prevalence rate
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Fei Han ◽  
Ian Stockwell

Predictive models are currently used for early intervention to help identify patients with a high risk of adverse events. Assessing the accuracy of such models is a crucial part of the development process. To measure the predictive performance of a scoring model, quantitative indices such as the K-S statistic and C-statistic are used. This paper discusses the relationship between Gini coefficients and event prevalence rates. The main contribution of the paper is the theoretical proof of the relationship between the Gini coefficient and event prevalence rate.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 302
Antonela Matana ◽  
Ivana Franić ◽  
Endica Radić Hozo ◽  
Ante Burger ◽  
Petra Boljat

The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to assess MD adherence in children and youth living in the Mediterranean region in Croatia and evaluate the differences in adherence to the MD among different educational stages. In total, 2722 individuals aged 2 to 24 years were enrolled in this study. Subjects were divided into different groups according to the Croatian educational system. Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) was used to assess adherence to the MD. In the total sample, the adherence to the MD was poor in 19.2%, average in 60.8%, and good in 20.1% of the study participants. The prevalence rate of poor adherence to the MD increased with higher educational stage, i.e., the highest prevalence rate of poor MD adherence was observed for college students (39.3%). Children having a higher number of snacks on days-off, those with lower physical activity, and not having breakfast together with a family are more likely to have poor MD adherence, while children having a higher number of snacks on working days are less likely to have a poor MD. The results of this study showed low adherence to the principles of the MD, confirming the need for improvement of adherence to the MD pattern in the studied population.

Yasaman Azari ◽  
Mehdi Sadeghi Moghadam ◽  
Jafar Khodabandeh ◽  
Andishe Hamedi

Background: Animal bite is a serious and dangerous threat to human health. The highest prevalence rate of animal bite in Iran is in Golestan, Ardabil and, then Khorasan. The present study examined the epidemiological characteristics and the trend of animal bites during 2014-2018. Results: In this study, out of 3784 cases bitten by animals, 2821 happened by a sudden attack. Most reports of the animal bite were from dogs. Also, the trend of animal bite during 2014-2018 was increasing and the charts showed that the trend will continue to increase the next year. Conclusion: Due to the increasing trend of animal bites, it is necessary to take basic measures such as training endangered groups, forming a committee to eliminate stray dogs, and strengthening the care system and immunization program.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Shelina Moonsamy ◽  
Melinda Suchard ◽  
Pavitra Pillay ◽  
Nishi Prabdial-Sing

Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a global public health threat, is targeted for elimination by 2030. As national HBV prevalence and incidence is lacking for South Africa, our study aimed to provide such data in the public health sector. Methods We analysed laboratory-confirmed HBV data from 2015 to 2019 to determine annual prevalence and incidence rates of HBV infection per 100,000 population, HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM test positivity rates, and HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM testing rates per 100,000 population. Time trend and statistical analyses were performed on HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM test positivity rates. Results The national prevalence rate of HBV infection per 100,000 population increased from 56.14 in 2015 to 67.76 in 2019. Over the five years, the prevalence rate was higher in males than females, highest amongst individuals 25 to 49 years old and highest in Gauteng province. The HBsAg test positivity rate dropped from 9.77% in 2015 to 8.09% in 2019. Over the five years, the HBsAg test positivity rate was higher in males than females, amongst individuals 25 to 49 years old and amongst individuals of Limpopo province. Amongst HBsAg positive children under 5 years old, the majority (65.7%) were less than a year old. HBsAg testing rates per 100,000 population were higher in females under 45 years of age and in males 45 years and above. The national incidence rate of acute HBV infection per 100,000 population dropped from 3.17 in 2015 to 1.69 in 2019. Over the five-year period, incidence rates were similar between males and females, highest amongst individuals 20 to 39 years old and highest in Mpumalanga province. Amongst individuals 20 to 24 years old, there was a substantial decline in the incidence and anti-HBc IgM test positivity rates over time. Anti-HBc IgM testing rates per 100,000 population were higher in females under 40 years of age and in males 40 years and above. Conclusion Critical to hepatitis B elimination is strengthened infant vaccination coverage and interruption of vertical transmission. Transmission of HBV infection in adults may be reduced through heightened awareness of transmission routes and prevention measures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Joseph Meyerovitch ◽  
Doron Carmi ◽  
Shraga Aviner ◽  
Michael Sherf ◽  
Doron Comaneshter ◽  

Abstract Background In 2005, Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest health maintenance organization in Israel, initiated an intervention program aimed at reducing the prevalence rate of infantile anemia (IA). This study evaluated the progress made during the intervention (2005–2014) and its yield 5 years after it ended (2019). Methods The CHS database was retrospectively reviewed twice yearly from 2005 to 2014 for repetitive samples of children aged 9 to 18 months regarding the previous half-year interval, and a single sample in 2019. Data were collected on gender, ethnicity (Jewish/non-Jewish), socioeconomic class (SEC; low/intermediate/high), hemoglobin testing (yes/no), and hemoglobin level (if tested). Excluded were infants with documented or suspected hemoglobinopathy. Results At study initiation, the rate of performance of hemoglobin testing was 54.7%, and the IA prevalence rate was 7.8%. The performance rate was lower in the Jewish than the non-Jewish subpopulation. The low-SEC subpopulation had a similar hemoglobin testing rate to the high-SEC subpopulation but double the IA prevalence rate. Overall, by the end of the intervention (2014), the performance rate increased to 87.5%, and the AI prevalence rate decreased to 3.4%. In 2019, there was little change in the performance rate from the end of the intervention (88%) and the IA prevalence was further reduced to 2.7%. The non-Jewish and low-SEC subpopulations showed the most improvement which was maintained and even bettered 5 years after the intervention ended. Conclusions The 10-year IA intervention program introduced by CHS in 2005 led to a reduction in IA prevalence rate to about 3.5% in all sub-populations evaluated. By program end, the results in the weaker subpopulations, which had the highest prevalence of IA at baseline, were not inferior to those in the stronger subpopulations. We recommended to the Israel Ministry of Health to adopt the intervention countrywide, and we challenge other countries to consider similar interventions.

2022 ◽  
Kan Gao ◽  
Aitak Farzi ◽  
Xueqin Ke ◽  
Yunxia Yu ◽  
Cailin Chen ◽  

Depression is a mood disorder with a high prevalence rate globally, which is associated with abnormalities in 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) metabolism. Emerging evidence suggests that certain probiotics that modulate 5-HT metabolism...

2022 ◽  
Vol 75 (3) ◽  
Jaqueline Helena Tanner ◽  
Cristina Mara Zamarioli ◽  
Magda Machado de Miranda Costa ◽  
Heiko Thereza Santana ◽  
Ana Clara Ribeiro Bello dos Santos ◽  

ABSTRACT Objectives: to determine the prevalence of bronchopulmonary aspiration in the Brazilian scenario, the factors associated with the incident and the variables associated with death. Methods: a cross-sectional and analytical study, carried out from analysis of notifications of incidents related to bronchopulmonary aspiration of the Health Surveillance Notification System, from January 2014 to December 2018. Results: of the 264,590 notifications, 553 referred to aspiration, whose prevalence rate was 0.21%. There was an association between the event and age, ethnicity, main medical diagnosis, country region, service type, health unit and consequences for patients. Furthermore, four independent predictor variables for death were found: living in the North or South regions, being elderly and receiving healthcare at night. Conclusions: the prevalence rate of bronchopulmonary aspiration was small, but with a negative impact on patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 40-42
Favour Barnabas ◽  
Suzan Ukpa ◽  
Uchejeso Obeta ◽  
Eno Mantu ◽  
Suzan Nduke ◽  

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that causes wide range of infectious diseases both in nosocomial and community settings. The Gram-positive pathogen possess virulence factors that facilitate it to establish infections in the hosts. When a “water for life” is contaminated with infectious bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus then, there may be public health challenge in the area. In this study Samples of Sachet water of different companies ware purchased, marked E, T, C and R and examined for the presence of staphylococcus aureus. Total of 80 sachet waters were examined and a prevalence rate of Staphylococcus aureus 5(25.00%) was recorded. The study revealed that sachet water (E) has the highest prevalence of 15.00%, followed by T (5%) and C (5%) and R had the least prevalence with 0.00%. It was discovered that a Prevalence rate of Abuja market terminus recorded 1(5.00%) while that of Ahmadu Bello way has the highest prevalence of 2(10.00%), Yan Taya market 1(5.00%) and railway 1(5.00%). This shows that S. aureus can be isolated from sachet waters. Though the sachet eaters had NAFDAC numbers, it is advisable to review and quality control such sachet water companies regularly because of Staphylococcus aureus and other public health infectious agants. The populace should equally be careful with the type of waters they drink.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 169-178
Behshid Farahmand ◽  
Maryam Mohammadi ◽  
Babak Hassanbeygi ◽  
Morteza Mohammadi ◽  

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders and evaluate the body position in routine tasks among orthotists and prosthetists. Methods: Forty orthotists and prosthetists were included. The scores of the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the Rapid Entire Body Assessment were used to determine the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders and analyze the work position of orthotists and prosthetists, respectively. An examiner evaluated 10 working postures that were dominantly used every day, in each orthotist and prosthetist. Results: Among the orthotists, 55.6% of men and 47% of women suffered from pain in the trunk, neck, and lower limbs. Nearly similar results were seen in the upper limbs (74.1% men and 45.5% women). Such high prevalence rates were not seen in prosthetists. The analysis of the Rapid Entire Body Assessment scores based on the working task and gender of the orthotist and prosthetist showed that more than 60% of the workers achieved a score of 4 to 7 approximately in half of the tasks. It shows the medium risk of musculoskeletal disorders, thus, corrective action is necessary. Conclusion: Based on the findings, musculoskeletal disorders are highly prevalent among orthotists and prosthetists, especially in the orthotist workers. To reduce these disorders, it is recommended to add ergonomic topics and training courses for working with devices to increase the knowledge of specialists and apply and select practical tools based on the principles of ergonomics.

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