automatic identification
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Suraj Ingle

Abstract: The Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) is a necessary benchmark for all new ships to prevent pollution from ships. MARPOL has also applied the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) to all existing ships. The Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI) provided by SEEMP is used to measure a ship's operational efficiency. The shipowner or operator can make strategic plans, such as routing, hull cleaning, decommissioning, new construction, and so on, by monitoring the EEOI. Fuel Oil Consumption is the most important factor in calculating EEOI (FOC). It is possible to measure it when a ship is in operation. This means that the EEOI of a ship can only be calculated by the shipowner or operator. Other stakeholders, such as the shipbuilding firm and Class, or those who do not have the measured FOC, can assess how efficiently their ships are working relative to other ships if the EEOI can be determined without the real FOC. We present a method to estimate the EEOI without requiring the actual FOC in this paper. The EEOI is calculated using data from the Automatic Identification System (AIS), ship static data, and publicly available environmental data. Big data technologies, notably Hadoop and Spark, are used because the public data is huge. We test the suggested method with real data, and the results show that it can predict EEOI from public data without having to use actual FOC Keywords: Ship operational efficiency, Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI), Fuel Oil Consumption (FOC), Automatic Identification System (AIS), Big data

Rachna Jain ◽  
Deepak Kumar Jain ◽  
Dharana ◽  
Nitika Sharma

Social media can render content circulating to reach millions with a knack to influence people, despite the questionable authencity of the facts. Internet sources are the most convenient and easy approach to obtain any information these days. Fake news has become the topic of interest for academicians and the rest of society. This kind of propaganda has the power to influence the general perception, offering political groups the ability to control the results of democratic affairs such as elections. Automatic identification of fake news has emerged as one of the significant problems due to the high risks involved. It is challenging in a way because of the complexity levels of accurately interpreting the data. An extensive search has already been performed on English language news data. Our work presents a comparative analysis of fake news classifiers on the low resource Bengali language ‘ban fake news’ dataset from Kaggle. The analysis presented compares deep learning techniques such as LSTM (Long short-term Memory) and BiLSTM (Bi-directional Long short-term Memory) and machine learning methods like Naive Bayes, Passive Aggressive Classifier (PAC), and Random Forest. The comparison has been drawn based on classification metrics such as accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score. The deep learning method BiLSTM shows 55.92% accuracy while Random Forest, in contrast, has outperformed all the other methods with an accuracy of 62.37%. The work presented in this paper sets a basis for researchers to select the optimum classifiers for their approach towards fake news detection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 60
Zhihuan Wang ◽  
Chenguang Meng ◽  
Mengyuan Yao ◽  
Christophe Claramunt

Maritime ports are critical logistics hubs that play an important role when preventing the transmission of COVID-19-imported infections from incoming international-going ships. This study introduces a data-driven method to dynamically model infection risks of international ports from imported COVID-19 cases. The approach is based on global Automatic Identification System (AIS) data and a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm that both automatically identifies ports and countries approached by ships and correlates them with country COVID-19 statistics and stopover dates. The infection risk of an individual ship is firstly modeled by considering the current number of COVID-19 cases of the approached countries, increase rate of the new cases, and ship capacity. The infection risk of a maritime port is mainly calculated as the aggregation of the risks of all of the ships stopovering at a specific date. This method is applied to track the risk of the imported COVID-19 of the main cruise ports worldwide. The results show that the proposed method dynamically estimates the risk level of the overseas imported COVID-19 of cruise ports and has the potential to provide valuable support to improve prevention measures and reduce the risk of imported COVID-19 cases in seaports.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Konrad Wolsing ◽  
Linus Roepert ◽  
Jan Bauer ◽  
Klaus Wehrle

The automatic identification system (AIS) was introduced in the maritime domain to increase the safety of sea traffic. AIS messages are transmitted as broadcasts to nearby ships and contain, among others, information about the identification, position, speed, and course of the sending vessels. AIS can thus serve as a tool to avoid collisions and increase onboard situational awareness. In recent years, AIS has been utilized in more and more applications since it enables worldwide surveillance of virtually any larger vessel and has the potential to greatly support vessel traffic services and collision risk assessment. Anomalies in AIS tracks can indicate events that are relevant in terms of safety and also security. With a plethora of accessible AIS data nowadays, there is a growing need for the automatic detection of anomalous AIS data. In this paper, we survey 44 research articles on anomaly detection of maritime AIS tracks. We identify the tackled AIS anomaly types, assess their potential use cases, and closely examine the landscape of recent AIS anomaly research as well as their limitations.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-22
Magdalena I. Asborno ◽  
Sarah Hernandez ◽  
Kenneth N. Mitchell ◽  
Manzi Yves

Abstract Travel demand models (TDMs) with freight forecasts estimate performance metrics for competing infrastructure investments and potential policy changes. Unfortunately, freight TDMs fail to represent non-truck modes with levels of detail adequate for multi-modal infrastructure and policy evaluation. Recent expansions in the availability of maritime movement data, i.e. Automatic Identification System (AIS), make it possible to expand and improve representation of maritime modes within freight TDMs. AIS may be used to track vessel locations as timestamped latitude–longitude points. For estimation, calibration and validation of freight TDMs, this work identifies vessel trips by applying network mapping (map-matching) heuristics to AIS data. The automated methods are evaluated on a 747-mile inland waterway network, with AIS data representing 88% of vessel activity. Inspection of 3820 AIS trajectories was used to train the heuristic parameters including stop time, duration and location. Validation shows 84⋅0% accuracy in detecting stops at ports and 83⋅5% accuracy in identifying trips crossing locks. The resulting map-matched vessel trips may be applied to generate origin–destination matrices, calculate time impedances, etc. The proposed methods are transferable to waterways or maritime port systems, as AIS continues to grow.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 814
Elena Quatrini ◽  
Silvia Colabianchi ◽  
Francesco Costantino ◽  
Massimo Tronci

In the field of industrial process monitoring, scholars and practitioners are increasing interest in time-varying processes , where different phases are implemented within an unknown time frame. The measurement of process parameters could inform about the health state of the production assets, or products, but only if the measured parameters are coupled with the specific phase identification. A combination of values could be common for one phase and uncommon for another phase; thus, the same combination of values shows a high or low probability depending on the specific phase. The automatic identification of the production phase usually relies on clustering techniques. This is largely due to the difficulty of finding training fault data for supervised models. With these two considerations in mind, this contribution proposes the Latent Dirichlet Allocation as a natural language-processing technique for reviewing the topic of clustering applied in time-varying contexts, in the maintenance field. Thus, the paper presents this innovative methodology to analyze this specific research fields, presenting the step-by-step application and its results, with an overview of the theme.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 635
Jeong-Seok Lee ◽  
Ik-Soon Cho

To protect the environment around the world, we are actively developing ecofriendly energy. Offshore wind farm generation installed in the sea is extremely large among various energies, and friction with ships occurs regularly. Other than the traffic designated area and the traffic separate scheme, traffic routes in other sea areas are not protected in Korea. Furthermore, due to increased cargo volume and ship size, there is a risk of collisions with marine facilities and marine pollution. In this study, maritime safety traffic routes that must be preserved are created to ensure the safety of maritime traffic and to prevent accidents with ecofriendly energy projects. To construct maritime traffic routes, the analysis area is divided, and ships are classified using big data. These data are used to estimate density, and 50% maritime traffic is chosen. This result is obtained by categorizing the main route, inner branch route, and outer branch route. The Korean maritime traffic route is constructed, and the width of the route is indicated. Furthermore, this route can be applied as a navigation route for maritime autonomous surface ships.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 252
Lala Chaimae Naciri ◽  
Mariano Mastinu ◽  
Roberto Crnjar ◽  
Iole Tomassini Barbarossa ◽  
Melania Melis

Several studies have used taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) to evaluate interindividual taste variability and its impact on food preferences, nutrition, and health. We used a supervised learning (SL) approach for the automatic identification of the PROP taster categories (super taster (ST); medium taster (MT); and non-taster (NT)) of 84 subjects (aged 18–40 years). Biological features determined from subjects were included for the training system. Results showed that SL enables the automatic identification of objective PROP taster status, with high precision (97%). The biological features were classified in order of importance in facilitating learning and as prediction factors. The ratings of perceived taste intensity for PROP paper disks (50 mM) and PROP solution (3.2 mM), along with fungiform papilla density, were the most important features, and high estimated values pushed toward ST prediction, while low values leaned toward NT prediction. Furthermore, TAS2R38 genotypes were significant features (AVI/AVI, PAV/PAV, and PAV/AVI to classify NTs, STs, and MTs, respectively). These results, in showing that the SL approach enables an automatic, immediate, scalable, and high-precision classification of PROP taster status, suggest that it may represent an objective and reliable tool in taste physiology studies, with applications ranging from basic science and medicine to food sciences.

2022 ◽  
Irfan Tanoli ◽  
Sebastião Pais ◽  
João Cordeiro ◽  
Muhammad Luqman Jamil

Abstract Introduction: Due to the lack of regulation, the large volume of user-generated online content reflects more closely the offline world than official news sources. Therefore, social media platforms have become an attractive space for anyone seeking independent information. One of the main goals of this work is to clarify concepts such as Extremism and Collective Radicalisation, Social Media, Sentiments/Emotions/Opinions Analysis, as well as the combinations of all of them. Methods: The automatic identification of extremism and collective radicalisation requires sophisticated Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods and resources, especially those dealing with opinions, emotions or sentiment analysis. Text mining and knowledge extraction are also crucial, in particular, directed toward social media and micro-blogging. Results: The present document comprehends a study on theoretical material, focusing on the main concepts of the subject, including the main problems and challenges, from the different areas that compose online radicalisation research. Understanding and detecting extremism and collective radicalism online has a connection to sentiment analysis and opinion mining. There are many barriers to understanding extremism and collective radicalisation; one is to differentiate between who is really engaged in the process and who is just eventually talking about it. Conclusions: The other focus of this work is to find the best ways to identify extremism and collective radicalisation on the internet, using sentiment analysis and focusing on probabilistic methods to create an unsupervised and language-independent approach.

Guihua Deng ◽  
Ming Zhong ◽  
Mo Lei ◽  
John Douglas Hunt ◽  
Wanle Wang ◽  

The Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) serves as the main east-west axis of China to promote economic development and environmental protection along the Yangtze River. This paper analyses the factors that affect the freight distribution of major types of cargo transported through the Yangtze River, using data from the automatic identification system (AIS) and ship visa data. First, a set of freight impedance functions are developed for different types of links of the waterway network, by considering a number of factors such as cargo types, delays at ship locks, water levels and flows at different waterway segments and upstream and downstream shipping speeds. Both the distance- and time-based impedance matrices of different types of cargo are computed, respectively. After that, gravity model (GM) and intervening opportunity model (IOM) are estimated to simulate the distribution of different types of cargo based on the computed impedance matrices. Meanwhile, a trip length distribution (TLD) method is applied to validate the estimated distribution models. The results indicate that GM with a power term outperforms other models, and the time-based models are superior to the distance-based ones for the prediction of freight distributions over large geographies like the YREB. This work offers an in-depth understanding of the freight characteristics of inland waterways and therefore it should be helpful for relevant authorities in formulating their port and inland waterway plans and policies.

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