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Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Hao Qin ◽  
Zihao Wang ◽  
Zhen Song ◽  
Xiang Zhang ◽  
Teng Zhou

The separation of 1,3-butadiene (1,3-C4H6) and 1-butene (n-C4H8) is quite challenging due to their close boiling points and similar molecular structures. Extractive distillation (ED) is widely regarded as a promising approach for such a separation task. For ED processes, the selection of suitable entrainer is of central importance. Traditional ED processes using organic solvents suffer from high energy consumption. To tackle this issue, the utilization of ionic liquids (ILs) can serve as a potential alternative. In this work, a high-throughput computational screening of ILs is performed to find proper entrainers, where 36,260 IL candidates comprising of 370 cations and 98 anions are involved. COSMO-RS is employed to calculate the infinite dilution extractive capacity and selectivity of the 36,260 ILs. In doing so, the ILs that satisfy the prespecified thermodynamic criteria and physical property constraints are identified. After the screening, the resulting IL candidates are sent for rigorous process simulation and design. 1,2,3,4,5-pentamethylimidazolium methylcarbonate is found to be the optimal IL solvent. Compared with the benchmark ED process where the organic solvent N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is adopted, the energy consumption is reduced by 26%. As a result, this work offers a new IL-based ED process for efficient 1,3-C4H6 production.

Emmanuel Musisi ◽  
Abdul Sessolo ◽  
Sylvia Kaswabuli ◽  
Josephine Zawedde ◽  
Patrick Byanyima ◽  

This paper highlights the value of stool as a sample type for diagnosis of tuberculosis. While other studies have used DNA-based assays like the Xpert MTB/RIF and culture to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in stool, this is the first study that has applied TB-MBLA, an RNA-based assay, to quantify TB bacteria in stool.

Yu Wan ◽  
Keith Cuff ◽  
Michael J. Serpe

Shape memory Nitinol has long been used for actuation. However, utilizing Nitinol to fabricate novel devices for various applications is a challenge, but has shown incredible promise and impacts. Bistable metal strips are widely adopted for shape morphing purposes (primarily in kid’s toys, e.g., snap bracelets) due to their easy and robust transformation between two states. In this paper, we combine Nitinol shape memory alloy and bistable metal strip to fabricate a swimming actuator with both slow moving and fast snapping capability, akin to an octopus swimming slowly in water, but quickly moving upon encountering a threat. The actuator developed here can also swim in multiple directions, all controlled by a wireless module. Furthermore, we demonstrate that an on-board sensor can be incorporated for potential environmental monitoring applications. Taken together, along with the fact that the device developed here has no mechanical parts, makes this  an interesting potential alternative to more expensive, and energy consuming boats.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 468
Ewelina Namiecińska ◽  
Magdalena Grazul ◽  
Beata Sadowska ◽  
Marzena Więckowska-Szakiel ◽  
Paweł Hikisz ◽  

To meet the demand for alternatives to commonly used antibiotics, this paper evaluates the antimicrobial potential of arene-ruthenium(II) complexes and their salts, which may be of value in antibacterial treatment. Their antimicrobial activity (MIC, MBC/MFC) was examined in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans and compared with classic antibiotics used as therapeutics. Selected arene-ruthenium(II) complexes were found to have synergistic effects with oxacillin and vancomycin against staphylococci. Their bactericidal effect was found to be associated with cell lysis and the ability to cut microbial DNA. To confirm the safety of the tested arene-ruthenium(II) complexes in vivo, their cytotoxicity was also investigated against normal human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF-1). In addition, the antioxidant and thus pro-health potential of the compounds, i.e., their nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC), was determined by two different methods: ferric-TPTZ complex and DPPH assay.

Wendy Wuyts ◽  
Marjan Marjanović

Abstract Globally, many national, regional, and urban governments are facilitating circular economy transitions through various pathways. The European Union and China have spearheaded the worldwide shift towards circularity by adopting primarily ecomodernist and technocratic approaches. However, the relevant literature has highlighted the need to integrate conceptualisations of circularity that are more politically and spatially embedded to better suit the local contexts and actual social needs of specific populations. In this paper, we therefore argue that the Japanese approach to circular practices exemplifies a place-bound and just pathway and offers a potential alternative to the European and Chinese methods. Accordingly, we first trace the historical roots of spatial circularity in Japan and then articulate some contemporary circular concepts. Next, we present a detailed analysis of wastescapes in the city of Onomichi to demonstrate through the lived experiences of its citizens that the rather orthodox understandings of circularity that permeate Japanese discourse on circularity coexist with alternative considerations that promote human interactions with nonhuman nature, acknowledge spatial ranges of operations, and value traditional knowledge.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-34
Sajad Fakhri ◽  
Fatemeh Abbaszadeh ◽  
Seyed Zachariah Moradi ◽  
Hui Cao ◽  
Haroon Khan ◽  

Despite the progression in targeting the complex pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) and spinal cord injury (SCI), there is a lack of effective treatments. Moreover, conventional therapies suffer from associated side effects and low efficacy, raising the need for finding potential alternative therapies. In this regard, a comprehensive review was done regarding revealing the main neurological dysregulated pathways and providing alternative therapeutic agents following SCI. From the mechanistic point, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are major upstream orchestras of cross-linked dysregulated pathways (e.g., apoptosis, autophagy, and extrinsic mechanisms) following SCI. It urges the need for developing multitarget therapies against SCI complications. Polyphenols, as plant-derived secondary metabolites, have the potential of being introduced as alternative therapeutic agents to pave the way for treating SCI. Such secondary metabolites presented modulatory effects on neuronal oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory, and extrinsic axonal dysregulated pathways in the onset and progression of SCI. In the present review, the potential role of phenolic compounds as critical phytochemicals has also been revealed in regulating upstream dysregulated oxidative stress/inflammatory signaling mediators and extrinsic mechanisms of axonal regeneration after SCI in preclinical and clinical studies. Additionally, the coadministration of polyphenols and stem cells has shown a promising strategy for improving post-SCI complications.

2022 ◽  
Mary Ellen Carter ◽  
Luann J. Lynch ◽  
Melissa A. Martin

Using proxy statement data describing the terms of compensation contracts, we examine how overlapping membership between compensation and audit committees influences the use of earnings metrics in compensation. Although research predicts that such overlap could either increase or decrease the reliance on earnings, we find that firms with overlapping directors rely less on earnings-based performance measures in incentive contracts without altering the overall level of performance-contingent cash bonuses. In addition, we provide evidence that firms substitute earnings measures with measures less subject to earnings management. Our findings are robust to potential alternative explanations, extend to an implicit relation between earnings and compensation for a larger sample, and are not driven by the tendency toward an overlapping committee structure more broadly. This paper was accepted by Suraj Srinivasan, accounting.

2022 ◽  
Lina Jin ◽  
Li Yang ◽  
Shujuan Zhao ◽  
Zhengtao Wang

Abstract BackgroundBear bile powder is a precious natural material characterized by high content of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) at a ratio of 1.00–1.50 to taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA).ResultsIn this study, we use the crude enzymes from engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae to directional convert TCDCA from chicken bile powder to TUDCA at the committed ratio in vitro. This S. cerevisiae strain was modified with heterologous 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7α-HSDH) and 7β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (7β-HSDH) genes. S. cerevisiae host and HSDH gene combinatorial optimization and response surface methodology was applied to get the best engineered strain and the optimal biotransformation condition, respectively, under which 10.99 ± 0.16 g/L of powder products containing 36.73±6.68 % of TUDCA and 28.22±6.05 % of TCDCA were obtained using 12.00 g/L of chicken bile powder as substrate.ConclusionThis study provides a healthy and environmentally friendly way to produce potential alternative resource for bear bile powder from cheap and readily available chicken bile powder, and also gives a reference for the green manufacturing of other rare and endangered animal-derived valuable resource.

Rice Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Mohd Fadthul Ikmal Misnal ◽  
Norizah Redzuan ◽  
Muhamad Nor Firdaus Zainal ◽  
Norhayati Ahmad ◽  
Raja Kamarulzaman Raja Ibrahim ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 2153 (1) ◽  
pp. 012008
C Vera ◽  
R Sorzano ◽  
L Ardila ◽  
G Orozco ◽  
W Aperador

Abstract Steels are in constant contact with fluids that could generate corrosion regardless the application in which this steel is located. AISI-SAE 1045 like steels is widely used in different applications in engineering, even several of these parts made of this steel suffers wear processes. The synergy between corrosion and wear phenomena exacerbates the detriment of some physical properties of the material conducing it to a failure. A potential alternative to avoid this issue is to coat the material surface with an anticorrosive material, and among different techniques to produce coatings, physical vapor deposition ones are environmentally friendly, secure and with excellent properties on the final product. We report the production of coatings based on vanadium and carbon on AISI-SAE 1045 steels substrates varying some of the deposition parameters in a sputtering coatings machine. A 23-factorial design of experiments was done with power applied to the vanadium target, power applied to the carbon target and temperature as active factors with two levels each one. A relevant effect of the power applied to V target and temperature on the anticorrosive properties of the coatings was found, thus increasing these factors levels always gives higher surface roughness and higher corrosion rates, this result together provides an important insight into the values that must be considered to achieve good anticorrosive properties on the material. Overall, these results indicate that with low V target power and room temperature, and high C target power the lowest corrosion rates and roughness of the group are achieved, both results agree.

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