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Biomedicines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 142
Margareta Žlajpah ◽  
Kristian Urh ◽  
Jan Grosek ◽  
Nina Zidar ◽  
Emanuela Boštjančič

Decorin (DCN) is one of the matricellular proteins that participate in normal cells’ function as well as in cancerogenesis. While its expression in primary tumours is well known, there is limited data about its expression in metastases. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulation of DCN is still questionable, although it is well accepted that it is an important mechanism of developing metastatic cancer. The aim of our study was to analyse the expression of DCN and its potential regulatory ncRNAs in metastatic colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Nineteen patients with metastatic CRC were included. Using qPCR, we analysed the expression of DCN, miR-200c and five lncRNAs (LUCAT1, MALAT1, lncTCF7, XIST, and ZFAS1) in lymph node and liver metastases in comparison to the invasive front and central part of a primary tumour. Our results showed insignificant upregulation of DCN and significant upregulation for miR-200c, MALAT1, lncTCF7 and ZFAS1 in metastases compared to the primary tumour. miR-200c showed a positive correlation with DCN, and the aforementioned lncRNAs exhibited a significant positive correlation with miR-200c expression in metastatic CRC. Our results suggest that DCN as well as miR-200c, MALAT1, lncTCF7 and ZFAS1 contribute to the development of metastases in CRC and that regulation of DCN expression in CRC by ncRNAs is accomplished in an indirect manner.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 96
Agnieszka Kula ◽  
Miriam Dawidowicz ◽  
Sylwia Mielcarska ◽  
Paweł Kiczmer ◽  
Magdalena Chrabańska ◽  

Background and Objectives: To assess the periostin level and the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines: TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-17 in tumor and marginal tissues of CRC and to investigate the influence of periostin on angiogenesis by MVD (microvessel density) and concentration of VEGF-A in relation to clinicopathological parameters of patients. Materials and Methods: The study used 47 samples of tumor and margin tissues derived from CRC patients. To determinate the concentration of periostin, VEGF-A, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-1β and IL-17, we used the commercially available enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay kit. MVD was assessed on CD34-stained specimens. The MVD and budding were assessed using a light microscope Results: We found significantly higher concentrations of periostin, VEGF-A, IFN-γ, IL-1 β, IL-17 and TNFα in the tumor samples compared with surgical tissue margins. The tumor concentrations of periostin were correlated with tumor levels of VEGF-A, IFN-γ, IL-1β and TNFα. We observed significant correlation between margin periostin and VEGF-A, IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNFα in tumor and margin specimens. Additionally, we found a significantly negative correlation between periostin tumor concentration and microvessel density at the invasive front. Tumor periostin levels were also correlated positively with tumor budding. Conclusions: Periostin activity may be associated with pro-inflammatory cytokine levels: TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-17. Our results also suggest the role of periostin in angiogenesis in CRC and its upregulation in poorly vascularized tumors. Further research on the regulations between periostin and cytokines are necessary to understand the interactions between tumor and immune tumor microenvironment, which could be helpful in the development of new targeted therapy.

Morphologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 119-124
L.A. Naleskina ◽  
T.V. Zadvornyi ◽  
L.M. Kunska ◽  
N.Y. Lukianova

Background. Nowadays, it has been proven that along with the invasion of individual tumor cells, their group migration occurs in the invasive front of the tumor, and this is an important factor in tumor progression. Objective: to determine the features of tumor cell invasion in the invasive front (IF) of invasive ductal breast cancer (BCa) without special specific features (IC NST) and to establish associative links between them and the clinical and pathological characteristics of the disease. Methods. The study was performed on BCa samples (after hematoxylin and eosin stained) from 120 patients with invasive ductal BCa I-II stage with G2 grade of tumor differentiation that didn’t receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results. Tumors were divided into 3 groups: with predominance of parenchymal component (PC), with the larger component of connective tissue, and relatively equivalent ratio of these components. Within the IF of the studied tumors of patients with ІІ stage of the tumor process, group invasion of tumor structures was mainly determined, both separately and in combination. In particular, an increase in solid structures in tumors with a predominance of the PC, and in neoplasms with expressed desmoplastic changes in connective tissue and their advantage, - alveolar, tubular, discrete. Conclusion. In tumors of patients with invasive ductal BCa in the invasive front is dominated by collective migration of tumor cells, which is the starting mechanism of tumor progression and the first step of the metastatic process. Defined associative links between the features of tumor cell invasion and the clinical and pathological characteristics of the tumor process in BCa patients can be used in predicting this form of cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Lenka Kalinkova ◽  
Nataliia Nikolaieva ◽  
Bozena Smolkova ◽  
Sona Ciernikova ◽  
Karol Kajo ◽  

Background: Dissemination of breast cancer (BC) cells through the hematogenous or lymphogenous vessels leads to metastatic disease in one-third of BC patients. Therefore, we investigated the new prognostic features for invasion and metastasis. Methods: We evaluated the expression of miRNAs and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes in relation to CDH1/E-cadherin changes in samples from 31 patients with invasive ductal BC including tumor centrum (TU-C), tumor invasive front (TU-IF), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and CD45-depleted blood (CD45-DB). Expression of miRNA and mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR arrays and associations with clinico-pathological characteristics were statistically evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: We did not verify CDH1 regulating associations previously described in cell lines. However, we did detect extremely high ZEB1 expression in LNMs from patients with distant metastasis, but without regulation by miR-205-5p. Considering the ZEB1 functions, this overexpression indicates enhancement of metastatic potential of lymphogenously disseminated BC cells. In CD45-DB samples, downregulated miR-205-5p was found in those expressing epithelial and/or mesenchymal markers (CTC+) that could contribute to insusceptibility and survival of hematogenously disseminated BC cells mediated by increased expression of several targets including ZEB1. Conclusions: miR-205-5p and potentially ZEB1 gene are promising candidates for markers of metastatic potential in ductal BC.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7519
Ivana Barravecchia ◽  
Elisabetta Barresi ◽  
Camilla Russo ◽  
Francesca Scebba ◽  
Chiara De Cesari ◽  

Molecule interacting with CasL 2 (MICAL2), a cytoskeleton dynamics regulator, are strongly expressed in several human cancer types, especially at the invasive front, in metastasizing cancer cells and in the neo-angiogenic vasculature. Although a plethora of data exist and stress a growing relevance of MICAL2 to human cancer, it is worth noting that only one small-molecule inhibitor, named CCG-1423 (1), is known to date. Herein, with the aim to develop novel MICAL2 inhibitors, starting from CCG-1423 (1), a small library of new compounds was synthetized and biologically evaluated on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and on renal cell adenocarcinoma (786-O) cells. Among the novel compounds, 10 and 7 gave interesting results in terms of reduction in cell proliferation and/or motility, whereas no effects were observed in MICAL2-knocked down cells. Aside from the interesting biological activities, this work provides the first structure–activity relationships (SARs) of CCG-1423 (1), thus providing precious information for the discovery of new MICAL2 inhibitors.

Swapan Kumar Purkait ◽  
. Abhinandan ◽  
Nimisha Priya ◽  
Sriyanshi Singh ◽  
Sneha Singh

Oral submucous fibrosis is a premalignant condition, characterized by fibrosis in oral mucosa causing stiffness of mucosa and leading to reduced mouth opening. The malignant transformation of oral submucous fibrosis is very high among the rest of the premalignant conditions. Chronic chewing of arecanut causes production of myofibroblasts. These myofibroblasts plays an important role in neoangiogenesis as well as disintegration of the basement membrane at the tumor invasive front leading to carcinoma.  Here, we are doing an Immunohistochemical study using alpha SMA for proper microscopic visulizations of myofibroblastic activity in an OSF patient, encompassing the pathogenesis and malignant potentiality of the disease.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2101923
Yulun Huang ◽  
Lin Qi ◽  
Mari Kogiso ◽  
Yuchen Du ◽  
Frank K. Braun ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 153699
Shinichiro Tahara ◽  
Masaharu Kohara ◽  
Kazuaki Sato ◽  
Eiichi Morii

2021 ◽  
Ling-Fang Gao ◽  
Yan Zhong ◽  
Ting Long ◽  
Xia Wang ◽  
Jia-Xian Zhu ◽  

Abstract Background: Tumor buddings have been included in the routine diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and considered to be a tumor prognostic factor independent of TNM staging. This study aimed at identifying the contribution of tumor budding-derived C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) to tumor microenvironment (TME) through fibroblasts. Methods: Co-cultivation recruitment assays and human cytokine array were used to detect the main cytokine derived from CRC tumor buddings to recruit fibroblasts. siRNA transfection and inhibitor treatment were applied to investigate the effective receptor of CCL5 on fibroblasts. Transcriptome sequencing was performed to explore the mechanism inside fibroblasts when stimulated by CCL5. Stimulation with CCL5 in vitro, orthotopic xenograft mouse model and clinical specimens were designed to clarify the contribution of CCL5 to angiogenesis and collagen synthesis.Results: H&E and immunochemistry staining confirmed that CRC with tumor buddings in the invasive front was accompanied by more fibroblasts compared with CRC without tumor buddings. Further vitro study indicated that CCL5 derived from tumor buddings could recruit fibroblasts through CCR5 receptor on fibroblasts and positively regulate solute carrier family 25 member 24 (SLC25A24) expression in fibroblasts, which could activate pAkt-pmTOR signaling. Moreover, CCL5 can increase the number of α-SMA+CD90+FAP- fibroblasts to promote tumor angiogenesis through enhancing the expression of VEGFA and making fibroblasts transdifferentiate into vascular endothelial cells. Meanwhile, CCL5 also can promote collagen synthesis through fibroblasts, thus contributing to tumor progression.Conclusions: In the invasive front of CRC, tumor-budding-derived CCL5 can recruit fibroblasts through CCR5-SLC25A24 signaling, further promoting angiogenesis and collagen synthesis through fibroblasts, eventually creating a tumor-promoting microenvironment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 220 (11) ◽  
Emir Bozkurt ◽  
Heiko Düssmann ◽  
Manuela Salvucci ◽  
Brenton L. Cavanagh ◽  
Sandra Van Schaeybroeck ◽  

Entosis is a form of nonphagocytic cell-in-cell (CIC) interaction where a living cell enters into another. Tumors show evidence of entosis; however, factors controlling entosis remain to be elucidated. Here, we find that besides inducing apoptosis, TRAIL signaling is a potent activator of entosis in colon cancer cells. Initiation of both apoptosis and entosis requires TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5; however, induction of apoptosis and entosis diverges at caspase-8 as its structural presence is sufficient for induction of entosis but not apoptosis. Although apoptosis and entosis are morphologically and biochemically distinct, knockout of Bax and Bak, or inhibition of caspases, also inhibits entotic cell death and promotes survival and release of inner cells. Analysis of colorectal cancer tumors reveals a significant association between TRAIL signaling and CIC structures. Finally, the presence of CIC structures in the invasive front regions of colorectal tumors shows a strong correlation with adverse patient prognosis.

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