prognostic features
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Arutha Kulasinghe ◽  
James Monkman ◽  
Esha T. Shah ◽  
Nicholas Matigian ◽  
Mark N. Adams ◽  

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that has few effective treatment options due to its lack of targetable hormone receptors. Whilst the degree of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has been shown to associate with therapy response and prognosis, deeper characterization of the molecular diversity that may mediate chemotherapeutic response is lacking. Here we applied targeted proteomic analysis of both chemotherapy sensitive and resistant TNBC tissue samples by the Nanostring GeoMx Digital Spatial Platform (DSP). By quantifying 68 targets in the tumour and tumour microenvironment (TME) compartments and performing differential expression analysis between responsive and non-responsive tumours, we show that increased ER-alpha expression and decreased 4-1BB and MART1 within the stromal compartments is associated with adjuvant chemotherapy response. Similarly, higher expression of GZMA, STING and fibronectin and lower levels of CD80 were associated with response within tumour compartments. Univariate overall-survival (OS) analysis of stromal proteins supported these findings, with ER-alpha expression (HR=0.19, p=0.0012) associated with better OS while MART1 expression (HR=2.3, p=0.035) was indicative of poorer OS. Proteins within tumour compartments consistent with longer OS included PD-L1 (HR=0.53, p=0.023), FOXP3 (HR=0.5, p=0.026), GITR (HR=0.51, p=0.036), SMA (HR=0.59, p=0.043), while EPCAM (HR=1.7, p=0.045), and CD95 (HR=4.9, p=0.046) expression were associated with shorter OS. Our data provides early insights into the levels of these markers in the TNBC tumour microenvironment, and their association with chemotherapeutic response and patient survival.

Tomography ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 77-88
Giuseppe Brescia ◽  
Giacomo Contro ◽  
Alessandra Ruaro ◽  
Anna Chiara Frigo ◽  
Umberto Barion ◽  

This study investigated the relationship between sinonasal inflammatory involvement according to the computed tomography (CT) staging system (Lund–Mackay score) with clinical, laboratory, histopathological and prognostic features of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Seventy-eight patients with CRSwNP who had undergone surgery were enrolled. Total (p = 0.0062), ethmoid (p = 0.0496), sphenoid (p = 0.0335), ostiomeatal complex (OMC) (p = 0.0235) and frontal (p = 0.0164) CT scores were predictive of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD) in the univariate analysis. Total (p = 0.0022), ethmoid (p = 0.0290), sphenoid (p = 0.0370), frontal (p = 0.0116), maxillary (p = 0.0357) and OMC (p = 0.0058) CT scores were predictve of asthma at the univariate analysis. No significant differences were found between patients with vs. without allergy in terms of total and partial CT scores. High blood eosinophil counts (>0.24 vs. ≤0.24 cells × 109/L) resulted in being associated with total (p = 0.0213), maxillary (p = 0.0227) and ethmoid (p = 0.0491) CT scores in the univariate analysis. Higher ethmoid (p = 0.0006) and total sinonasal (p = 0.0027) CT scores were found to predict histopathologically eosinophil CRSwNPs in the univariate analysis. CT scores did not result as predictive of NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease, asthma, or blood eosinophil count at the multivariate analysis. Risk of relapse was related to the presence of NERD (p = 0.0207, HR [95% CI] 3.914 [1.232–12.435]), higher preoperative total (HR = 1.098 95%CI: 1.001–1.204, p = 0.0486) and frontal sinus CT scores (HR = 1.555 95%CI: 1.006–1.886, p = 0.0218), but these results were not confirmed by the multivariable analysis. Sinonasal CT scores showed significant differences in this heterogeneous inflammatory condition. Identifying CRSwNP characteristics is necessary to avoid generic treatments with poor outcomes.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 239
Kalle E. Mattila ◽  
Paula Vainio ◽  
Panu M. Jaakkola

Approximately 20% of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) present with primarily metastatic disease and over 30% of patients with localized RCC will develop distant metastases later, after complete resection of the primary tumor. Accurate postoperative prognostic models are essential for designing personalized surveillance programs, as well as for designing adjuvant therapy and trials. Several clinical and histopathological prognostic factors have been identified and adopted into prognostic algorithms to assess the individual risk for disease recurrence after radical or partial nephrectomy. However, the prediction accuracy of current prognostic models has been studied in retrospective patient cohorts and the optimal set of prognostic features remains unclear. In addition to traditional histopathological prognostic factors, novel biomarkers, such as gene expression profiles and circulating tumor DNA, are extensively studied to supplement existing prognostic algorithms to improve their prediction accuracy. Here, we aim to give an overview of existing prognostic features and prediction models for localized postoperative clear cell RCC and discuss their role in the adjuvant therapy trials. The results of ongoing placebo-controlled adjuvant therapy trials may elucidate prognostic factors and biomarkers that help to define patients at high risk for disease recurrence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. e003687
Francois Bertucci ◽  
Vincent Niziers ◽  
Alexandre de Nonneville ◽  
Pascal Finetti ◽  
Léna Mescam ◽  

BackgroundSoft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) are heterogeneous and aggressive tumors, with high metastatic risk. The immunologic constant of rejection (ICR) 20-gene signature is a signature of cytotoxic immune response. We hypothesized that ICR might improve the prognostic assessment of early-stage STS.MethodsWe retrospectively applied ICR to 1455 non-metastatic STS and searched for correlations between ICR classes and clinicopathological and biological variables, including metastasis-free survival (MFS).ResultsThirty-four per cent of tumors were classified as ICR1, 27% ICR2, 24% ICR3, and 15% ICR4. These classes were associated with patients’ age, pathological type, and tumor depth, and an enrichment from ICR1 to ICR4 of quantitative/qualitative scores of immune response. ICR1 class was associated with a 59% increased risk of metastatic relapse when compared with ICR2-4 class. In multivariate analysis, ICR classification remained associated with MFS, as well as pathological type and Complexity Index in Sarcomas (CINSARC) classification, suggesting independent prognostic value. A prognostic clinicogenomic model, including the three variables, was built in a learning set (n=339) and validated in an independent set (n=339), showing greater prognostic precision than each variable alone or in doublet. Finally, connectivity mapping analysis identified drug classes potentially able to reverse the expression profile of poor-prognosis tumors, such as chemotherapy and targeted therapies.ConclusionICR signature is independently associated with postoperative MFS in early-stage STS, independently from other prognostic features, including CINSARC. We built a robust prognostic clinicogenomic model integrating ICR, CINSARC, and pathological type, and suggested differential vulnerability of each prognostic group to different systemic therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. e2022013
Viviane Lamim Lovatel ◽  
Luize Otero ◽  
Ercole Pietro Orlando ◽  
Claudia Diniz ◽  
Filipe Vicente Dos Santos-Bueno ◽  

hematopoietic clonal neoplasms. MDS occurs mainly in elderly patients. KMT2A rearrangements (KMT2A-r) are rare in MDS, so little is known about their prognostic value. The present study describes the clinical characteristics of a young adult patient diagnosed with MDS-EB-2, presenting the t(11;16)(q23;q24). The Decitabine treatment was initiated since no matching donor was found. The patient showed improved anemia and thrombocytopenia. However, he still had severe neutropenia and clonal chromosomal alteration.   Two months after the fifth cycle of Decitabine, the patient presented a worsening of the clinical parameters with increased blast and evolution to AML. He was treated with intensification chemotherapy, but despite all efforts, the patient evolved to death. Treatment refractoriness and leukemia transformation suggest that t(11;16)(q23;q24) with KMT2A-r was associated with poor prognosis. This study reinforces the importance of characterizing new chromosomal alterations and their impact on prognosis in MDS.

Claudia Campani ◽  
Jean-Charles Nault

Global prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and of NAFLD-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is estimated to grow in the next years. The burden of NAFLD and the evidence that NAFLD-HCC arises also in non-cirrhotic patients, explain the urgent need of a better characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in NAFLD progression. Obesity and diabetes cause a chronic inflammatory state which favors changes in serum cytokines and adipokines, an increase in oxidative stress, DNA damage, and the activation of multiple signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation. Moreover, a role in promoting NAFLD-HCC has been highlighted in the innate and adaptive immune system, dysbiosis, and alterations in bile acids metabolism. Several dietary, genetic, or combined mouse models have been used to study nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development and its progression to HCC, but models that fully recapitulate the biological and prognostic features of human NASH are still lacking. In humans, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (PNPLA3, TM6SF2, GCKR, and MBOAT7) have been linked to the development of both NASH and HCC in cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, whereas HSD17B13 polymorphism has a protective effect. In addition, higher rates of somatic ACVR2A mutations and a novel mutational signature have been recently discovered in NASH-HCC patients. The knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD-HCC will be helpful to personalized screening programs and allow for primary and secondary chemopreventive treatments for NAFLD patients who are more likely to progress to HCC.

2021 ◽  
Xiao-ping Tan ◽  
Qing-li Zeng ◽  
Kai Zhou ◽  
Wei Chen

Abstract Objective: To study the clinical and prognostic features of non-B non-C alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (-)-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (NBNC-AFP(-)-HCC), and the relationship between the prognostic features of HCC and hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) status and AFP. Methods: We enrolled 227 patients underwent hepatic resection for HCC between January 1998 and December 2007 in Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, all of them were diagnosed with HCC by pathology. All patients were stratified into one of four groups (B-AFP(+)-HCC, B-AFP(-)-HCC, NBNC-AFP(+)-HCC, and NBNC-AFP(-)-HCC) according to AFP levels and HBsAg status. The clinicopathologic and survival characteristics of NBNC-AFP(-)-HCC patients were compared with all other three groups. Results: Out of the 105 NBNC-HCC patients, 43 patients (40.9%) were AFP-negative HCC. There were some differences in factors between the B-AFP(+) and NBNC-AFP(-) patients, such as age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, and ALT (P<0.05). On univariate analysis, tumor size, secondary tumor, and portal invasion were prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P<0.05). Cox multivariate regression analysis suggested that tumor size and tumor number (P<0.05) were independent predictors. In addition, compared with that in the B-AFP(+)-HCC, B-AFP(-)-HCC, and NBNC-AFP(+)-HCC groups, the NBNC-AFP(-)-HCC patients had the best DFS (P<0.05). Compared with that in the B-AFP(+)-HCC and NBNC-AFP(+)-HCC groups, the NBNC-AFP(-)-HCC patients had better OS(P<0.05), and survival rates were similar to those of B-AFP(-)-HCC patients. Conclusion: NBNC-AFP(-)-HCC patients had a relatively favorable prognosis. It can serve as a useful marker in predicting the risk of tumor recurrence in the early stages.

2021 ◽  
Mengyao Liu ◽  
Yonghong Li ◽  
Wei Xing ◽  
Yuqin Zhang ◽  
Xi Xie ◽  

Abstract BackgroundEffective and accurate screening of oncological biomarkers in peripheral blood circulation plays an increasingly vital role in diagnosis and prognosis. High-sensitivity assays can effectively aid clinical decision-making and intervene in cancer in a localized status before they metastasize and become unmanageable. Meanwhile, it is equally pivotal to prevent overdiagnosis of non-life-threatening cancer by eliminating unnecessary treatment and repeated blood draws. Unfortunately, current clinical screening methodologies can hardly simultaneously attain sufficient sensitivity and specificity, especially under resource-restrained circumstances. To circumvent such limitations, particularly for cancer biomarkers from early-onset and recurrence, we aim to develop a universal plasmonic platform for clinical applications, which macroscopically amplifies multiplexed fluorescence signals in a broad spectral window readily adapts to current assay setups without sophisticated accessories or expertise at low cost. MethodsThe plasmonic substrate was chemically synthesized in situ at the solid-liquid interface by rationally screening a panel of reducing monosaccharides and tuning the redox reactions at various catalyst densities and precursor concentrations. The redox properties were studied by Benedict’s assay and electrochemistry. We systemically characterized the morphologies and optical properties of the engineered plasmonic Ag structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy. The structure-fluorescence enhancement correlation was explicitly explained by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation and a computational model for gap distribution. Next, we established an enhanced fluoroimmunoassay (eFIA) using a model biomarker for prostate cancer (PCa) and validated it in healthy and PCa cohorts. Prognosis was explored in patients subject to surgical and hormonal interventions following recommended PCa guidelines. ResultsThe monosaccharide-mediated redox reaction yielded a broad category of Ag structures, including sparsely dispersed nanoparticles of various sizes, semi-continuous nanoislands, and crackless continuous films. Optimal broad-spectral fluorescence enhancement from green to far-red was observed for the inhomogeneous, irregularly-shaped semi-continuous Ag nanoisland substrate (AgNIS), synthesized from a well-balanced redox reaction at a stable rate mediated by mannose. In addition, different local electric field intensity distributions in response to various incident excitations were observed at the nanoscale, elucidating the need for irregular and inhomogeneous structures. AgNIS enabled a maximized 54.7-fold macroscopically amplified fluorescence and long-lasting photostability. Point-of-care availability was fulfilled using a customized smartphone prototype with well-paired optics. The eFIA effectively detected the PCa marker in cell lines, xenograft tumors, and patient sera. The plasmonic platform rendered a diagnostic sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 94.7% and capably staged high-grade PCa that the clinical gold standard test failed to stratify. Patient prognosis of surgical and hormonal interventions was non-invasively monitored following efficient medical interventions. The assay time was significantly curtailed on the plasmonic platform upon microwave irradiation. ConclusionsBy investigating the effects of monosaccharides on the seed-mediated chemical synthesis of plasmonic Ag structures, we deduced that potent multiplexed fluorescence enhancement originated from both an adequate reducing power and a steady reduction rate. Furthermore, the inhomogeneous structure with adequate medium gap distances afforded optimal multiwavelength fluorescence enhancement, thus empowering an effective eFIA for PCa. The clinically validated diagnostic and prognostic features, along with the low sample volume, point-of-care feasibility with a smartphone, and microwave-shortened assay time, warrant its potential clinical translation for widespread cancer biomarker analysis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 103
Lenka Kalinkova ◽  
Nataliia Nikolaieva ◽  
Bozena Smolkova ◽  
Sona Ciernikova ◽  
Karol Kajo ◽  

Background: Dissemination of breast cancer (BC) cells through the hematogenous or lymphogenous vessels leads to metastatic disease in one-third of BC patients. Therefore, we investigated the new prognostic features for invasion and metastasis. Methods: We evaluated the expression of miRNAs and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) genes in relation to CDH1/E-cadherin changes in samples from 31 patients with invasive ductal BC including tumor centrum (TU-C), tumor invasive front (TU-IF), lymph node metastasis (LNM), and CD45-depleted blood (CD45-DB). Expression of miRNA and mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR arrays and associations with clinico-pathological characteristics were statistically evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: We did not verify CDH1 regulating associations previously described in cell lines. However, we did detect extremely high ZEB1 expression in LNMs from patients with distant metastasis, but without regulation by miR-205-5p. Considering the ZEB1 functions, this overexpression indicates enhancement of metastatic potential of lymphogenously disseminated BC cells. In CD45-DB samples, downregulated miR-205-5p was found in those expressing epithelial and/or mesenchymal markers (CTC+) that could contribute to insusceptibility and survival of hematogenously disseminated BC cells mediated by increased expression of several targets including ZEB1. Conclusions: miR-205-5p and potentially ZEB1 gene are promising candidates for markers of metastatic potential in ductal BC.

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