amplitude modulation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 884
Xinlei Qian ◽  
Xiaochao Wang ◽  
Xinghua Lu ◽  
Tianyu Zhang ◽  
Wei Fan

The group velocity dispersion (GVD) occurring in the front end of high-power lasers is one of the primary factors leading to the conversion of frequency modulation (FM) to amplitude modulation (AM). In this paper, we propose a modified, active, closed-loop feedback compensation device for GVD-induced FM–AM conversion, using a two-dimensional, electric, adjustable mirror mount and parallel grating pair to improve the long-term stability, efficiency of adjustment, and accuracy of compensation. Experimental results of a 12 h FM–AM depth test revealed that the depth varied between 2.28% and 5.22%. Moreover, we formulated a mathematical relationship between the dispersion parameters and temperature in optical fibers to analyze the intrinsic effect of temperature on FM–AM. The related simulation and experimental results consistently validated the quantitative relationship between the temperature and FM–AM depth.

2022 ◽  
Tatsuya Daikoku ◽  
Shin-Ichiro Kumagaya ◽  
Satsuki Ayaya ◽  
Yukie Nagai

How typically developed (TD) persons modulate their speech rhythm while talking to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the characteristics of phonological hierarchy in the verbal communication between ASD individuals and TD persons. TD and ASD respondents were asked by a TD questioner to share their recent experiences on 12 topics. We included 87 samples of ASD-directed speech (from TD questioner to ASD respondent), 72 of TD-directed speech (from TD questioner to TD respondent), 74 of ASD speech (from ASD respondent to TD questioner), and 55 of TD speech (from TD respondent to TD questioner). We analysed the amplitude modulation structures of speech waveforms using probabilistic amplitude demodulation based on Bayesian inference and found similarities between ASD speech and ASD-directed speech and between TD speech and TD-directed speech. Prosody and the interactions between prosodic, syllabic, and phonetic rhythms were significantly weaker in ASD-directed and ASD speech than those in TD-directed and TD speech, respectively. ASD speech showed weaker dynamic processing from higher to lower phonological bands (e.g. from prosody to syllable) than TD speech. The results indicate that TD individuals may spontaneously adapt their phonological characteristics to those of ASD speech.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Hai-Han Lu ◽  
Chung-Yi Li ◽  
Wen-Shing Tsai ◽  
Poh-Suan Chang ◽  
Yan-Yu Lin ◽  

AbstractA two-way 224-Gbit/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4)-based fibre-free-space optical (FSO) converged system through a 25-km single-mode fibre (SMF) transport with 500-m free-space transmission is successfully constructed, which adopts injection-locked vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with polarisation-multiplexing mechanism for a demonstration. Compared with one-way transmission, two-way transmission is an attractive architecture for fibre-FSO converged system. Two-way transmission over SMF transport with free-space transmission not only reduces the required number of fibres and the setups of free-space transmission, but also provides the advantage of capacity doubling. Incorporating dual-wavelength four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) modulation with polarisation-multiplexing mechanism, the transmission capacity of fibre-FSO converged system is significantly enhanced to 224 Gbit/s (56 Gbit/s PAM4/wavelength × 2-wavelength × 2-polarisation) for downlink/uplink transmission. Bit error rate and PAM4 eye diagrams (downstream/upstream) perform well over 25-km SMF transport with 500-m free-space transmission. This proposed two-way fibre-FSO converged system is a prominent one not only because of its development in the integration of fibre backbone with optical wireless extension, but also because of its advantage in two-way transmission for affording high downlink/uplink data rate with good transmission performance.

Xianyou Zhong ◽  
Quan Mei ◽  
Xiang Gao ◽  
Tianwei Huang

As the transient impulse components in early fault signals are weak and easily buried by strong background noise, the fault features of rolling bearings are difficult to be extracted effectively. Focusing on this issue, a novel method based on improved direct fast iterative filtering and spectral amplitude modulation (IDFIF-SAM) is presented for detecting the early fault of rolling bearings. First, the ratio of the average crest factor of autocorrelation envelope spectrum to the average envelope entropy is taken as the fitness function to search the optimal parameters of direct fast iterative filtering (DFIF) adaptively via particle swarm optimization (PSO). Then, the efficient kurtosis entropy (EKE) index is being employed to choose the suitable components to reconstruct the signal. Finally, the reconstructed signal is subjected to spectral amplitude modulation (SAM) to strengthen the impulse features. The superiority of improved direct fast iterative filtering (IDFIF) over fixed-parameter DFIF, fast iterative filtering (FIF), and hard thresholding fast iterative filtering (HTFIF) is clarified through the simulated signal. Moreover, the comparative experimental analysis shows that the proposed IDFIF-SAM method can identify the early fault feature of rolling bearings more effectively.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107504
Vinay S.N. Mishra ◽  
Tomasz J. Ochalski ◽  
Noel McCarthy ◽  
André Brodkorb ◽  
Brian J. Rodriguez ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 155
Yanyan Zhang ◽  
Sheng Chang ◽  
Robert Wang ◽  
Peng Li ◽  
Yongwei Zhang ◽  

Quadrature-polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (quad-pol SAR) has extensive applications, including climate zones classification, extraction of surface roughness, soil moisture mapping, moving target indication, and rice mapping. Hybrid quad-pol SAR ameliorates the range ambiguity performance of conventional quad-pol SAR. However, the azimuth ambiguity of its cross-polarized (cross-pol) echo signals is serious, limiting the swath width of SAR. Therefore, this paper proposes a spaceborne weighted amplitude modulation (WAM) full-polarimetric (full-pol) SAR system, and it can suppress the azimuth ambiguity of hybrid quad-pol SAR. The performance boost of the azimuth ambiguity by the two imaging modes of the proposed SAR system is detailed and evaluated with the L-band system parameters. Moreover, the chirp scaling algorithm (CSA) is adopted to execute scene simulations for the two imaging modes. The results indicate that the proposed SAR system can effectively suppress the azimuth ambiguity of hybrid quad-pol SAR and verify the theoretical analysis.

2021 ◽  
pp. 107754632110608
Song Cui ◽  
Bin Liu

The methods of generating stationary random signals, both Gaussian and non-Gaussian, are quite complete, but the researches on the non-stationary signals are insufficient. Especially, the current methods seldom provide mathematical bases about the kurtoses of the produced signals such that the generations of non-stationary non-Gaussian signals with the desired kurtoses are inefficient, which also decrease the flexibility of the real-time control in shaker table tests. In the article, the amplitude modulation method is employed to realize the signal synthesis. The carrier waves of the method are investigated considering the bursts overlapping situations. At first, the explicit equations between the kurtoses of the synthesized signals and the three crucial parameters (the offset, the distance between a pair of adjacent bursts and the parameter of the Beta-distributed random variables) are deduced for the carrier waves with both overlapped bursts and non-overlapped busts. Meanwhile, to solve the power spectral density variation led by the amplitude modulation method, an explicit expression of a rescaling parameter is also proposed. Furthermore, the impacts of the three parameters are investigated; the focus of the investigation is on how the kurtoses of the synthesized signals are changed by the parameters. Based on the results of the investigation, a test procedure is put forward to apply the proposed equations in a shaker table test. The control process of the test demonstrates that the real-time kurtoses control can be achieved efficiently with the help of the newly proposed equations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 932 ◽  
André V.G. Cavalieri ◽  
Erico L. Rempel ◽  
Petrônio A.S. Nogueira

The present work studies the nonlinear dynamics of a shear layer, driven by a body force and confined between parallel walls, a simplified setting to study transitional and turbulent shear layers. It was introduced by Nogueira & Cavalieri (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 907, 2021, A32), and is here studied using a reduced-order model based on a Galerkin projection of the Navier–Stokes system. By considering a confined shear layer with free-slip boundary conditions on the walls, periodic boundary conditions in streamwise and spanwise directions may be used, simplifying the system and enabling the use of methods of dynamical systems theory. A basis of eight modes is used in the Galerkin projection, representing the mean flow, Kelvin–Helmholtz vortices, rolls, streaks and oblique waves, structures observed in the cited work, and also present in shear layers and jets. A dynamical system is obtained, and its transition to chaos is studied. Increasing Reynolds number $Re$ leads to pitchfork and Hopf bifurcations, and the latter leads to a limit cycle with amplitude modulation of vortices, as in the direct numerical simulations by Nogueira & Cavalieri. Further increase of $Re$ leads to the appearance of a chaotic saddle, followed by the emergence of quasi-periodic and chaotic attractors. The chaotic attractors suffer a merging crisis for higher $Re$ , leading to a chaotic dynamics with amplitude modulation and phase jumps of vortices. This is reminiscent of observations of coherent structures in turbulent jets, suggesting that the model represents a dynamics consistent with features of shear layers and jets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 119 (24) ◽  
pp. 241105
Jitao Li ◽  
Jie Li ◽  
Chenglong Zheng ◽  
Zhen Yue ◽  
Dingyu Yang ◽  

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