Emotional States
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Müslüm Atas ◽  
Alexander Felfernig ◽  
Seda Polat-Erdeniz ◽  
Andrei Popescu ◽  
Thi Ngoc Trang Tran ◽  

AbstractUser preferences are a crucial input needed by recommender systems to determine relevant items. In single-shot recommendation scenarios such as content-based filtering and collaborative filtering, user preferences are represented, for example, as keywords, categories, and item ratings. In conversational recommendation approaches such as constraint-based and critiquing-based recommendation, user preferences are often represented on the semantic level in terms of item attribute values and critiques. In this article, we provide an overview of preference representations used in different types of recommender systems. In this context, we take into account the fact that preferences aren’t stable but are rather constructed within the scope of a recommendation process. In which way preferences are determined and adapted is influenced by various factors such as personality traits, emotional states, and cognitive biases. We summarize preference construction related research and also discuss aspects of counteracting cognitive biases.

2021 ◽  
Progress Test Medizin Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin ◽  
Victoria Sehy ◽  
Iván Roselló Atanet ◽  
Miriam Sieg ◽  
Jana Struzena ◽  

Abstract Background The COVID-19 pandemic has been the source of many challenges for medical students worldwide. The authors examined short-term effects on knowledge gain as well as shifts in learning behavior and study-related emotional states.Method The development of knowledge gain was measured comparing the outcomes of shared questions within Progress Test (PT) pairs. The authors used mixed-effect regression models and compared the absolute variations in the percentage of correct answers per subject. Three successive test pairs were analyzed in this manner: PT36-PT41 (both conducted before the pandemic), PT37-PT42 (PT37 took place before the pandemic; PT42 was conducted from April 2020 onwards) and PT38-PT43 (PT38 was administered before the pandemic; PT43 started in November 2020). A survey including closed and open-ended questions was also carried out in January 2021 with the purpose of assessing the learning behavior and emotional state of participants. Open-ended responses were analyzed using Latent Dirichlet Allocation. Results The most recent test of each PT-pair showed a higher mean score compared to the previous test in the same pair (PT36-PT41: 2.53 (95% CI: 1.31-3.75), PT37-PT42: 3.72 (2.57-4.88), PT38-PT43: 5.59 (4.37-6-81)). Analogously, an increase in the share of correct answers was observed for most medical disciplines, with Epidemiology showing the most remarkable upsurge.N=2,715 students from eleven different German-speaking faculties participated in the survey. Respondents were mostly positive towards online lectures, which were perceived as clearly beneficial, allowing for more time and flexibility. On the other hand, the suspension of practical lessons and alleged communicational and organizational shortcomings were seen as the main disadvantages. 28% of the students did not perceive negative impacts on their emotional state regarding their studies, however, 20% of the surveyed students found it difficult to cope with the lack of social contacts, with an additional 8% of them claiming to feel lonely, demotivated or abandoned.Conclusion: Overall, PT performance improved during the pandemic. Students see advantages in online lectures, but disadvantages in the cancellation of practical lectures; they miss their former social interactions and some even show signs of emotional distress.

2021 ◽  
pp. 174702182110497
Sophie Sowden ◽  
Divyush Khemka ◽  
Caroline Catmur

There is evidence that humans mirror others’ emotional responses: brain responses to observed and experienced emotion overlap, and reaction time costs of observing others’ pain suggest that others’ emotional states interfere with our own. Such emotional mirroring requires regulation to prevent personal distress. However, currently it is unclear whether this ‘empathic interference effect’ is uniquely social, arising only from the observation of human actors; or also from the observation of non-biological objects in ‘painful’ states. Moreover, the degree to which this interference relates to individual differences in self-reported levels of empathy is yet to be revealed. We introduce a modified pain observation task, measuring empathic interference effects induced by observation of painful states applied to both biological and non-biological stimuli. An initial validation study (N=50) confirmed that painful states applied to biological stimuli were rated explicitly as more painful than non-painful states applied to biological stimuli, and also than both painful and non-painful states applied to non-biological stimuli. Subsequently, across two independent discovery (N=83) and replication (N=80) samples, the task elicited slowing of response times during the observation of painful states when compared to non-painful states, but the magnitude of this effect did not differ between biological and non-biological stimuli. Little evidence was found for reliable relationships between empathic interference and self-reported empathy. Caution should therefore be taken in using the current task to pursue an individual differences approach to empathic interference, but the task shows promise for investigating the specificity of the mechanism involved in regulating emotional mirroring.

2021 ◽  
Giuliana Brancato ◽  
Kathryne Van Hedger ◽  
Marc Berman ◽  
Stephen Charles Van Hedger

Compared to urban environments, interactions with natural environments have been associated with several health benefits including psychological restoration and improved emotional well-being. However, classifying environments dichotomously as either natural or urban may emphasize between-category differences and minimize potentially important within-category variation (e.g., forests versus fields of crops; neighborhoods versus city centers). Therefore, the current experiment assessed how viewing brief videos of different environments, ranging along a continuum from stereotypically natural to stereotypically urban, influenced subjective ratings of mood, restoration, and well-being. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four video conditions, which depicted a simulated walk through a pine forest, a farmed field, a tree-lined urban neighborhood, or a bustling city center essentially devoid of greenery. Immediately before and after the videos, participants rated their current emotional states. Participants additionally rated the perceived restorativeness of the video. The results supported the idea that the virtual walks differentially influenced affect and perceived restoration, even when belonging to the same nominal category of natural or urban. The pine forest walk significantly improved happiness relative to both urban walks, whereas the farmed field walk did not. The bustling city center walk decreased feelings of calmness compared to all other walks, including the tree-lined neighborhood walk. The walks also differed on two perceived restorativeness measures (daydreaming and being away) in a graded fashion; however, the farmed field walk was found to be less fascinating than all other walks, including both urban walks. Taken together, these results suggest that categorizing environments as “natural versus urban” may gloss over meaningful within-category variability regarding the restorative potential of different physical environments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiani Jiang ◽  
Qi Meng ◽  
Jingtao Ji

Against the background of weakening face-to-face social interaction, the mental health of college students deserves attention. There are few existing studies on the impact of audiovisual interaction on interactive behavior, especially emotional perception in specific spaces. This study aims to indicate whether the perception of one’s music environment has influence on college students’ emotion during communication in different indoor conditions including spatial function, visual and sound atmospheres, and interior furnishings. The three-dimensional pleasure–arousal–dominance (PAD) emotional model was used to evaluate the changes of emotions before and after communication. An acoustic environmental measurement was performed and the evaluations of emotion during communication was investigated by a questionnaire survey with 331 participants at six experimental sites [including a classroom (CR), a learning corridor (LC), a coffee shop (CS), a fast food restaurant (FFR), a dormitory (DT), and a living room(LR)], the following results were found: Firstly, the results in different functional spaces showed no significant effect of music on communication or emotional states during communication. Secondly, the average score of the musical evaluation was 1.09 higher in the warm-toned space compared to the cold-toned space. Thirdly, the differences in the effects of music on emotion during communication in different sound environments were significant and pleasure, arousal, and dominance could be efficiently enhanced by music in the quiet space. Fourthly, dominance was 0.63 higher in the minimally furnished space. Finally, we also investigated influence of social characteristics on the effect of music on communication in different indoor spaces, in terms of the intimacy level, the gender combination, and the group size. For instance, when there are more than two communicators in the dining space, pleasure and arousal can be efficiently enhanced by music. This study shows that combining the sound environment with spatial factors (for example, the visual and sound atmosphere) and the interior furnishings can be an effective design strategy for promoting social interaction in indoor spaces.

2021 ◽  
Jayne Morriss ◽  
Emma Tupitsa ◽  
Helen Dodd ◽  
Colette Hirsch

Uncertainty and emotion are an inevitable part of everyday life and play a vital role in mental health. Yet, our understanding of how uncertainty and emotion interact is limited. Here, an online survey was conducted (n = 231) to examine whether uncertainty evokes and modulates a range of negative and positive emotions. The data show that uncertainty is predominantly associated with negative emotional states such as fear/anxiety. However, uncertainty was also found to modulate a variety of other negative (i.e. sadness/upset, anger/frustration, confusion) and positive (i.e. surprise/interest and excited/enthusiastic) emotional states, depending on the valence of an anticipated outcome (i.e. negative, positive) and the sub parameter of uncertainty (i.e. risk and ambiguity). Uncertainty increased the intensity of negative emotional states and decreased the intensity of positive emotional states. These findings support prior research suggesting that uncertainty is aversive and associated with negative emotional states such as fear and anxiety. However, the findings also revealed that uncertainty is involved in eliciting and modulating a wide array of emotional phenomena beyond fear and anxiety. This study highlights an opportunity for further study of how uncertainty and emotion interactions are conceptualised generally and in relation to mental health.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257275
Leila Setayesh ◽  
Reyhane Ebrahimi ◽  
Sara Pooyan ◽  
Habib Yarizadeh ◽  
Elaheh Rashidbeygi ◽  

Background Previous studies showed the possible association between obesity, dietary pattern, and depressive symptoms. Due to the lack of enough data to confirm the association of obesity and depression in the Middle East, here, we aimed to explore the possible mediatory role of adipokines Galectin-3, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) in the association between low carbohydrate diet (LCD) and depressive symptoms. Methods A total of 256 women aged 17–56 years old were grouped based on their LCD score. Depression anxiety stress scales-21 (DASS-21) self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate the three negative emotional states of stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. Body composition and dietary intake were assessed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the serum levels of Galectin-3, TGF-β, and PAI-1. Results No significant difference was observed regarding Galectin-3, TGF-β, and PAI-1 levels between the groups with dissimilar adherence to LCD or the groups with different levels of depressive symptoms (P>0.05). However, there was a negative association between LCD score as a covariant and depressive symptoms as an independent variable (P = 0.02) and remarkably, a regression model linear analysis using Galectin-3, TGF-β, and PAI-1 as confounding variables indicated the mediatory role of these adipokines in this association (P>0.05). In other words, adipokines eliminated the significance of the relationship between adherence to LCD and depressive symptoms. Conclusion It seems that higher adherence to LCD is probably associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in obese adults through the mediatory role of adipokines.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Parnian Parvin ◽  
Parisa Amiri ◽  
Sara Jalali-Farahani ◽  
Mehrdad Karimi ◽  
Mina Moein Eslam ◽  

Background: Maternal characteristics have been known to be associated with parenting practices, which could eventually influence their child’s weight and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Objectives: This study aimed to assess the direct and indirect associations of maternal emotional states (depression, anxiety, and stress) with body mass index (BMI) and HRQoL in their children. Methods: This study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS). Participants were the children (n = 231) enrolled in TLGS during 2014 - 2016, who had complete data on maternal emotional states. The body weight and height of children were measured using the standard protocol, and BMI Z-score was determined using Anthroplus. Also, HRQoL in children and emotional states in mothers were assessed using the Iranian version of the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQLTM4.0) and the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21), respectively. Structural equations modeling (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relations of maternal emotional states with children’s BMI Z-score and HRQoL. Results: Mean age, BMI Z-score, and HRQoL total score in children were 13.8 ± 3.1 years, 0.74 ± 1.5, and 84.7 ± 11.3, respectively. In the mothers, median DASS-21 scores (interquartile ranges) in the three scales of depression, anxiety, and stress were 4 (0 - 10), 6 (2 - 12), and 14 (8 - 20), respectively. Maternal level of education was significantly associated with the DASS-21 score (β = -0.23, 95% CI: -0.37,-0.07). Maternal DASS-21 score was significantly associated with BMI Z-score only in girls (β = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.53). Significant determinants of HRQoL in boys were the child’s age (β = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.40, -0.01) and maternal education (β = -0.24, 95%CI: -0.44, -0.02) and emotional state (β = -0.24, 95% CI: -0.44, -0.03). The child’s age (β = -0.33, 95% CI: -0.53, -0.10) and maternal emotional state (β = -0.31, 95% CI: -0.54, -0.08) were significantly associated with HRQoL in girls. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the maternal emotional state was an important determinant of HRQoL in children, regardless of their weight status. Further research is recommended to examine the current hypothesized model in rural and suburban populations, taking into consideration more influential factors.

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