hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Yuya Hasegawa ◽  
Ryohei Surugaya ◽  
Shinji Adachi ◽  
Shigeho Ijiri

In several teleosts, 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) has been identified as a maturation-inducing steroid. DHP is synthesized from 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 12-like (hsd17b12L). Along with 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-4 isomerase (3β-HSD), 17α-hydroxylase and C17-20 lyase are associated with 17OHP production. This study aimed to determine the roles of Amur sturgeon hsd3b, P450c17-I (cyp17a1), and P450c17-II (cyp17a2) in 17OHP production and to examine their enzyme activity and mRNA expression pattern during oocyte maturation. In the sturgeons used in this study, hsd3b encoded 3β-HSD, cyp17a1 catalyzed 17α-hydroxylase production with C17-20 lyase activity, and cyp17a2 processed 17α-hydroxylase activity alone. In the ovarian follicles of individuals that underwent induced ovulation, hsd3b mRNA levels increased rapidly, cyp17a1 expression was downregulated, and cyp17a2 expression was upregulated during oocyte maturation. Finally, an in vitro study revealed that salmon pituitary extract (SPE) stimulation rapidly induced hsd3b expression, whereas cyp17a1 expression was downregulated. In vitro, cyp17a2 expression did not rapidly increase with SPE stimulation. This rapid upregulation of hsd3b during oocyte maturation was first observed in teleosts. It was suggested that hsd17b12L expression is upregulated after 17OHP production, which is regulated by hsd3b, cyp17a1, and cyp17a2, resulting in DHP production.

2022 ◽  
pp. 097321792110688
Sarah Alpini ◽  
Rasheda J. Vereen ◽  
Amy Quinn

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of rare autosomal disorders characterized by a variety of defects in adrenal steroidogenesis. Most cases of CAH are due to an enzyme deficiency in either 21-hydroxylase or 11-beta-hydroxylase. A much rarer form of CAH due to 3-betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3B-HSD) deficiency results in impaired synthesis of all steroid hormones. The clinical presentation of undervirilization in 46 XY patients, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and recurrent hypoglycemia in 3B-HSD deficiency cases is well described in the literature. We describe a neonate with 3B-HSD deficiency that presented with ambiguous genitalia and hypoglycemia and was found to have comorbid coagulopathy, cholestasis, and direct hyperbilirubinemia with liver failure that resolved with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid treatment. Prompt recognition of this disease is imperative for timely intervention.

2022 ◽  
Lina Jin ◽  
Li Yang ◽  
Shujuan Zhao ◽  
Zhengtao Wang

Abstract BackgroundBear bile powder is a precious natural material characterized by high content of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) at a ratio of 1.00–1.50 to taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA).ResultsIn this study, we use the crude enzymes from engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to directional convert TCDCA from chicken bile powder to TUDCA at the committed ratio in vitro. This S. cerevisiae strain was modified with heterologous 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) and 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH) genes. S. cerevisiae host and HSDH gene combinatorial optimization and response surface methodology was applied to get the best engineered strain and the optimal biotransformation condition, respectively, under which 10.99 ± 0.16 g/L of powder products containing 36.73±6.68 % of TUDCA and 28.22±6.05 % of TCDCA were obtained using 12.00 g/L of chicken bile powder as substrate.ConclusionThis study provides a healthy and environmentally friendly way to produce potential alternative resource for bear bile powder from cheap and readily available chicken bile powder, and also gives a reference for the green manufacturing of other rare and endangered animal-derived valuable resource.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Julie Brossaud ◽  
Jean-Benoît Corcuff ◽  
Vanessa Vautier ◽  
Aude Bergeron ◽  
Aurelie Valade ◽  

ObjectiveDisturbances in the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis could lead to functional alterations in the brain of diabetes patients. In a later perspective of investigating the link between the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the developing brain in children with diabetes, we assessed here nocturnal cortisol metabolism in prepubertal children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).MethodsPrepubertal patients (aged 6–12 years) diagnosed with T1DM at least 1 year previously were recruited, along with matched controls. Nocturnal urine samples were collected, with saliva samples taken at awakening and 30 minutes after awakening. All samples were collected at home over 5 consecutive days with no detectable nocturnal hypoglycaemia. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait scale only) and Child Depression Inventory were also completed. Glucocorticoid metabolites in the urine, salivary cortisol (sF) and cortisone (sE) were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Metabolic data were analysed by logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, BMI and trait anxiety score.ResultsUrine glucocorticoid metabolites were significantly lower in T1DM patients compared to controls. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity was significantly higher, while 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2, 5(α+β)-reductase and 5α-reductase levels were all lower, in T1DM patients compared to controls. There was a significant group difference in delta sE level but not in delta sF level between the time of awakening and 30 minutes thereafter.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that altered nocturnal cortisol metabolism and morning HPA axis hyperactivity in children with T1DM leads to greater cortisol bioavailability and lower cortisol production as a compensatory effect. This altered nocturnal glucocorticoid metabolism when cortisol production is physiologically reduced and this HPA axis hyperactivity question their impact on brain functioning.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7166
Nigel Vicker ◽  
Helen V. Bailey ◽  
Joanna M. Day ◽  
Mary F. Mahon ◽  
Andrew Smith ◽  

17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is expressed at high levels in testes and seminal vesicles; it is also present in prostate tissue and involved in gonadal and non-gonadal testosterone biosynthesis. The enzyme is membrane-bound, and a crystal structure is not yet available. Selective aryl benzylamine-based inhibitors were designed and synthesised as potential agents for prostate cancer therapeutics through structure-based design, using a previously built homology model with docking studies. Potent, selective, low nanomolar IC50 17β-HSD3 inhibitors were discovered using N-(2-([2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenylamino]methyl)phenyl)acetamide (1). The most potent compounds have IC50 values of approximately 75 nM. Compound 29, N-[2-(1-Acetylpiperidin-4-ylamino)benzyl]-N-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)phenyl]acetamide, has an IC50 of 76 nM, while compound 30, N-(2-(1-[2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-phenylamino]ethyl)phenyl)acetamide, has an IC50 of 74 nM. Racemic C-allyl derivative 26 (IC50 of 520 nM) was easily formed from 1 in good yield and, to determine binding directionality, its enantiomers were separated by chiral chromatography. Absolute configuration was determined using single crystal X-ray crystallography. Only the S-(+)-enantiomer (32) was active with an IC50 of 370 nM. Binding directionality was predictable through our in silico docking studies, giving confidence to our model. Importantly, all novel inhibitors are selective over the type 2 isozyme of 17β-HSD2 and show <20% inhibition when tested at 10 µM. Lead compounds from this series are worthy of further optimisation and development as inhibitors of testosterone production by 17β-HSD3 and as inhibitors of prostate cancer cell growth.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (7) ◽  
pp. 1277-1287
S.I. Salihu ◽  
I.L. Yusuf ◽  
A. Abba ◽  
M.B. Tijjani ◽  
U.A. Maina ◽  

The effect of heavy metals (HMs) has been extensively studied. They cause diverse clinical manifestation through various mechanisms. Male fertility is among the most disturbing effect of HMs affecting family life in human and reproduction in animals. Notably among these effects is interference with the reproductive hormones, morphology and function of reproductive organs, sexual behaviors, and the spermiogram. Quercetin is a dietary flavanoid from edible plants and, has proven pharmacological properties in the treatment and management of many disease conditions. Quercetin ameliorates the adverse effects of HMs on male reproductive hormones by increasing the activity of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β- HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in the synthesis of testosterone. Quercetin chelates HMs, scavenge free radicals, and other cytotoxicant capable of disrupting the morphology and function of the male reproductive system. Apart from it neuroprotective activity on the pituitary gland and increased steroidogenesis, quercetin mitigate neurotransmitter that aid in copulation and improve histopathological changes in the brain due to HMs toxicity to improve sexual behavior. Quercetin was also found to be effective in increasing sperm count, daily sperm production, mortility, viability, and also decreased in the percentage of abnormal sperm morphology due to HMs toxicity. In conclusion quercetin was found to be effective in mitigating HMs toxicity that affects male fertility, and so, it is recommended to be incorporated into the treatment and management of HMs toxicity. Individuals who are at risk of HMs toxicity should take dietary plants that contain quercetin to minimize the effects of these metals.

Emanuele M. Gargano ◽  
Abdelrahman Mohamed ◽  
Ahmed S. Abdelsamie ◽  
Giuseppe F. Mangiatordi ◽  
Hanna Drzewiecka ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Xin Lu ◽  
Panpan Ma ◽  
Lingyu Kong ◽  
Xi Wang ◽  
Yaqi Wang ◽  

Our previous studies have proved that 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 4 (HSD17B4) is a novel proliferation-promoting protein. The overexpression of HSD17B4 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation. Vitamin K2 (VK2), a fat-soluble vitamin, has the function of promoting coagulation and can inhibit the progression of liver cancer. A previous study demonstrated that VK2 could bind to HSD17B4 in HepG2 cells. However, the mechanism of VK2 in inhibiting HCC cell proliferation is not clear. In this study, we investigate whether VK2 can inhibit the proliferation of HCC cell induced by HSD17B4 and the possible mechanism. We detected the effect of VK2 on HSD17B4-induced HCC cell proliferation, and the activation of STAT3, AKT, and MEK/ERK signaling pathways. We measured the effect of HSD17B4 on the growth of transplanted tumor and the inhibitory effect of VK2. Our results indicated that VK2 directly binds to HSD17B4, but does not affect the expression of HSD17B4, to inhibit the proliferation of HCC cells by inhibiting the activation of Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways, leading to decreased STAT3 activation. VK2 also inhibited the growth of HSD17B4-induced transplanted tumors. These findings provide a theoretical and experimental basis for possible future prevention and treatment of HCC using VK2.

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