reservoir pressure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 114 ◽  
pp. 103559
Marius Dewar ◽  
Jerry Blackford ◽  
Tony Espie ◽  
Sarah Wilford ◽  
Nicolas Bouffin

2022 ◽  
Josef R. Shaoul ◽  
Jason Park ◽  
Andrew Boucher ◽  
Inna Tkachuk ◽  
Cornelis Veeken ◽  

Abstract The Saih Rawl gas condensate field has been producing for 20 years from multiple fractured vertical wells covering a very thick gross interval with varying reservoir permeability. After many years of production, the remaining reserves are mainly in the lowest permeability upper units. A pilot program using horizontal multi-frac wells was started in 2015, and five wells were drilled, stimulated and tested over a four-year period. The number of stages per horizontal well ranged from 6 to 14, but in all cases production was much less than expected based on the number of stages and the production from offset vertical wells producing from the same reservoir units with a single fracture. The scope of this paper is to describe the work that was performed to understand the reason for the lower than expected performance of the horizontal wells, how to improve the performance, and the implementation of those ideas in two additional horizontal wells completed in 2020. The study workflow was to perform an integrated analysis of fracturing, production and well test data, in order to history match all available data with a consistent reservoir description (permeability and fracture properties). Fracturing data included diagnostic injections (breakdown, step-rate test and minifrac) and main fracture treatments, where net pressure matching was performed. After closure analysis (ACA) was not possible in most cases due to low reservoir pressure and absence of downhole gauges. Post-fracture well test and production matching was performed using 3D reservoir simulation models including local grid refinement to capture fracture dimensions and conductivity. Based on simulation results, the effective propped fracture half-length seen in the post-frac production was extremely small, on the order of tens of meters, in some of the wells. In other wells, the effective fracture half-length was consistent with the created propped half-length, but the fracture conductivity was extremely small (finite conductivity fracture). The problems with the propped fractures appear to be related to a combination of poor proppant pack cleanup, low proppant concentration and small proppant diameter, compounded by low reservoir pressure which has a negative impact on proppant regained permeability after fracturing with crosslinked gel. Key conclusions from this study are that 1) using the same fracture design in a horizontal well with transverse fractures will not give the same result as in a vertical well in the same reservoir, 2) the effect of depletion on proppant pack cleanup in high temperature tight gas reservoirs appears to be very strong, requiring an adjustment in fracture design and proppant selection to achieve reasonable fracture conductivity, and 3) achieving sufficient effective propped length and height is key to economic production.

2022 ◽  
Erfan Mustafa Al lawe ◽  
Adnan Humaidan ◽  
Afolabi Amodu ◽  
Mike Parker ◽  
Oscar Alvarado ◽  

Abstract Zubair formation in West Qurna field, is one of the largest prolific reservoirs comprising of oil bearing sandstone layers interbedded with shale sequences. An average productivity index of 6 STB/D/psi is observed without any types of stimulation treatment. As the reservoir pressure declines from production, a peripheral water injection strategy was planned in both flanks of the reservoir to enhance the existing wells production deliverability. The peripheral injection program was initiated by drilling several injectors in the west flank. Well A1 was the first injector drilled and its reservoir pressure indicated good communication with the up-dip production wells. An injection test was conducted, revealing an estimated injectivity index of 0.06 STB//D/psi. Candidate well was then re-perforated and stimulated with HF/HCl mud acid, however no significant improvement in injectivity was observed due to the complex reservoir mineralogy and heterogeneity associated to the different targeted layers. An extended high-pressure injection test was performed achieving an injectivity index of 0.29 STB/D/psi at 4500 psi. As this performance was sub-optimal, a proppant fracture was proposed to achieve an optimal injection rate. A reservoir-centric fracture model was built, using the petrophysical and geo-mechanical properties from the Zubair formation, with the objective of optimizing the perforation cluster, fracture placement and injectivity performance. A wellhead isolation tool was utilized as wellhead rating was not able to withstand the fracture model surface pressure; downhole gauges were also installed to provide an accurate analysis of the pressure trends. The job commenced with a brine injection test to determine the base-line injectivity profile. The tubing volume was then displaced with a linear gel to perform a step-rate / step-down test. The analysis of the step-rate test revealed the fracture extension pressure, which was set as the maximum allowable injection pressure when the well is put on continuous injection. The step-down test showed significant near wellbore tortuosity with negligible perforation friction. A fracture fluid calibration test was then performed to validate the integrated model leak-off profile, fracture gradient and young’s modulus; via a coupled pressure fall-off and temperature log analysis. Based on the fluid efficiency, the pad volume was adjusted to achieve a tip screen-out. The job was successfully pumped and tip screen-out was achieved after pumping over ~90% of the planned proppant volume. A 7 days post-frac extended injection test was then conducted, achieving an injection rate of 12.5 KBWD at 1300 psi with an injectivity index of 4.2 STB/D/psi. These results proved that the implementation of a reservoir-centric Proppant Fracture treatment, can drastically improve the water injection strategy and field deliverability performance even in good quality rock formations. This first integrated fracture model and water injection field strategy, represents a building platform for further field development optimization plans in Southern Iraq.

2022 ◽  
Cornelis Adrianus Veeken ◽  
Yousuf Busaidi ◽  
Amira Hajri ◽  
Ahmed Mohammed Hegazy ◽  
Hamyar Riyami ◽  

Abstract PDO operates about 200 deep gas wells in the X field in the Sultanate of Oman, producing commingled from the Barik gas-condensate and Miqrat lean gas reservoir completed by multiple hydraulic fracturing. Their inflow performance relation (IPR) is tracked to diagnose condensate damage, hydraulic fracture cleanup and differential reservoir pressure depletion. The best IPR data is collected through multi-rate production logging but surface production data serves as an alternative. This paper describes the process of deriving IPR's from production logging and surface production data, and then evaluates 20 years of historic IPR data to quantify the impact of condensate damage and condensate cleanup with progressive reservoir pressure depletion, to demonstrate the massive damage and slow cleanup of hydraulic fractures placed in depleted reservoirs, to show how hydraulic fractures facilitate the vertical cross-flow between isolated reservoir intervals, and to highlight that stress-dependent permeability does not play a major role in this field.

2022 ◽  
Mark Norris ◽  
Marc Langford ◽  
Charlotte Giraud ◽  
Reginald Stanley ◽  
Steve Ball

Abstract Hydraulic fracturing has been well established in the Southern North Sea (SNS) since the mid-1980s; however, it has typically been conducted as the final phase of development in new gas fields. One of these fields is Chiswick located in the Greater Markham area 90 miles offshore UK in 130 ft of water. Following an unsuccessful well repair of the multi-fractured horizontal well C4, it was decided to cost-effectively and expediently exploit the remaining pressure-depleted reserves near the toe via a single large fracture initiated from a deviated sidetrack wellbore designated C6. A deviated wellbore was chosen versus the original near-horizontal well to reduce well risk and costs and ultimately deliver an economic well. Several key challenges were identified, and mitigating measures were put in place. Modular formation dynamics tester data from the sidetrack open hole indicated the reservoir pressure gradient had depleted to 0.23 to 0.25 psi/ft, raising concerns about the ability of the well to unload the fluid volumes associated with a large fracture treatment. Wellbore deviation and azimuth with the associated potential for near-wellbore tortuosity would drive a typically short perforation interval (i.e., 3 ft). However, a compromise to mitigate convergent pressure loss in depletion was required, and the perforation interval was therefore set at 14 ft with provision made for robust step-down tests (SDT) and multi-mesh sand slugs. To further offset any near-well convergence pressure drop during cleanup, an aggressive tip screenout (TSO) proppant schedule, including a high concentration tail-in (12 PPA) with an aggressive breaker schedule, was executed to fully develop propped hydraulic width. Following formation breakdown and SDT to 40 bbl/min, the well went on near-instantaneous vacuum. Clearly, an extremely conductive feature had been created or contacted. However, upon use of a robust crosslinked gel formulation and 100-mesh sand, the bottomhole and positive surface pressure data allowed a suitable fracture design to be refined and placed with a large width, as evidenced by the extreme 2,309-psi net pressure development over that of the pad stage while placing 500,500 lbm of 16/30 resin-coated (RC) intermediate strength proppant (ISP) to 12 PPA. Although a lengthy nitrogen lift by coiled tubing (CT) was planned, the well cleanup response in fact allowed unaided hydrocarbon gas flow to surface within a short period. The well was then further beaned-up under well test conditions to a flow rate of approximately 26 MMscf/D under critical flowing conditions with a higher bottomhole flowing pressure than that of the original C4 well. Given the last producing rate of the original multiple fractured horizontal wellbore was 27 MMscf/D at a drawdown of 1,050 psi through two separate hydraulic fractures, then the outcome of this well was judged to be highly successful and at the limit of predrill expectations. This case history explains and details the rationale, methods, and techniques employed in well C6 to address the challenge of successful hydraulic fracture stimulation in a depleted formation. Challenges were addressed by combining a number of techniques, coupled with field experience, resulting in a highly productive well despite the relatively low reservoir pressure coupled with a limited time frame to plan and execute. These techniques are transferrable to other offshore gas fields in the region where reservoir depletion makes economic recovery difficult or indeed prohibitive.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
Moataz Mansi ◽  
Mohamed Almobarak ◽  
Christopher Lagat ◽  
Quan Xie

AbstractAdsorbed gas plays a key role in organic-rich shale gas production due to its potential to contribute up to 60% of the total gas production. The amount of gas potentially adsorbed on organic-rich shale is controlled by thermal maturity, total organic content (TOC), and reservoir pressure. Whilst those factors have been extensively studied in literature, the factors governing desorption behaviour have not been elucidated, presenting a substantial impediment in managing and predicting the performance of shale gas reservoirs. Therefore, in this paper, a simulation study was carried out to examine the effect of reservoir depth and TOC on the contribution of adsorbed gas to shale gas production. The multi-porosity and multi-permeability model, hydraulic fractures, and local grid refinements were incorporated in the numerical modelling to simulate gas storage and transient behaviour within matrix and fracture regions. The model was then calibrated using core data analysis from literature for Barnett shales. Sensitivity analysis was performed on a range of reservoir depth and TOC to quantify and investigate the contribution of adsorbed gas to total gas production. The simulation results show the contribution of adsorbed gas to shale gas production decreases with increasing reservoir depth regardless of TOC. In contrast, the contribution increases with increasing TOC. However, the impact of TOC on the contribution of adsorbed gas production becomes minor with increasing reservoir depth (pressure). Moreover, the results suggest that adsorbed gas may contribute up to 26% of the total gas production in shallow (below 4,000 feet) shale plays. These study findings highlight the importance of Langmuir isothermal behaviour in shallow shale plays and enhance understanding of desorption behaviour in shale reservoirs; they offer significant contributions to reaching the target of net-zero CO2 emissions for energy transitions by exhibiting insights in the application of enhanced shale gas recovery and CO2 sequestration — in particular, the simulation results suggest that CO2 injection into shallow shale reservoirs rich in TOC, would give a much better performance to unlock the adsorbed gas and sequestrate CO2 compared to deep shales.

Geofluids ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Lixia Zhang ◽  
Yong Li ◽  
Xinmin Song ◽  
Mingxian Wang ◽  
Yang Yu ◽  

The estimation of reserves and performance prediction are two vital tasks for the development of gas reservoirs where the evaluation of gas in place or well-controlled reserves, as the foundation of the performance analysis of gas wells, turns to be exceedingly significant. Advanced production data analysis or modern rate transient analysis (RTA) methods mainly depend on the iterative calculations of material balance quasitime ( t ca ) and type curve fitting, the essence of which is to update the average reservoir pressure data time and again. The traditional Arps’ decline models are of empirical nature despite the convenience and applicability to the constant bottomhole pressure (BHP) condition. In order to avoid the implicit iteration, this paper develops an explicit method for estimating the average reservoir pressure on the basis of dynamic material balance equation (DMBE), termed “flow integral method,” which can be applied to various gas production systems under boundary-dominated flow (BDF). Based on the flow integral method and the decline parameter evaluation, we employ the hyperbolic decline model to model the gas well performance at a constant BHP. The analytical formulations of decline rate and decline exponent are deduced from the DMBE and the static material balance equation (SMBE) considering the elastic compressibilities of rock pore and bound water. The resulting decline parameter method for explicit estimation of gas reserves boasts a solid and rigorous theory foundation that production rate, decline rate, and average reservoir pressure profiles have reference to each other, and its implementation steps are explained in the paper. The SMBE can, combined with the estimated pressure profile by the flow integral method, also be used to determine gas reserves which is not limited to the constant-BHP condition and can calibrate the estimates of the decline parameter method. The proposed methods are proven effective and reliable with several numerical cases at different BHPs and a field example.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Dianzhu Gao ◽  
Jun Peng ◽  
Yunyou Lu ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  
Yingze Yang ◽  

Normal operation of the pressure sensor is important for the safe operation of the locomotive electro-pneumatic brake system. Sensor fault diagnosis technology facilitates detection of sensor health. However, the strong nonlinearity and variable process noise of the brake system make the sensor fault diagnosis become challenging. In this paper, an adaptive unscented Kalman filter- (UKF-) based fault diagnosis strategy is proposed, aimed at detecting bias faults and drift faults of the equalizing reservoir pressure sensor in the brake system. Firstly, an adaptive UKF based on the Sage-Husa method is applied to accurately estimate the pressure transients in the equalizing reservoir of the brake system. Then, the residual is generated between the estimated pressure by the UKF and the measured pressure by the sensor. Afterwards, the Sequential Probability Ratio Test is used to evaluate the residual so that the incipient and gradual sensor faults can be diagnosed. An experimental prototype platform for diagnosis of the equalizing reservoir pressure control system is constructed to validate the proposed method.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Zhongshuai Chen ◽  
Hongjian Ni ◽  
Zhiqi Sun ◽  
Shiping Zhang ◽  
Qisong Wang

Well test analysis is required during the extraction of oil and gas wells. The information on formation parameters can be inverted by measuring the change in wellbore pressure at production start-up or after well shutdown. In order to calculate the characteristic parameters of the well, this paper creates a well test interpretation model for homogeneous reservoirs based on the theory of seepage mechanics, uses the Stehfest–Laplace inversion numerical inversion algorithm, and builds the Gringarten–Bourdet logarithmic curves model. The model can be used to evaluate the homogeneous reservoir. We use this model to design the pressure inversion interpretation software to implement a pressure inversion method based on permeability mechanics theory by using computer. The software can obtain the reservoir characteristic parameters such as permeability ( K ), skin coefficient ( S ), and wellbore storage coefficient ( C ). The homogeneous formation Gringarten–Bourdet curves data are available at

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