CS-CEW) was comprehensively characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The efficiency of P-COOH-CS-CEW in removing cationic dye toluidine blue O (TBO) and anionic dye acid orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution was evaluated. Based on the performance of model fitting, Langmuir and pseudo-second-order kinetic model could be used to describe the performance of P-COOH-CS-CEW in the removal of TBO (pH 10) and AO7 (pH 2) from the dye solutions. The adsorbed TBO and AO7 dyes can be completely desorbed by an elution solution made of 50% (v/v) ethanol and 1 M sodium chloride. After five consecutive adsorption-desorption cycles, the efficiency of dye removal by P-COOH-CS-CEW was maintained above 97%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Suxing Luo ◽  
Jun Qin ◽  
Yuanhui Wu ◽  
Feng Feng

Activated sludge, which is difficult and expensive to treat and dispose of, is a key concern in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, magnetic sludge biochar containing activated sludge and different sizes (14.3, 40.2 and 90.5 nm) of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was investigated as an effective adsorbent for tetracycline (TC) adsorption. Magnetic sludge-based biochar was prepared by a facile cross-linking method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential analysis. The adsorption performances of TC on three kinds of adsorbents were investigated. Although 14.3 nm Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles could be inclined to aggregate and partially filled with pores of biochar, it turned out that magnetic sludge biochar with 14.3 nm Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles exhibited optimum performance for TC removal with adsorption capacity up to 184.5 mg g −1 , due to the larger amounts of functional groups and the change of zeta potential. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics of TC on three kinds of adsorbents were studied, which implied that the pseudo-second-order kinetic model exhibited the better fit for the entire sorption process.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Maha S. Elsayed ◽  
Inas A. Ahmed ◽  
Dina M. D. Bader ◽  
Asaad F. Hassan

In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) and nanohydroxyapatite (NHAP) were prepared in the presence of date palm pits extract (DPPE) and eggshells, respectively. Another four nanocomposites were prepared from ZnO and NHAP in different ratios (ZP13, ZP14, ZP15, and ZP16). DPPE and all nanomaterials were characterized using GC-MS, zeta potentials, particle size distributions, XRD, TEM, EDX, FTIR, and pHPZC. The characterization techniques confirmed the good distribution of ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of NHAP in the prepared composites. Particles were found to be in the size range of 42.3–66.1 nm. The DPPE analysis confirmed the presence of various natural chemical compounds which act as capping agents for nanoparticles. All the prepared samples were applied in the adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under different conditions. ZP14 exhibited the maximum adsorption capacity (596.1 mg/g) at pH 8, with 1.8 g/L as the adsorbent dosage, after 24 h of shaking time, and the static adsorption kinetic process followed a PSO kinetic model. The photocatalytic activity of ZP14 reached 91% after 100 min of illumination at a lower MB concentration (20 mg/L), at pH 8, using 1.5 g/L as the photocatalyst dosage, at 25 °C. The photocatalytic degradation of MB obeyed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood first-order kinetic model, and the photocatalyst reusability exhibited a slight loss in activity (~4%) after five cycles of application.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Teresa Cavaco ◽  
Ana Cristina Figueira ◽  
Raúl González-Domínguez ◽  
Ana Sayago ◽  
Ángeles Fernández-Recamales

The purpose of this work was to investigate the physicochemical changes occurring during the thermal-based production of água-mel, a traditional Portuguese honey-related food product. The refractive index, color parameters (hue angle, H°; chroma, C*), and the content of total reducing sugars, glucose, fructose, total brown pigments, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural were monitored along the entire production process, and their evolution was kinetically modelled. Thermal processing caused a gradual decrease in sugars, which was accompanied by the formation of brown pigments and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, increased concentration of soluble solids as evaluated through refractive index measurements, as well as the appearance of darker colors. In particular, a zero-order kinetic model could explain the changes in H° and reducing sugars, while the evolution of refractive index, brown pigments, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, C*, fructose, and glucose were best fitted using a first-order kinetics model.

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