cytokine signaling
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 996-1001
Neng Jiang ◽  
Shunfu Zhu ◽  
Jianjun Zhu

Objective: Suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) negatively regulates JAK-STAT signaling. Bioinformatics analysis showed a targeted relationship between miR-221 and SOCS3 mRNA 3′-UTR. This study investigated whether miR-221 regulates SOCS3 expression and affects thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Dual-luciferase reporter gene experiments verified the relationship between miR-221 and SOCS3. The tumor tissues and adjacent tissues of patients with thyroid cancer were collected to detect miR-221 and SOCS3 level. Thyroid cancer cell line KTC-1 cells were assigned into miR-NC group and miR-221 inhibitor group followed by analysis of SOCS3, p-JAK2, and p-STAT3 level by Real-time PCR, cell apoptosis and cell proliferation by flow cytometry and cell invasion by Transwell assay. Results: Compared with adjacent tissues, miR-221 level in tumor tissues was increased, and SCOS3 mRNA level was decreased. There was a targeted relationship between miR-221 and SOCS3 mRNA. MiR-221 level in KTC-1 and TPC-1 cells was increased, while SOCS3 mRNA level was decreased. MiR-221 inhibitor can significantly upregulate SOCS3 mRNA and protein in KTC-1 cells, reduce the expression of p-JAK2, p-STAT3 protein, increase cell apoptosis, and reduce cell proliferation and invasion. Conclusion: The increased miR-221 and decreased SOCS3 expression are related to thyroid cancer pathogenesis. MiR-221 can inhibit the expression of SOCS3, affect JAK-STAT signaling activity, and regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells.

2022 ◽  
Judith F Ashouri ◽  
Elizabeth McCarthy ◽  
Steven Yu ◽  
Noah Perlmutter ◽  
Charles Lin ◽  

How autoreactive CD4 T cells develop to cause rheumatoid arthritis remains unknown. We used a reporter for antigen-receptor signaling in the SKG autoimmune arthritis model to profile a T cell subpopulation enriched for arthritogenic naive CD4 T cells before arthritis onset by bulk and single cell RNA and T cell antigen-receptor (TCR) sequencing. Our analyses reveal that despite their impaired proximal TCR signaling, a subset of SKG naive CD4 T cells that have recently encountered endogenous antigen upregulate gene programs associated with positive regulation of T cell activation and cytokine signaling at higher levels than wild type cells in the pre-disease state. These arthritogenic cells also induce genes associated with negative regulation of T cell activation but do so less efficiently than wild type cells. Furthermore, their TCR sequences exhibit a previously unrecognized biased peripheral TCR Vβ repertoire likely driven by endogenous viral superantigens. These particular Vβs, known to recognize endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) superantigen, are further expanded in arthritic joints. Our results demonstrate that autoreactive naive CD4 T cells which recognize endogenous viral superantigens are poised to cause disease by their altered transcriptome.

2022 ◽  
Juliane Grimm ◽  
Raj Bhayadia ◽  
Lucie Gack ◽  
Dirk Heckl ◽  
Jan-Henning Klusmann

Children with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to developing megakaryoblastic leukemia (ML-DS) and often experience severe toxicities from chemotherapy, highlighting the need for targeted therapies with beneficial risk profiles. The genomic landscape of ML-DS is characterized by a combination of mutations in signaling pathway genes and epigenetic modifiers, while aberrant lysine specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) and JAK-STAT activation have both been implicated in leukemogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that combined LSD1 and JAK1/2 inhibition exerts synergistic anti-leukemic effects specifically in ML-DS, both in vitro and in patient derived xenografts in vivo. The JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib enhanced the LSD1 inhibitor-induced differentiation, proliferation arrest and apoptosis in patient-derived leukemic blasts. At the transcriptional level, the combination synergistically repressed gene expression signatures essential for cell division. We further observed an immunogenic gene expression pattern in the form of increased cytokine signaling, which - by sensitizing ML-DS blasts to the JAK-STAT signaling blockade induced by ruxolitinib - could explain the increased susceptibility of ML-DS blasts to combination therapy. Taken together, we establish combined LSD1 and JAK-STAT inhibition as an efficacious therapeutic regimen specifically designed to target important steps in ML-DS leukemogenesis, paving the way for targeted therapies in this entity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1009779
Joanna E. Handzlik ◽  

Cellular differentiation during hematopoiesis is guided by gene regulatory networks (GRNs) comprising transcription factors (TFs) and the effectors of cytokine signaling. Based largely on analyses conducted at steady state, these GRNs are thought to be organized as a hierarchy of bistable switches, with antagonism between Gata1 and PU.1 driving red- and white-blood cell differentiation. Here, we utilize transient gene expression patterns to infer the genetic architecture—the type and strength of regulatory interconnections—and dynamics of a twelve-gene GRN including key TFs and cytokine receptors. We trained gene circuits, dynamical models that learn genetic architecture, on high temporal-resolution gene-expression data from the differentiation of an inducible cell line into erythrocytes and neutrophils. The model is able to predict the consequences of gene knockout, knockdown, and overexpression experiments and the inferred interconnections are largely consistent with prior empirical evidence. The inferred genetic architecture is densely interconnected rather than hierarchical, featuring extensive cross-antagonism between genes from alternative lineages and positive feedback from cytokine receptors. The analysis of the dynamics of gene regulation in the model reveals that PU.1 is one of the last genes to be upregulated in neutrophil conditions and that the upregulation of PU.1 and other neutrophil genes is driven by Cebpa and Gfi1 instead. This model inference is confirmed in an independent single-cell RNA-Seq dataset from mouse bone marrow in which Cebpa and Gfi1 expression precedes the neutrophil-specific upregulation of PU.1 during differentiation. These results demonstrate that full PU.1 upregulation during neutrophil development involves regulatory influences extrinsic to the Gata1-PU.1 bistable switch. Furthermore, although there is extensive cross-antagonism between erythroid and neutrophil genes, it does not have a hierarchical structure. More generally, we show that the combination of high-resolution time series data and data-driven dynamical modeling can uncover the dynamics and causality of developmental events that might otherwise be obscured.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sofia Diaz-Lundahl ◽  
Arvind Y.M. Sundaram ◽  
Per Gillund ◽  
Gregor Duncan Gilfillan ◽  
Ingrid Olsaker ◽  

During the last decade, paternal effects on embryo development have been found to have greater importance than previously believed. In domestic cattle, embryo mortality is an issue of concern, causing huge economical losses for the dairy cattle industry. In attempts to reveal the paternal influence on embryo death, recent approaches have used transcriptome profiling of the embryo to find genes and pathways affected by different phenotypes in the bull. For practical and economic reasons, most such studies have used in vitro produced embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in the global transcriptome of in vivo produced embryos, derived from sires with either high or low field fertility measured as the non-return rate (NRR) on day 56 after first AI of the inseminated cows. Superovulated heifers (n = 14) in the age span of 12–15 months were artificially inseminated with semen from either high fertility (n = 6) or low fertility (n = 6) bulls. On day seven after insemination, embryos were retrieved through uterine flushing. Embryos with first grade quality and IETS stage 5 (early blastocyst), 6 (blastocyst) or 7 (expanded blastocyst) were selected for further processing. In total, RNA extracted from 24 embryos was sequenced using Illumina sequencing, followed by differential expression analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. We found 62 genes differentially expressed between the two groups (adj.p-value<0.05), of which several genes and their linked pathways could explain the different developmental capacity. Transcripts highly expressed in the embryos from low fertility bulls were related to sterol metabolism and terpenoid backbone synthesis, while transcripts highly expressed in the high fertility embryos were linked to anti-apoptosis and the regulation of cytokine signaling. The leukocyte transendothelial migration and insulin signaling pathways were associated with enrichments in both groups. We also found some highly expressed transcripts in both groups which can be considered as new candidates in the regulation of embryo development. The present study is an important step in defining the paternal influence in embryonic development. Our results suggest that the sire’s genetic contribution affects several important processes linked to pre-and peri implantation regulation in the developing embryo.

Haematologica ◽  
2022 ◽  
Katharina Woess ◽  
Sabine Macho-Maschler ◽  
Dorette S. Van Ingen Schenau ◽  
Miriam Butler ◽  
Caroline Lassnig ◽  

Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a member of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway, which is central in cytokine signaling. Previously, germline TYK2 mutations have been described in two patients developing de novo T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) or precursor B-ALLs. The mutations (P760L and G761V) are located within the regulatory pseudokinase domain and lead to constitutive activation of TYK2. We demonstrate the transformation capacity of TYK2P760L in hematopoietic cell systems including primary bone marrow cells. In vivo engraftment of TYK2P760L-expressing cell lines led to development of leukemia. A kinase inhibitor screen uncovered that oncogenic TYK2 acts synergistically with the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and CDK4/6 pathways. Accordingly, the TYK2-specific inhibitor deucravacitinib (BMS986165) reduces cell viability of TYK2P760Ltransformed cell models and ex vivo cultured TYK2P760L-mutated patient-derived xenograft cells most efficiently when combined with mTOR or CDK4/6 inhibitors. Our study thereby pioneers novel treatment options for patients suffering from TYK2-driven acute leukemia.

2022 ◽  
Caryn E Plummer ◽  
Timothy Polk ◽  
Jatin Sharma ◽  
Sarah Bae ◽  
Olivia Barr ◽  

Abstract Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is a painful and debilitating autoimmune disease, and represents the only spontaneous model of human recurrent uveitis (RU). Despite the efficacy of existing treatments, RU remains a leading cause of visual handicap in horses and humans. Cytokines, which utilize Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) for signaling, drive the inflammatory processes in ERU that promote blindness. Notably, suppressor of signaling-1 (SOCS1), which naturally limits the activation of Jak2 through binding interactions, is often deficient in autoimmune disease patients. Significantly, we previously showed that topical administration of a SOCS1 peptide mimic (SOCS1-KIR) mitigated induced rodent uveitis. In this pilot study, we test the potential to translate the therapeutic efficacy observed in experimental rodent uveitis to equine patient disease. Through bioinformatics and peptide binding assays we demonstrate putative binding of the SOCS1-KIR peptide to equine Jak2. We also show that topical, or intravitreal injection of SOCS1-KIR was well tolerated within the equine eye through physical and ophthalmic examinations. Finally, we show that topical SOCS1-KIR administration was associated with significant clinical ERU improvement. Together, these results provide a scientific rationale, and supporting experimental evidence for the therapeutic use of a SOCS1 mimetic peptide in RU.

2022 ◽  
Christian Wake ◽  
Julie A. Schneider ◽  
Thor D. Stein ◽  
Joli Bregu ◽  
Adam Labadorf ◽  

Obesity, the accumulation of body fat to excess, may cause serious negative health effects, including increased risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke and certain cancers. The biology of obesity is complex and not well understood, involving both environmental and genetic factors and affecting metabolic and endocrine mechanisms in tissues of the gut, adipose, and brain. Previous RNA sequencing studies have identified transcripts associated with obesity and body mass index in blood and fat, often using animal models, but RNA sequencing studies in human brain tissue related to obesity have not been previously undertaken. We conducted both large and small RNA sequencing of hypothalamus (207 samples) and nucleus accumbens (276 samples) from individuals defined as consistently obese (124 samples), consistently normal weight as controls (148 samples) or selected without respect to BMI and falling within neither case nor control definition (211 samples), based on longitudinal BMI measures. The samples were provided by three cohort studies with brain donation programs; the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), the Religious Orders Study (ROS) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP). For each brain region and large/small RNA sequencing set, differential expression of obesity, BMI, brain region and sex was performed. Analyses were done transcriptome-wide as well as with a priori defined sets of obesity or BMI-associated mRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs). There are sixteen mRNAs and five microRNAs that are differentially expressed (adjusted p < 0.05) by obesity or BMI in these tissues, several of which were validated with qPCR data. The results include many that are BMI-associated, such as APOBR and CES1, as well as many associated with the immune system and some with addiction, such as the gene sets 'cytokine signaling in immune system' and 'opioid signaling'. In spite of the relatively large number of samples, our study was likely under-powered to detect other transcripts or miRNA with relevant but smaller effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010176
Srikanth Mairpady Shambat ◽  
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia ◽  
Tiziano A. Schweizer ◽  
Markus Huemer ◽  
Chun-Chi Chang ◽  

COVID-19 displays diverse disease severities and symptoms including acute systemic inflammation and hypercytokinemia, with subsequent dysregulation of immune cells. Bacterial superinfections in COVID-19 can further complicate the disease course and are associated with increased mortality. However, there is limited understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and hypercytokinemia impede the innate immune function against bacterial superinfections. We assessed the influence of COVID-19 plasma hypercytokinemia on the functional responses of myeloid immune cells upon bacterial challenges from acute-phase COVID-19 patients and their corresponding recovery (rec)-phase. We show that a severe hypercytokinemia status in COVID-19 patients correlates with the development of bacterial superinfections. Neutrophils and monocytes derived from COVID-19 patients in their acute-phase showed an impaired intracellular microbicidal capacity upon bacterial challenges. The impaired microbicidal capacity was reflected by abrogated MPO and reduced NETs production in neutrophils along with reduced ROS production in both neutrophils and monocytes. Moreover, we observed a distinct pattern of cell surface receptor expression on both neutrophils and monocytes, in line with suppressed autocrine and paracrine cytokine signaling. This phenotype was characterized by a high expression of CD66b, CXCR4 and low expression of CXCR1, CXCR2 and CD15 in neutrophils and low expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and high expression of CD163 and CD11b in monocytes. Furthermore, the impaired antibacterial effector function was mediated by synergistic effect of the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-4. COVID-19 patients receiving dexamethasone showed a significant reduction of overall inflammatory markers in the plasma as well as exhibited an enhanced immune response towards bacterial challenge ex vivo. Finally, broad anti-inflammatory treatment was associated with a reduction in CRP, IL-6 levels as well as length of ICU and hospital stay in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Our data provides insights into the transient functional dysregulation of myeloid immune cells against subsequent bacterial infections in COVID-19 patients and describe a beneficial role for the use of dexamethasone in these patients.

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