children and youth
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Wiesław Firek ◽  
Katarzyna Płoszaj ◽  
Paweł Gąsior ◽  
Ewa Malchrowicz-Mośko

In creating a positive climate in sport for children and youth, the role of adults is of key importance as their behavior and attitudes determine the experiences and multilateral development of young players. Relatively recently, the importance of the referee in creating a supportive sporting environment has begun to be emphasized. This concerns, in particular, team sports in which the referees interact with players many times and influence the course of the game. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of the referee–players’ interactions during youth floorball matches in terms of building a positive climate and responsiveness to the players’ needs. Another aim of the study was to examine whether the referee’s qualifications and players’ gender affect the quality of their interactions with the players. The study was conducted among 21 referees officiating matches for girls and boys aged 12–18. Naturalistic and structured observation methods were used in the study. The observation was conducted using a wireless intercom that allows listening to verbal messages directed to the players. Furthermore, the referee’s work was recorded using a camera. The results of the statistical tests did not show any significant differences in the assessment of referees between the groups distinguished in terms of the referees’ license and players’ gender in both examined dimensions. The observations showed that the average rating of building a positive climate by referees during a sporting event measured on a seven-point scale was ‘poor’ (2.81 pts). The referees were assessed significantly higher on the second dimension (responsiveness to the players’ needs), although an overall rating of 3.81 pts means a medium level of interaction quality. The results indicate areas in which referees can improve. They lead to the following conclusions: (i) the contents of training for floorball referees should include problems of pedagogy and developmental psychology; (ii) referees should be equipped with appropriate competencies for building a positive climate during matches and monitoring the players’ needs; (iii) referees appointed to officiate children and youth games should be characterized by appropriate predispositions.

2022 ◽  
pp. 003022282110670
Sydney Campbell ◽  
Fiona J. Moola ◽  
Jennifer L. Gibson ◽  
Jeremy Petch ◽  
Avram Denburg

In pediatric settings, the concept of hope is frequently positioned as a fundamental aspect of care and at odds with the possibility and proximity of death. This arguably fosters silence about death and dying in childhood despite evidence indicating the benefits of open communication at the end of life. In this paper, we describe the unspeakable nature of death and dying in childhood, including its conceptual and clinical causes and dimensions, its persistence, and the associated challenges for children and youth facing critical illnesses, their families, and society. We explore how the tension between hope and death can be reframed and apply our analysis to the context of medical assistance in dying for mature minors in Canada. Considering the lack of related literature, this paper offers initial reflections to form a framework for the unspeakable nature of death and dying in childhood and to advance the crucial need for research.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 302
Antonela Matana ◽  
Ivana Franić ◽  
Endica Radić Hozo ◽  
Ante Burger ◽  
Petra Boljat

The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to assess MD adherence in children and youth living in the Mediterranean region in Croatia and evaluate the differences in adherence to the MD among different educational stages. In total, 2722 individuals aged 2 to 24 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects were divided into different groups according to the Croatian educational system. Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) was used to assess adherence to the MD. In the total sample, the adherence to the MD was poor in 19.2%, average in 60.8%, and good in 20.1% of the study participants. The prevalence rate of poor adherence to the MD increased with higher educational stage, i.e., the highest prevalence rate of poor MD adherence was observed for college students (39.3%). Children having a higher number of snacks on days-off, those with lower physical activity, and not having breakfast together with a family are more likely to have poor MD adherence, while children having a higher number of snacks on working days are less likely to have a poor MD. The results of this study showed low adherence to the principles of the MD, confirming the need for improvement of adherence to the MD pattern in the studied population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 297-307
Marek Budajczak

Home education is one of the legal (in countries that recognize it) forms of compulsory education for children and youth, which in practice consists in educating minors in the family home, without attending school. Home education understood in this way is becoming more and more popular globally. Perhaps this is due to its advantages. When considering the advantages of home education, one should also take into account (regardless of various problems associated with it) the benefits it brings to various social communities. In this article, the subject of comments is the relationship between home education and the functioning of national communities. An example is Poland as a state and nation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shannon L. Stewart ◽  
Angela Celebre ◽  
John P. Hirdes ◽  
Jeffrey W. Poss

Youth violence is considered one of the most preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality. Various risk factors have previously been identified, however, there is presently a crucial need to develop effective decision-support tools in order to identify children and youth at increased risk for violence. The current study utilised data collected from the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health Screener (ChYMH-S), within the province of Ontario, to develop and validate a methodology for the purpose of identifying young persons who were at greater risk of harm to others. Additional data from 59 mental health agencies validated the algorithm, and it was found to be a strong predictor of harmful behaviour toward others. The RIO algorithm provides a valuable decision-support tool with strong psychometric properties that may be used to identify young persons who exhibit signs or symptoms associated with increased likelihood of harm toward others, in order to provide early intervention efforts for these vulnerable youth, thereby reducing the likelihood of future aggressive behaviours.

2022 ◽  
pp. 88-103
Judy Ruth Williamson

The Center for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that about 1 in 54 children have been identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autism occurs among all ethic, socioeconomic, and racial groups. With this nationwide prevalence, educational leadership, Principals, Vice Principals, and parents must be in a continuous state of learning about autism and the unique needs of their autistic learners. The chapter is dedicated to helping parents and educational leadership to understand each other's roles and responsibilities in regard to serving children and youth on the autism spectrum. First, the chapter will explore literature regarding unique leadership characteristics needed to support youth on the autism spectrum. Next, an overview of literature available regarding educational leaders' perspectives and strategies in supporting youth on the spectrum. Finally, suggestions and strategies for developing educational leaders that understand and cherish youth on the autism spectrum are given.

2022 ◽  
pp. 250-280
Ruža Tomić

Juvenile delinquency, abuse, and addictions are among the very serious problems of the modern world. They are becoming more frequent every day and appear among the younger categories of children and youth, with increasingly destructive forms and manifestations. The community seeks ways and takes measures to prevent these socio-pathological phenomena, with the aim of reducing or preventing them altogether. In order to succeed, social pedagogical theory and practice are constantly being improved and enriched, and they offer new contributions that can help in the constructive resolution of these painful social phenomena. Their spread degrades the personality of the individual and the whole social community, and this leaves lasting and far-reaching consequences. Only by getting to know and having insight into all the above aspects of these socio-pathological phenomena will it be possible to create and offer organized professional activity in their transformation.

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