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Author(s):  
M. J. Fernández-Rodríguez ◽  
J. M. Mancilla-Leytón ◽  
D. de la Lama-Calvente ◽  
R. Borja

AbstractThis research was carried out with the aim to evaluate the anaerobic digestion (AD) of llama and dromedary dungs (both untreated and trampled) in batch mode at mesophilic temperature (35 °C). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests with an inoculum to substrate ratio of 2:1 (as volatile solids (VS)) were carried out. The methane yield from trampled llama dung (333.0 mL CH4 g−1 VSadded) was considerably higher than for raw llama, raw and trampled dromedary dungs (185.9, 228.4, 222.9 mL CH4 g−1 VSadded, respectively). Therefore, trampled llama dung was found to be the best substrate for methane production due to its high content of volatile solids as well as its high nitrogen content (2.1%) and more appropriate C/N ratio (23.6) for AD. The experimental data was found to be in accordance with both first-order kinetic and transference function mathematical models, when evaluating the experimental methane production against time. By applying the first-order kinetic model, the hydrolysis rate constants, kh, were found to be 19% and 11% higher for trampled dungs in comparison with the raw dung of dromedary and llama, respectively. In addition, the maximum methane production rate (Rm) derived from the transference function model for trampled llama dung (22.0 mL CH4 g−1 VS d−1) was 83.3%, 24.4% and 22.9% higher than those obtained for raw llama manure and for raw and trampled dromedary dungs, respectively.


2022 ◽  
Vol 964 (1) ◽  
pp. 012030
Author(s):  
Pham-Hung Duong ◽  
Ngoc-Han T. Huynh ◽  
Yong-Soo Yoon

Abstract This study was carried out to assess the treatment ability of color, dye, and COD in the dyeing wastewater containing C.I Reactive Blue 160 by ozonation system. Both batch and continuous operating modes with concurrent and counter-current flows were investigated. The effects of the ozone gas flow rate, pH, temperature, Na2CO3 concentration, and initial dye concentration were evaluated. The decolorization, dye removal efficiencies, and mineralization ability of COD by ozonation were determined. The results indicated that ozonation had high efficiency in the treatment of dyeing wastewater containing C.I Reactive Blue 160. The treatment performance was affected by the ozone gas flow rate, pH, temperature, Na2CO3 concentration, and initial dye concentration. The removal efficiency of color, dye, and COD were 98.04%, 99.84%, and 87.31% for the treatment of 200 mg/L initial dye concentration in batch mode with 30 min ozonation time, respectively. In the continuous operation and counter-current flow, the color, dye, and COD removal efficiencies reached 97.24%, 99.76%, and 86.38% after 30 min HRT, respectively, and higher than concurrent flow. The reaction of ozone and C. I Reactive Blue 160 was the first-order reaction in both batch and continuous operation. The complete mineralization required 90 min ozonation time.


2021 ◽  
pp. 009524432110588
Author(s):  
Anindya Dutta ◽  
Debjyoti Banerjee ◽  
Anup K. Ghosh

Foams of polypropylene/elastomer blends can often lead to softer foams which may not be desirable every time. Incorporating rigidity to the foams can often be made possible by preferentially crosslinking the elastomer phase prior to blending. Although foamability of polypropylene/elastomer blends has been understood in the scientific community, the influence of the extent of crosslinking in the elastomer phase is not yet understood well. The purpose of this investigation is to identify the influence of the extent of elastomer crosslinking and the blend morphological attributes (achieved by varying screw speed during melt mixing) on foamability of polypropylene/partially crosslinked elastomer blends. Crosslinking of ethylene-acrylic elastomer is carried out using gamma radiation with several doses (0, 12.5, 25, 50 kGy) before melt blending and, subsequently, 10 wt.% of the irradiated elastomers (prior optimized) are mixed with polypropylene in a micro-compounder at three different screw speeds. The microstructure development in blends is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Frequency sweep rheological analysis is done for selected blends to identify the ease of foamability among the series of blends. Foaming of blends is done with supercritical carbon dioxide in batch mode at three different temperatures. The density reduction along with the microcellular morphology development of blends with foaming is analyzed with the screw speed, the extent of crosslinking, and foaming temperature; furthermore, the individual input parameters (the elastomer domain size, controlled by the screw speed and the extent of crosslinking, controlled by gamma radiation dose) are optimized based on the foam morphology. A uniform and good foamability were achieved at 155 and 160°C for blends with elastomers, irradiated at 12.5 and 25 kGy radiation doses. The lowest density foam (0.37 g/cc) was obtained for polypropylene with 12.5 kGy irradiated crosslinked elastomer mixed at 200 rpm at 160°C foaming temperature. The final elastomer domain dispositions within the foam morphologies are characterized and the plausible foaming mechanism is proposed.


Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 69
Author(s):  
Michalis V. Karavasilis ◽  
Maria A. Theodoropoulou ◽  
Christos D. Tsakiroglou

In spite of the progress achieved on the photo-catalytic treatment of water streams, there is still a gap of knowledge on the optimization of the performance of continuous-flow photo-reactors. Zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were immobilized on Duranit (80% silica + 20% alumina) inert balls with dip-coating and thermal annealing. The immobilized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. To assess the stability and photocatalytic capacity of immobilized ZnO, degradation tests of phenol were performed in batch mode in a 22 W UV-oven with an emission peak at 375 nm by varying the temperature, the initial phenol concentration, and the ratio of photocatalyst mass to initial phenol mass. Continuous flow tests were conducted on two types of annular photo-reactors, made of poly(methyl)methacrylate (PMMA) and stainless steel (STST), equipped with a 6 W UV-lamp with emission at 375 nm, packed with ZnO-coated Duranit beads. Experiments were conducted by recirculating the phenol solution between the annular space of reactor and an external tank and varying the flow rate and the liquid volume in the tank. A one-dimensional dynamic mathematical model was developed by combining reactive with mass-transfer processes and used to estimate the overall reaction kinetic constant with inverse modeling. The results revealed that the ZnO losses might be discernible in batch mode due to the intense stirring caused by the bubbles of injected air, while an insignificant loss of ZnO mass occurs under continuous flow conditions, even after several cycles of reuse; the order of the overall phenol photodegradation reaction is lower than unity; the pseudo-1st order kinetic constant scales positively with the ratio of photocatalyst mass to the initial phenol mass and Peclet number.


Reactions ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 47-58
Author(s):  
Sarah Tschirner ◽  
Eric Weingart ◽  
Linda Teevs ◽  
Ulf Prüße

In this work, a highly selective and active gold-based catalyst for the oxidation of high concentrated monoethylene glycol (MEG) in aqueous solution (3 M, 20 wt%) is described. High glycolic acid (GA) selectivity was achieved under mild reaction conditions. The optimization of the catalyst composition and of the reaction conditions for the oxidation of MEG in semi-batch mode under alkaline conditions led to a GA yield of >80% with a GA selectivity of about 90% in short reaction time. The bimetallic catalyst 0.1 wt% AuPt (9:1)/CeO2 showed very high activity (>2000 mmolMEG/gmetalmin) in the oxidation of MEG and, contrary to other studies, an extremely high educt to metal mole ratio of >25,000 was used. Additionally, the gold–platinum catalyst showed a high GA selectivity over more than 10 runs. A very efficient and highly selective process for the GA production from MEG under industrial relevant reaction conditions was established. In order to obtain a GA solution with high purity for the subsequent polymerization, the received reaction solution containing sodium glycolate, unreacted MEG and sodium oxalate is purified by a novel down-stream process via electrodialysis. The overall GA yield of the process exceeds 90% as unreacted MEG can be recycled.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 227
Author(s):  
Youzhi Yu ◽  
Xu Li ◽  
Zhongjie Wang ◽  
Junfeng Rong ◽  
Kaixuan Wang ◽  
...  

Caprolactam wastewater (WCP), which is generated during the production of caprolactam, contains high contents of NO3− and inorganic P and is considered to be difficult to treat. In this study, Arthrospira platensis was used to remove N and P from WCP. Culture conditions and wastewater addition were optimized to relieve the inhibition effects of WCP. The results show that A. platensis growth and photosynthetic activity were inhibited depending on WCP concentrations. The inhibition rates were enhanced as the culture time increased under batch mode. However, the fed-batch mode significantly minimized the negative impact on A. platensis, which is beneficial for removing N and P from WCP by Arthrospira. After 10 d of cultivation of A. platensis in a 25 L circular photobioreactor in fed-batch addition of WCP (1.25% mixed WCP (v/v) each day), the average biomass productivity reached 17.48 g/(m2·d), the maximum protein content was 69.93%, and the N and P removal ratios were 100%. The accumulation effect of WCP inhibition on algal growth was not observed under this culture condition. Fed-batch cultivation of A. platensis is a promising way for bioremediation of WCP with high N and P removal efficiencies and high value-added biomass production.


Author(s):  
Priyanka Sharma ◽  
Kushal Qanungo

Mesoporous clay-starch ceramic pellets have been prepared using silica-rich low fire clay and potato starch as a pore-forming agent. The ceramic pellets prepared using 30% starch, showed the highest porosity and lowest compressive strength among all the different pellets. Batch mode studies using the pellets showed higher methylene blue adsorption capacity with an increase in time and increased initial dye concentration. The adsorption capacity was found to decrease with increasing pellet dose, while pH had a negligible effect on methylene blue removal which makes them a suitable adsorbent in both acidic and basic mediums. Adsorption isotherm analysis of the process was followed by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm whereas the kinetics analysis fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. A low-cost, simple device was made from a stainless-steel wire mesh with mesoporous ceramic pellets enclosed in it, which can easily be dipped and taken out of an aquarium and can remove methylene blue from water.


Author(s):  
Yuliya Melnyk ◽  
Andriy Melnyk

Ultrafiltration devices are currently being developed and manufactured around the world, and productivity varies greatly from 1 to 300,000 m/day. In practice, ultrafiltration parameters are used and performed in batch, semi-periodic and continuous modes. Continuous and semi-periodic modes are mainly used for large volumes of liquids. In the case of a small volume, the batch mode prefers the continuous mode - the area of the membrane is smaller and it is easier to clean. The deposition of spent grease is based on the fact that mechanical impurities and water are in a suspended state and settle over time. When selecting the process of restoring the quality of the lubricant to the required level, first use a mechanical cleaning method to remove free water and hard dirt. In practice, rough cleaning of the lubricant is carried out using filter elements made of metal mesh with a filtration fineness of 60 ... 80 μm. A complex filter element made of non-woven materials is used for fine cleaning. Type of oil filter "FMN" (cleaning accuracy 15 ... 20 microns). However, these filters cannot provide a degree of purification of the spent lubricant, as the latter contains a large amount of carbon contaminants, preferably with a particle size of less than 5 μm. In the process of ultrafiltration of oil, the initial stream is separated and concentrated. Varnish, resin and other small contaminants are retained by the superporous layer on the surface and are continuously washed away by a tangential flow of purified oil. Only cleaned grease can pass through the membrane. This allows for a long filtration process without replacing the membrane filter element. The ultrafiltration process is performed at a pressure of 0.3-1 MPa and a flow rate of 2-5 m/s, using membranes with a size of 0.1-0.005 μm.


2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Soaad M. Elashry ◽  
Shiraz Labib ◽  
Mohamed F. Attallah

Abstract The activated carbon (AC) was modified by molecules of quinoline (Q) and the new prepared AC impregnated by Q was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, surface measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These analytical techniques demonstrated a successful preparation of AC-Q as a new material which was examined for its sorption behavior for natural uranium. The sorption results by batch mode indicated the optimum conditions for 94.5% removal of U(VI) ions at pH 4.7 and an equilibrium contact time of 90 min. The analysis of sorption data revealed that the pseudo-second-order and Langmuir were more fitted than other estimated models. The sorption capacity of U(VI) was ∼63 mg/g onto AC-Q as adsorbent martial. The thermodynamic data demonstrated that the sorption of uranium is endothermic and spontaneous. New mechanism was supposed based on the role of the abrasive material quinoline on the mechanical removal of uranium from aqueous solution.


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