mixed group
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 558-563
Boxian Zhao ◽  
Weiguo Zhu

Multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed in gastric cancer (GC). Herein, this study aims to investigate miR-455’s role in GC and its mechanism. Exosomes (exo) separated from BMSCs after transfection were co-cultured with either phagocytes, GC cells (NCI-N87 cell), or macrophages combined with NCI-N87cells (mixed group) followed by analysis of the expression of PTEN, N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and PI3K, and AKT by RT-qPCR and Western blot. Increased miR-455 expression was observed in GC cells upon transfection. GC cells in the mixed group relative to NCI-N87 group exhibited a lower cell migration and invasion and impaired proliferative capacity (p < 0.05), accompanied with higher expressions of N-cadherin, E-cadherin, PI3K, and AKT, and decreased level of PTEN (p < 0.05). The combined treatment resulted in a higher phagocytic rate (12.38±0.21%) and phagocytic index (14.29±2.11%) compared to treatment with only phagocytes (p < 0.05). In conclusion, BMSC-derived exosomal miR-455 inhibits the growth of GC cells and promotes the phagocytosis through inactivating PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

Vitaliy G. Rodionov

S.M. Mikhailov (Yandush) distinguished two ethnographic groups and two dialects of the Chuvash ethnos. The scientist attributed the population of Kozmodemyansky and the northern part of Yadrinsky uyezds to the upper (Virjal) Chuvash, and that of Tsivisky and Cheboksary uyezds of Kazan province – to the lower (Anatri) ones. Starting with the works of G.I. Komissarov, a third (middle-level) group began to be allocated from the lower group. According to the scientist, the Chuvash, being a separate community of Turkic-speaking peoples, used to live in Zakamye, where they had migrated from Siberia. He developed the Turkic-Bulgarian theory of the Chuvash language origin and the main ethnographic groups (middle lower and lower) of the Chuvash ethnos. He considered the upper dialect to be a mixed group, in whose culture, in addition to Turkic-Bulgar elements he found many elements of the Finno-Ugrians (the mountain Mari and the Mordvins-Erzya), and partly Kazan Tatars. Prior to annexation of the Chuvash Region to the Moscow state, two ethnographic groups of the mountain Chuvash functioned on the right bank of the Volga – the upper and the middle lower. After settling the southern steppe regions, in the process of cultural dialogue with the Mishar Tatars, a third ethnographic group was formed, known to the middle lower Chuvash as the khirti “steppe”. In Modern times, the geographical location of the ethnographic groups of the Chuvash ethnos contributed to penetration of the ideas of the European-Russian Enlightenment in the Chuvash Region (from the western territories to the eastern and southern ones). In the 1950s of the XX century the ideas of the Chuvash enlightenment were first formulated by S.M. Mikhailov, and later they began to spread in the academic circles of the entire Volga region. His works remain a valuable source for identifying the adaptive scheme of the ethnos, which the Chuvash built by localizing the “evil” principle outside of themselves, their society, ethnos.

Symmetry ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Beatriz Estalayo-Gutiérrez ◽  
María José Álvarez-Pasquín ◽  
Francisco Germain

The objective of this work is to confirm the asymmetry in non-linguistic auditory perception, as well as the influence of anxiety-depressive disorders on it. Eighty-six people were recruited in the emotional well-being group, fifty-six in the anxiety group, fourteen in the depression group, and seventy-seven in the mixed group. In each group, audiograms were obtained from both ears and the differences were statistically analyzed. Differences in hearing sensitivity were found between both ears in the general population, such differences increased in people with anxiety-depressive disorders. When faced with anxiety-depressive disorders, the right ear suffered greater hearing loss than the left, showing peaks of hyper-hearing at the frequency of 4000 Hz in the anxiety subgroup, and hearing loss in the depression subgroup. In relation to anxiety, the appearance of the 4:8 pattern was observed in the right ear when the person had suffered acute stress in the 2 days prior to the audiometry, and in both ears if they had suffered stress in the 3–30 days before said stress. In conclusion, the advantage of the left ear in auditory perception was increased with these disorders, showing a hyperaudition peak in anxiety and a hearing loss in depression.

Aixiu An ◽  
Anne Abeillé

Abstract Contrary to most French grammars claiming that French only allows masculine agreement when mixed-gender nouns are conjoined, we show that closest conjunct agreement (CCA) does exist in contemporary French, as in other Romance languages, and is the preferred strategy for prenominal adjectives. Using data from a large corpus (FrWac) and an acceptability rating experiment, we show that (feminine) CCA is well accepted in contemporary French, and should be distinguished from attraction errors, despite the norm prescribing masculine agreement. We also show the role of the adjective position, i.e. prenominal or post-nominal, and humanness. CCA is the preferred strategy for prenominal adjectives, and non-human nouns favour CCA for post-nominal adjectives. Assuming a hierarchical structure for coordination, the closest noun is the highest in A-N order, whereas it is the lowest in N-A order. Thus CCA in prenominal position may be favoured by a shorter structural distance. One can also see CCA with a prenominal adjective as ‘early’ agreement. Regarding humanness, grammatical gender is interpreted as social gender with human nouns, and a masculine plural can refer to a mixed group. This ‘gender neutral’ plural may favour masculine agreement for human nouns, or the prescriptive norm is more influential for human nouns.

2021 ◽  
Olajide Joseph Afolabi ◽  
Rosena Olubanke Oluwafemi ◽  
Mobolanle Oladipo Oniya

Abstract Background: Malaria is a major public health concern in some part of the world especially in the tropical Africa where children are more vulnerable. The occurrence of resistant gene in Plasmodium falciparum to some antimalarial drugs could increase the malaria morbidity and mortality among the children. The study evaluates the distribution of P. falciparum resistant kelch protein gene on chromosome 13 (PfKelch 13) and multidrug resistant (Pfmdr1) mutant genes among children aged five years and below who attended Mother and Child Hospital, Akure, Nigeria. Methods: Thin and thick smears were prepared from the blood collected aseptically through venepuncture from five hundred (500) children (age 5years and below). Two hundred (200) malaria positive samples were randomly selected from the 500 samples for PCR analysis to detect Pfmdr1 and Kelch 13 mutant genes from the positive samples. Discussion: The results showed that of the 500 respondents who gave their consent to participate in the study, 288 (57.6%) were males while 212 (42.4%) were females. The distribution of Pfmdr1 are; mixed group (mutant/wild) 38.5% (77/200), mutant gene 35.5% (71/200), wild gene 20.5% (41/200) and the resistant genes were absent in 5.5% (11/200) of the infected children. The mixed group of Pfmdr1 gene was higher among infants (51.9%), male (44.3%), children with birth order 4 (60.0%) and children that have blood group B (51.3%), however, there is no significant difference in the distribution of Pfmdr1 between gender (χ2 = 0.634, df = 1, p>0.05). There was a point mutation in the codon position 557 where the amino acid Alanine was replaced by Serine in the PfK13. The research revealed high prevalence of Pfmdr1 mutant genes and point mutation in the PfK13 gene of P. falciparum among children which may be as a result of treatment of malaria with different antimalarial drugs which the parasite has developed resistance against. It is therefore important to administer other malaria drugs apart from the drugs the parasite has developed resistance against.

2021 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 293-303
T. O. Rudych

Cemetery of Chernyakhiv culture near the Velyka Buhaivka village was excavated in 1995—2005 by an expedition of O. V. Petrauskas and R. G. Shishkin. During the excavations the anthropological material was obtained. The male series is characterized by a medium-long, narrow, medium-high, dolichocranial cranium. The face is short, narrow, mesognathic. Horizontal face profiling is sharp. Orbits are medium high, the nose is medium wide. The angle of the nasal bones is on the border of medium and large values. The nose is of medium height. According to the results of statistical analysis, the group from Velyka Buhaivka is close to the series from the cemeteries of Romashki, Kurnyky, Ranzheve. The group is closer to the series of Welbark culture Maslomench, Grudek, a bit closer to the Welbark mixed series of the Lower Vistula, than to individual series of Chernyakhiv culture from the territory of Ukraine. The female group is characterized by a long, medium-wide on the border with a wide, medium-high, dolichokranny cranium. The face is medium-wide and medium-high, orthognathic. The orbits were medium high, the nose was medium wide. Horizontal profiling of the face at the upper level is on the border of sharp and moderate, its profiling at the zygomaxillary level is sharp. The angle of the nasal bones is medium, the epiglottis is medium high. According to the results of the analysis, the women’s series from Velyka Buhaivka is closest to the women from Chernyakhiv, Zhuravka, Popivka. From the groups of Polish Welbark culture the mixed group of Slovinsko-Drawska is close to the women from Velyka Buhaivka. The dolichocranium narrow-faced type was dominant in people buried by inhumation. It is recorded in the people buried in the graves accompanied by the grave goods of the phase C2, C2—C3, D1. This type is present both in burials directed with the head to the North, and to the West.

PJ Gariscsak ◽  
H Braund ◽  
F Haji

Background: Simulation-based educations’ prevalence within clinical neuroscience is on the rise, however investigation into what environment is most conducive to optimizing learning performance is limited. We aimed to determine whether training a simple-to-complex (progressive) sequence would result in superior learning compared to complex-to-simple (mixed) or complex-only sequences. Methods: A three-arm, prospective, randomised experiment was conducted to determine the effects on novice learner LP performance and cognitive load during learning and a very complex simulated reality assessment test 9-11 days later. Results: During learning, sterility breaches decreased linearly over time (p<.01) with no group differences, and accuracy was higher in the progressive group compared to complex-only (p<.01) and trended in the mixed group (p<.09). Across the learning phase cognitive load increased in the progressive group (p<.01) and decreased across the mixed group (p<.01). At assessment, there were no group differences in number of sterility breaches (p=.66), needle passes (p=.68) or cognitive load (p=.25). Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, equivocal assessment performance was found across groups. Our results suggest that successive progression in complexity of simulation does not increase novice learner outcomes. Further, a “one-size fits all” approach to simulated environment complexity in clinical neurosciences education may be warranted given equivocal learning and less resources necessary.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Shengnan Zhao ◽  
Xu Zhang ◽  
Yaling Zhou ◽  
Hao Xu ◽  
Yuwei Li ◽  

Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that bipolar disorder is closely related to thyroid dysfunction. Psychiatric drugs have a large or small effect on thyroid function, and thyroid hormone levels can also affect the effect of drug treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this study is assessment the thyroid function of drug-naive bipolar disorder across different mood states, with the expectation of providing support for treatment options. Methods The present study is a cross-sectional study. Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic Criteria, Edition 10 (ICD 10) and who had never received medication were included in the study. The Montgomery Depression Scale (MADRS) was used to assess depressive symptoms and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) for manic symptoms. Thyroid function indicators include thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and total thyroxine (TT4). Levels of TSH, TT4, FT4, TT3, and FT3 were measured within 48 h of hospitalization, between 06:00 and 08:00. Results The data analysis finally covered the data of 291 subjects (136 in a bipolar manic group, 128 in a bipolar depressive group, and 27 in a bipolar mixed group), including 140 males and 151 females, with an average age of 27.38 ± 8.01. There was no significant difference in age, sex, marital status, work status, family history, and course of illness among the manic group, depressive group, and mixed group. The level of FT3, the rate of thyroid hormone increased secretion, and the total abnormality rate of thyroid hormone secretion in the manic group were significantly higher than those in the depressive group. Conclusion These findings indicate that thyroid functions were significantly different between depressive and manic episodes in BD patients. In clinical practice, it is necessary to take into account the differences in thyroid hormone levels in patients with BD across different emotional states in choosing drug.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Cátia Figueiredo ◽  
Patricia Valerio ◽  
Teofilo Yan ◽  
Helena Sousa ◽  
Mário Góis ◽  

Abstract Background and Aims In 2010 a new histopatological classification for ANCA-associated GN (ANCA GN) was developed – the Berden classification. It is composed of four categories – focal, crescentic, sclerotic and mixed - based on the predominance (≥50%) of normal glomeruli, cellular crescents, and globally sclerotic glomeruli, respectively. The mixed category, related to an intermediate renal outcome, has no glomerular feature predominating. Our aim was to evaluate other histopathological characteristics that could be significant in the mixed group and their impact on survival and renal outcome. Method This is a multi-center retrospective observational study which included patients with ANCA GN who were submitted to kidney biopsy at the time of clinical diagnosis, between 2013 and 2018. Several histopathological data were analysed, including percentage of cellular, fibrocellular and fibrous crescents; presence of fibrinoid necrosis, interstitial hemorrhage, tubular atrophy ant interstitial fibrosis. Clinical data such as need of dialysis at presentation and death, during a 2 year follow up period, were also examined. The patients were classified accordingly to the histopathological Berden classification. For statistical analysis purposes they were divided in two groups: mixed and non-mixed. Categorical variables are presented as frequencies and percentages, continuous variables as means and standard deviations, or medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) for variables with skewed distributions. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 25 for Windows. Results We observed 51 ANCA GN kidney biopsies: 68.5% (n=35) from mixed, 11.8% (n=6) from crescentic and sclerotic and 7.8% (n=4) from focal category. In average, the biopsies contained 10.4±4.8 glomeruli. The percentage of fibrous crescents was significantly higher in mixed than non-mixed group (16.1±18.6% vs 7.2±17.9%; p=0.037). Although not statistically significant, the percentage of fibrocellular crescents was higher (10.3±20.9 vs 6.2±12.5; p=0.512) and the percentage of cellular crescents was lower (15.4±18.2 vs 34.3±37.7; p=0.072) in mixed group. The presence of fibrinoid necrosis (54.3% vs 87.5%; p=0.021) and fibrinoid necrosis with cellular crescents (34.3% vs 68.8%; p=0.022) were both lower in mixed category. There was no difference in the need of dialysis at presentation between both groups, but the percentage of fibrous crescents was a predictor of dialysis induction at admission in all cases [p=0.009; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.053 (CI: 1.013–1.096)]. Deaths were significantly higher in mixed group (34.3% vs 6.3%; p=0.033). Conclusion There are other morphological aspects that seem to be relevant in the characterization of different histological classes of ANCA GN. Having more chronic lesions, like the percentage of fibrous crescents, and a less frequency of acute lesions, such as fibrinoid necrosis, proved to be relevant in the mixed group and may be associated to the higher mortality in this class. Besides, the percentage of fibrous crescents was itself a predictor of the need of dialysis, which highlights the importance of assess other characteristics, in addition to those included in the current ANCA GN classification. However, further studies and larger samples are needed to evaluate better the importance of other morphological features in this classification and their influence on survival and renal outcome of these patients.

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