interstitial fibrosis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yinchuan Li ◽  
Panpan Mi ◽  
Jiabao Wu ◽  
Yunge Tang ◽  
Xiaohua Liu ◽  

Leydig cells (Lc), located in the interstitial space of the testis between seminiferous tubules, produce 95% of testosterone in male individuals, which is pivotal for male sexual differentiation, spermatogenesis, and maintenance of the male secondary sex characteristics. Lc are prone to senescence in aging testes, resulting in compromised androgen synthesis capability upon aging. However, little is known about whether Lc undergo senescence in a chronic inflammatory environment. To investigate this question, mouse models of experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) were used, and Lc were analyzed by high throughput scRNA-Seq. Data were screened and analyzed by correlating signaling pathways with senescence, apoptosis, androgen synthesis, and cytokine/chemokine signaling pathways. EAO did induce Lc senescence, and Lc senescence in turn antagonized androgen synthesis. Based on the correlation screening of pathways inducing Lc senescence, a plethora of pathways were found to play potential roles in triggering Lc senescence during EAO, among which the Arf6 and angiopoietin receptor pathways were highly correlated with senescence signature. Notably, complement and interstitial fibrosis activated by EAO worsened Lc senescence and strongly antagonized androgen synthesis. Furthermore, most proinflammatory cytokines enhanced both senescence and apoptosis in Lc and spermatogonia (Sg) during EAO, and proinflammatory cytokine antagonism of the glutathione metabolism pathway may be key in inducing cellular senescence during EAO.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Darukeshwara Joladarashi ◽  
Yanan Zhu ◽  
Matthew Willman ◽  
Kevin Nash ◽  
Maria Cimini ◽  

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by microvascular pathology and interstitial fibrosis that leads to progressive heart failure. The mechanisms underlying DCM pathogenesis remain obscure, and no effective treatments for the disease have been available. In the present study, we observed that STK35, a novel kinase, is decreased in the diabetic human heart. High glucose treatment, mimicking hyperglycemia in diabetes, downregulated STK35 expression in mouse cardiac endothelial cells (MCEC). Knockdown of STK35 attenuated MCEC proliferation, migration, and tube formation, whereas STK35 overexpression restored the high glucose-suppressed MCEC migration and tube formation. Angiogenesis gene PCR array analysis revealed that HG downregulated the expression of several angiogenic genes, and this suppression was fully restored by STK35 overexpression. Intravenous injection of AAV9-STK35 viral particles successfully overexpressed STK35 in diabetic mouse hearts, leading to increased vascular density, suppression of fibrosis in the heart, and amelioration of left ventricular function. Altogether, our results suggest that hyperglycemia downregulates endothelial STK35 expression, leading to microvascular dysfunction in diabetic hearts, representing a novel mechanism underlying DCM pathogenesis. Our study also emerges STK35 is a novel gene therapeutic target for preventing and treating DCM.

Cell Cycle ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Langtao Hu ◽  
Kai Yang ◽  
Xing Mai ◽  
Jiali Wei ◽  
Chunyang Ma

Pharmacology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Huihui Hu ◽  
Caipeng Xie ◽  
Zeping Weng ◽  
Pei Yu ◽  
Yuqiang Wang ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antitumor agent, has been widely used against various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. However, the clinical application of DOX is restricted by its multiple organ toxicity including nephrotoxicity. This study investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of dexrazoxane (DZR) against DOX-induced nephropathy in rats. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Male Sprague Dawley rats received 2.5 mg/kg DOX once a week for 5 consecutive weeks. 24-h urinary protein and renal function injury biomarkers were determined to evaluate the renal function. Histopathological changes and glomerulosclerosis were examined by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. The change of renal ultrastructure in the DOX-induced rats was observed by the electron microscopy. The renal apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining and measured the protein expression of Caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax. Renal interstitial fibrosis was determined by Masson staining and immunohistochemistry examination. The levels of vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in kidney tissue were detected by Western blot. <b><i>Results:</i></b> DZR pretreatment markedly raised the survival rate and improved the renal dysfunction in DOX-treated rats. DZR ameliorated DOX-induced histopathological lesion of glomerular and tubular and apoptosis. DZR restored the oxidant/antioxidant balance via regulating the levels of MDA, SOD, and TAC. DZR reduced DOX-induced collagen IV deposition and renal interstitial fibrosis and downregulated the fibrosis-related protein expressions of vimentin, α-SMA, and TGF-β1. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our results suggest DZR exerted its protective effects against DOX-induced nephropathy through inhibition of lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and fibrosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
L. Leonie van Leeuwen ◽  
Henri G. D. Leuvenink ◽  
Peter Olinga ◽  
Mitchel J. R. Ruigrok

Great efforts have been made toward addressing the demand for donor kidneys. One of the most promising approaches is to use kidneys from donation after circulatory death donors. These kidneys, however, suffer from more severe ischemia and reperfusion injury than those obtained via donation after brain death and are thus more prone to develop interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Even though machine perfusion is increasingly used to reduce ischemia and reperfusion injury, there are no effective treatments available to ameliorate interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, forcing patients to resume dialysis, undergo re-transplantation, or suffer from premature death. Safe and effective anti-fibrotic therapies are therefore greatly desired. We propose a new therapeutic approach in which machine perfusion solutions are supplemented with anti-fibrotic compounds. This allows the use of higher concentrations than those used in humans whilst eliminating side effects in other organs. To the authors' knowledge, no one has reviewed whether such an approach could reduce interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy; we therefore set out to explore its merit. In this review, we first provide background information on ischemia and reperfusion injury as well as interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, after which we describe currently available approaches for preserving donor kidneys. We then present an evaluation of selected compounds. To identify promising compounds, we analyzed publications describing the effects of anti-fibrotic molecules in precision-cut kidneys slices, which are viable explants that can be cultured ex vivo for up to a few days whilst retaining functional and structural features. LY2109761, galunisertib, imatinib, nintedanib, and butaprost were shown to exert anti-fibrotic effects in slices within a relatively short timeframe (&lt;48 h) and are therefore considered to be excellent candidates for follow-up ex vivo machine perfusion studies.

Masahito Watanabe ◽  
Kazuhiro Umeyama ◽  
Kazuaki Nakano ◽  
Hitomi Matsunari ◽  
Toru Fukuda ◽  

AbstractAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disease, manifesting as the progressive development of fluid-filled renal cysts. In approximately half of all patients with ADPKD, end-stage renal disease results in decreased renal function. In this study, we used CRISPR-Cas9 and somatic cell cloning to produce pigs with the unique mutation c.152_153insG (PKD1insG/+). Pathological analysis of founder cloned animals and progeny revealed that PKD1insG/+ pigs developed many pathological conditions similar to those of patients with heterozygous mutations in PKD1. Pathological similarities included the formation of macroscopic renal cysts at the neonatal stage, number and cystogenic dynamics of the renal cysts formed, interstitial fibrosis of the renal tissue, and presence of a premature asymptomatic stage. Our findings demonstrate that PKD1insG/+ pigs recapitulate the characteristic symptoms of ADPKD.

2022 ◽  
Zhuo-yue Song ◽  
Mengru Zhu ◽  
Jun Wu ◽  
Tian Yu ◽  
Yao Chen ◽  

The effects of Cucumaria frondosa polysaccharides (CFP) on renal interstitial fibrosis via regulating phosphatidylinositol-3-hydroxykinase/protein kinase-B/Nuclear factor-κB (PI3K/AKT/NF-κB) signaling pathway were investigated in vivo and in vitro in this research. A...

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. e000576
Shudan Wang ◽  
Ming Wu ◽  
Luis Chiriboga ◽  
Briana Zeck ◽  
Beatrice Goilav ◽  

IntroductionTreatment failures for lupus nephritis (LN) are high with 10%–30% of patients progressing to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within 10 years. Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) is a predictor of progression to ESRD. Prior studies suggest that tubulointerstitial injury secondary to proteinuria in LN is mediated by complement activation in the tubules, specifically through the membrane attack complex (MAC). This study aimed to investigate the associations between tubular MAC deposition with IFTA and proteinuria.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, LN kidney biopsies were assessed for MAC deposition by staining for Complement C9, a component of the MAC. Chromogenic immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded human renal biopsy sections using unconjugated, murine anti-human Complement C9 (Hycult Biotech, clone X197). Tubular C9 staining intensity was analysed as present versus absent. IFTA was defined as minimal (<10%), mild (10%–24%), moderate (25%–50%) and severe (>50%).ResultsRenal biopsies from 30 patients with LN were studied. There were 24 (80%) female sex, mean age (SD) was 33 (12) years old and 23 (77%) had pure/mixed proliferative LN. Tubular C9 staining was present in 7 (23%) biopsies. 27 patients had minimal-to-mild IFTA and 3 patients had moderate IFTA. Among the C9 + patients, 3 (43%) had moderate IFTA as compared with none in the C9- group, p=0.009. C9 + patients had higher median (IQR) proteinuria as compared with C9- patients: 6.2 g (3.3–13.1) vs 2.4 g (1.3–4.6), p=0.001 at the time of biopsy. There was no difference in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between the C9 + and C9- groups.ConclusionThis study demonstrated that tubular MAC deposition is associated with higher degree of IFTA and proteinuria, which are predictors of progression to ESRD. These results suggest that tubular MAC deposition may be useful in classification of LN. Understanding the role of complement in tubulointerstitial injury will also identify new avenues for LN treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-5
Yuling LIANG ◽  
Yan LEI ◽  
Jiaqi XU ◽  
Liqi HUANG ◽  
Lian LIN ◽  

Interstitial lung disease is often a serious complication of connective tissue disease(CTD), representing the first cause of death in CTD. However, there are few reports of SSc-RA overlap-associated interstitial pneumonia. Respiratory dysfunction as the first clinical manifestation is even rarely reported. We herein described a case of a male patient who developed significant respiratory dysfunction as the principal clinical sign for the past 6 months, plus newly developed skin thickening in bilateral upper limbs and pain and swelling of multiple joints for the past 6 weeks. Extensive immunological screening showed high titer of antinuclear antibodies(ANA), rheumatoid factor(RF), anti-cyclic peptide containing citrulline (anti-CCP),and positive anti-Scl-70 antibody. Chest high resolution computed tomography(HRCT) was performed and hence ILD was confirmed. Pulmonary function test (PFT) revealed obstructive ventilatory dysfunction rather than restrictive ventilatory dysfunction. So bronchodilation test was performed and asthma was considered. Finally, after a multidisciplinary team (MDT) discussion, the diagnosis of asthma and ILD associated with SSc-RA overlap was established. It is important to note that CTD associated pulmonary interstitial fibrosis must be considered as the differential diagnosis of any newly diagnosed interstitial pulmonary disease. In addition, if patient with dyspnea is highly suspicious of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis, bronchodilation test is still needed to exclude asthma in order to avoid misdiagnosis.

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