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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Kendra R. Vann ◽  
Dhananjaya Pal ◽  
Audrey L. Smith ◽  
Namood-e Sahar ◽  
Maddeboina Krishnaiah ◽  

AbstractMantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma characterized by poor prognosis. The complexity of MCL pathogenesis arises from aberrant activities of diverse signaling pathways, including BTK, PI3K–AKT–mTOR and MYC-BRD4. Here, we report that MCL-related signaling pathways can be altered by a single small molecule inhibitor, SRX3305. Binding and kinase activities along with resonance changes in NMR experiments reveal that SRX3305 targets both bromodomains of BRD4 and is highly potent in inhibition of the PI3K isoforms α, γ and δ, as well as BTK and the drug-resistant BTK mutant. Preclinical investigations herein reveal that SRX3305 perturbs the cell cycle, promotes apoptosis in MCL cell lines and shows dose dependent anti-proliferative activity in both MCL and drug-resistant MCL cells. Our findings underscore the effectiveness of novel multi-action small molecule inhibitors for potential treatment of MCL.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 812
Lina Kolloch ◽  
Teresa Kreinest ◽  
Michael Meisterernst ◽  
Andrea Oeckinghaus

Inhibition of the dual function cell cycle and transcription kinase CDK7 is known to affect the viability of cancer cells, but the mechanisms underlying cell line-specific growth control remain poorly understood. Here, we employed a previously developed, highly specific small molecule inhibitor that non-covalently blocks ATP binding to CDK7 (LDC4297) to study the mechanisms underlying cell line-specific growth using a panel of genetically heterogeneous human pancreatic tumor lines as model system. Although LDC4297 diminished both transcription rates and CDK T-loop phosphorylation in a comparable manner, some PDAC lines displayed significantly higher sensitivity than others. We focused our analyses on two well-responsive lines (Mia-Paca2 and Panc89) that, however, showed significant differences in their viability upon extended exposure to limiting LDC4297 concentrations. Biochemical and RNAseq analysis revealed striking differences in gene expression and cell cycle control. Especially the downregulation of a group of cell cycle control genes, among them CDK1/2 and CDC25A/C, correlated well to the observed viability differences in Panc89 versus Mia-Paca2 cells. A parallel downregulation of regulatory pathways supported the hypothesis of a feedforward programmatic effect of CDK7 inhibitors, eventually causing hypersensitivity of PDAC lines.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 132
Eloïne Bestion ◽  
Keivan Zandi ◽  
Sandrine Belouzard ◽  
Julien Andreani ◽  
Hubert Lepidi ◽  

Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 has spread quickly worldwide, leading to more than 280 million confirmed cases, including over 5,000,000 deaths. Interestingly, coronaviruses were found to subvert and hijack autophagic process to allow their viral replication. Autophagy-modulating compounds thus rapidly emerged as an attractive strategy to fight SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the well-known chloroquine (CQ). Here, we investigated the antiviral activity and associated mechanism of GNS561/Ezurpimtrostat, a small lysosomotropic molecule inhibitor of late-stage autophagy. Interestingly, GNS561 exhibited antiviral activity of 6–40 nM depending on the viral strain considered, currently positioning it as the most powerful molecule investigated in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We then showed that GNS561 was located in lysosome-associated-membrane-protein-2-positive (LAMP2-positive) lysosomes, together with SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, GNS561 increased LC3-II spot size and caused the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and the presence of multilamellar bodies, suggesting that GNS561 disrupted the autophagy mechanism. To confirm our findings, we used the K18-hACE2 mouse model and highlighted that GNS561 treatment led to a decline in SARS-CoV-2 virions in the lungs associated with a disruption of the autophagy pathway. Overall, our study highlights GNS561 as a powerful drug in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and supports the hypothesis that autophagy blockers could be an alternative strategy for COVID-19.

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Nikolaos Trasanidis ◽  
Alexia Katsarou ◽  
Kanagaraju Ponnusamy ◽  
Yao-An Shen ◽  
Ioannis V Kostopoulos ◽  

Understanding the biological and clinical impact of copy number aberrations (CNA) for the development of precision therapies in cancer remains an unmet challenge. Genetic amplification of chromosome 1q (chr1q-amp) is a major CNA conferring adverse prognosis in several types of cancer, including in the blood cancer multiple myeloma (MM). Although several genes across chr1q portend high-risk MM disease, the underpinning molecular aetiology remains elusive. Here, with reference to the 3D chromatin structure, we integrate MM patient multi-omics datasets with genetic variables to obtain an associated clinical risk map across chr1q and to identify 103 adverse prognosis genes in chr1q-amp MM. Prominent amongst these genes, the transcription factor PBX1 is ectopically expressed by genetic amplification and epigenetic activation of its own preserved 3D regulatory domain. By binding to reprogrammed super-enhancers, PBX1 directly regulates critical oncogenic pathways and a FOXM1-dependent transcriptional programme. Together, PBX1 and FOXM1 activate a proliferative gene signature which predicts adverse prognosis across multiple types of cancer. Notably, pharmacological disruption of the PBX1-FOXM1 axis with existing agents (thiostrepton) and a novel PBX1 small-molecule inhibitor (T417) is selectively toxic against chr1q-amplified myeloma and solid tumour cells. Overall, our systems medicine approach successfully identifies CNA-driven oncogenic circuitries, links them to clinical phenotypes and proposes novel CNA-targeted therapy strategies in multiple myeloma and other types of cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010166
Thao Thanh Tran ◽  
Carmen D. Mathmann ◽  
Marcela Gatica-Andrades ◽  
Rachel F. Rollo ◽  
Melanie Oelker ◽  

A hallmark of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes pathogenesis is bacterial escape from maturing entry vacuoles, which is required for rapid bacterial replication in the host cell cytoplasm and cell-to-cell spread. The bacterial transcriptional activator PrfA controls expression of key virulence factors that enable exploitation of this intracellular niche. The transcriptional activity of PrfA within infected host cells is controlled by allosteric coactivation. Inhibitory occupation of the coactivator site has been shown to impair PrfA functions, but consequences of PrfA inhibition for L. monocytogenes infection and pathogenesis are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of PrfA with a small molecule inhibitor occupying the coactivator site at 2.0 Å resolution. Using molecular imaging and infection studies in macrophages, we demonstrate that PrfA inhibition prevents the vacuolar escape of L. monocytogenes and enables extensive bacterial replication inside spacious vacuoles. In contrast to previously described spacious Listeria-containing vacuoles, which have been implicated in supporting chronic infection, PrfA inhibition facilitated progressive clearance of intracellular L. monocytogenes from spacious vacuoles through lysosomal degradation. Thus, inhibitory occupation of the PrfA coactivator site facilitates formation of a transient intravacuolar L. monocytogenes replication niche that licenses macrophages to effectively eliminate intracellular bacteria. Our findings encourage further exploration of PrfA as a potential target for antimicrobials and highlight that intra-vacuolar residence of L. monocytogenes in macrophages is not inevitably tied to bacterial persistence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Farbod Shojaei ◽  
Bob Goodenow ◽  
Gloria Lee ◽  
Fairooz Kabbinavar ◽  
Mireille Gillings

HBI-8000 is a small molecule inhibitor of class I HDACs and has been approved for the treatment of PTCL, ATL and, in combination with exemestane, in a subpopulation of breast cancer. Given the roles of HDACs in normal and cancerous cells, there are currently multiple clinical trials, by HUYABIO International, to test the efficacy of HBI-8000 in monotherapy or in combination settings in leukemias and in solid tumors. The current review is focused on the applications of HDACi HBI-8000 in cancer therapy and its potential in combination with DDR agents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Khashayar Roohollahi ◽  
Yvonne de Jong ◽  
Govind Pai ◽  
Mohamad Amr Zaini ◽  
Klaas de Lint ◽  

AbstractHead-and-neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are relatively common in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), a hereditary chromosomal instability disorder. Standard chemo-radiation therapy is not tolerated in FA due to an overall somatic hypersensitivity to such treatment. The question is how to find a suitable alternative treatment. We used whole-exome and whole genome mRNA sequencing to identify major genomic and transcriptomic events associated with FA-HNSCC. CRISPR-engineered FA-knockout models were used to validate a number of top hits that were likely to be druggable. We identified deletion of 18q21.2 and amplification of 11q22.2 as prevailing copy-number alterations in FA HNSCCs, the latter of which was associated with strong overexpression of the cancer-related genes YAP1, BIRC2, BIRC3 (at 11q22.1-2). We then found the drug AZD5582, a known small molecule inhibitor of BIRC2-3, to selectively kill FA tumor cells that overexpressed BIRC2-3. This occurred at drug concentrations that did not affect the viability of untransformed FA cells. Our data indicate that 11q22.2 amplifications are relatively common oncogenic events in FA-HNSCCs, as holds for non FA-HNSCC. Therefore, chemotherapeutic inhibition of overexpressed BIRC2-3 may provide the basis for an approach to develop a clinically realistic treatment of FA-HNSCCs that carry 11q22.2 amplifications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Padmini Sirish ◽  
Daphne A. Diloretto ◽  
Phung N. Thai ◽  
Nipavan Chiamvimonvat

Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains the most common arrhythmia seen clinically. The incidence of AF is increasing due to the aging population. AF is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality, yet current treatment paradigms have proven largely inadequate. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new effective therapeutic strategies for AF. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the heart plays critical roles in the regulation of excitation-contraction coupling and cardiac function. Perturbation in the ER homeostasis due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and ischemia, leads to ER stress that has been linked to multiple conditions including diabetes mellitus, neurodegeneration, cancer, heart disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. Recent studies have documented the critical roles of ER stress in the pathophysiological basis of AF. Using an animal model of chronic pressure overload, we demonstrate a significant increase in ER stress in atrial tissues. Moreover, we demonstrate that treatment with a small molecule inhibitor to inhibit the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme in the arachidonic acid metabolism significantly reduces ER stress as well as atrial electrical and structural remodeling. The current review article will attempt to provide a perspective on our recent understandings and current knowledge gaps on the critical roles of proteostasis and ER stress in AF progression.

2022 ◽  
Stefanie Krug ◽  
Pankaj Prasad ◽  
Shiqi Xiao ◽  
Shichun Lun ◽  
Camilo A. Ruiz-Bedoya ◽  

Tuberculosis (TB) is a devastating infectious disease that continues to cause millions of human deaths every year. Even though most cases of TB can be cured with a 6-month antibiotic combination therapy, these long treatment durations have led to the emergence of multi-drug resistance and pose a major hurdle to global TB control. Despite numerous advances in TB drug development, a substantially shortened treatment time has yet to be achieved. Given the rise in antibiotic resistance, an alternative strategy to the direct targeting of M. tuberculosis (M.tb) is the development of host-directed therapies (HDTs) that promote bacterial clearance and/or lung health when given adjunctive to standard TB antibiotics. We recently discovered that a small molecule inhibitor of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR), which is abnormally activated in TB and associated with the formation of necrotic granulomas, reduced M.tb numbers and lung inflammation in mice. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of adjunctive ISR inhibition in the context of standard TB therapy. Throughout the course of treatment, ISR inhibition robustly lowered bacterial burdens compared to standard TB therapy alone and accelerated the time-to-sterility in mice, as demonstrated by significantly reduced relapse rates after 4 months of treatment. In addition, mice receiving adjunctive ISR inhibition tended to have reduced lung necrosis and inflammation. Together, our findings identify the ISR pathway as a promising therapeutic target with the potential of shortening TB treatment durations and improving lung health.

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