Total Proteins
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Yannick Baudouin Tchatat Petnga ◽  
Aimé Césaire Tetsatsi Momo ◽  
Modeste Wankeu-Nya ◽  
Désiré Munyali Alumeti ◽  
Georges Roméo Bonsou Fozin ◽  

Varicocele is a disease characterized by an abnormal dilation of the pampiniform plexus that drains the testis. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the curative effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Dracaena arborea on some reproductive and antioxidant markers in rats with experimental varicocele. Following varicocele induction, rats (5 per group) were randomly partitioned into untreated varicocele, vitamin E-treated (150 mg/kg), aqueous extract-treated (500 mg/kg), and ethanolic extract-treated (100 mg/kg) animals. Two other groups served as normal and sham-operated. After 2 or 4 weeks of treatments, body and sex organ weights, spermatozoa characteristics, antioxidant status, NO level, sex hormones, and testis histology were measured. Animals with 3 weeks of varicocele showed a significant ( p  < 0.05–0.001) decrease in body and sex organ weights, total proteins, sperm characteristics, testosterone concentration, SOD, catalase, and total peroxidase activities. An increase in the plasmatic FSH, LH, and testicular MDA and NO concentrations was also recorded. Moreover, marked disorganization of the testicular architecture was observed. Treatment with D. arborea significantly reversed these impairments due to varicocele. For instance, after 4 weeks, treatment with aqueous extract of D. arborea significantly ( p  < 0.05–0.001) increased testes and epididymis weights, sperm viability (89.12 ± 1.09 vs 68.22 ± 1.42), sperm density (148.50 ± 2.59 vs 110.25 ± 2.51), and sperm motility (68.16 ± 2.39 vs 55.88 ± 3.20) in the left side, compared with varicocele-untreated rats. The extract also significantly ( p  < 0.05–0.001) decreased malondialdehyde level (2.19 ± 0.04 vs 3.50 ± 0.13) but elevated catalase (0.97 ± 0.03 vs 0.55 ± 0.03), SOD (0.5 ± 0.03 vs 0.15 ± 0.03), and peroxidase (65.80 ± 2.9 vs 40.95 ± 2.44) activities. Present results showed that D. arborea extracts possess antioxidant effects and improve sperm quality in male rats with an existing varicocele.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Mohammed A. H. Abdelhakiem ◽  
Hussein Awad Hussein

Abstract Background Diseases of the central nervous system are a well-recognized cause of morbidity and mortality in equine. Collection and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) give information about the type and stage of degenerative and inflammatory diseases in central nervous system (CNS). The present research aimed to assess the clinical complications of CSF collections and to establish range values of cytological and biochemical parameters of CSF in adult healthy donkeys (Equus asinus). The CSF samples were collected from fifty healthy donkeys at the lumbosacral (LS) and atlanto-occipital (AO) sites. Results Hypothermia, tachycardia, ataxia and recumbency may develop post-puncture. Erythrocytes were noticed in 35 of 50 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0 to 6 cells/μL, and lymphocytes predominated the cells (61%). The concentration of glucose (1.2 to 5.3 mmol/L) was lower than that of serum (P < 0.05). The CSF sodium concentration (123 to 160 mmol/L) was approximately like that of serum, but potassium (1.5–3 mmol/L) was lower than that of serum (P < 0.01). Urea concentrations (1.1–2.9 mmol/L) were markedly lower than serum (P < 0.001). Concentrations of CSF total proteins, and albumin ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 g/dL, and from 0.002 to 0.013 g/dL, respectively. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.06 to 0.56. Conclusions Transient hypothermia, tachycardia, ataxia and recumbency may develop as clinical complications of CSF puncture procedures. The collection site has no impact on the constituents in CSF. Furthermore, this study presented the range values for normal cytological and biochemical constituents of CSF in donkeys (Equus asinus) that can provide a basis in comparison when evaluating CSF from donkeys with neurologic diseases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Wei Guo ◽  
Xiaodong Zhan ◽  
Feng Jiang ◽  
Yilong Xi

Abstract Background Allergies caused by pollen from Populus deltoides are common, but the allergic components are still unclear. Methods The total proteins in pollen of P. deltoides were analyzed by proteomics, and the potential allergens were identified via the WHO/IUIS database and the allergenOnline database retrieval. One target protein was screened by bioinformatics and expressed in Escherichia coli. The biological activity of the expressed product was verified by animal experiments. Results The total of 3929 proteins in pollen of P. deltoides were identified, and 46 potential allergens belonging to 10 protein families were recognized by database retrieval. B9N9W6 protein of Hsp70 family was screened by bioinformatics analysis and expressed successfully. ELISA showed that B9N9W6 can stimulate the immune system to produce specific IgE and promote the generation of IL-4. Flow cytometry showed that B9N9W6 can significantly stimulate the proliferation of CD4+ T cells and promote the polarization of Th2 cells. The pathological sections of mice lung tissues indicated that alveolar destruction was more severe in the B9N9W6 group than that of extract group, and there were more inflammatory cells infiltration, mucus exudation and bleeding. Conclusion B9N9W6 is an important antigenic substance in the pollen of P. deltoides. Due to the conserved structure of Hsp70 family, more attention should be paid to the possibility of sensitization when Hsp70 from any pathogenic species is administered.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 2554
Omar Ahmed-Farid ◽  
Ayman S. Salah ◽  
Mohamed Abdo Nassan ◽  
Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany

The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of chronic thermal stress on the performance, energy metabolism, liver CoQ10, brain serotonin, and blood parameters of broiler chickens. In total, 100 one-day-old chicks were divided into two equal groups of five replicates. At 22 days of age and thereafter, the first group (TN) was maintained at a thermoneutral condition (23 ± 1 °C), while the second group (TS) was subjected to 8 h of thermal stress (34 °C). The heat-stressed group showed significantly lower ADFI but higher FCR than the thermoneutral group (p = 0.030 and 0.041, respectively). The TS group showed significantly higher serum cholesterol, ALT, and AST (p = 0.033, 0.024, and 0.010, respectively). Meanwhile, the TS group showed lower serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, and Na+ than the TN group (p = 0.001, 0.025, 0.032, and 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, the TS group showed significantly lower SOD and catalase in heart tissues (p = 0.005 and 0.001, respectively). The TS group showed significantly lower liver ATP than the TN group (p = 0.005). Meanwhile, chronic thermal stress significantly increased the levels of ADP and AMP in the liver tissues of broiler chickens (p = 0.004 and 0.029, respectively). The TS group showed significantly lower brain serotonin (p = 0.004) and liver CoQ10 (p = 0.001) than the TN group. It could be concluded that thermal stress disturbed the antioxidant defense system and energy metabolism and exhausted ATP levels in the liver tissues of broiler chickens. Interestingly, chronic thermal stress reduced the level of brain serotonin and the activity of CoQ10 in liver tissues.

2021 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
Dragan Milićević ◽  
Greta Krešić ◽  
Danijela Vranić ◽  
Tina Lešić ◽  
Jelana Nedeljković-Trailović ◽  

The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional properties of raw milk, cheese and a traditional creamy dairy product called kajmak originating from the Zlatibor region in Serbia. Chemical composition, minerals, fatty acid (FA) profile, lipid quality indices, and the dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), cholesterol, salt and sodium were investigated in three sampling sessions during the period June–September 2019. All chemical properties of raw milk, cheese and kajmak differed significantly (P&lt;0.05), except lactose, salt and total proteins. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was present in the highest share, followed by oleic (C18:1cis-9) and myrstic (C14:0) acids, with no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) between products. Among the FAs, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were determined, and mean values of total FAs ranged from 0.16% in raw milk and kajmak to 0.31% in cheese. The recommended values for the lipid quality indices were not obtained for the analysed products. Despite a high sodium content, the tested dairy products can be considered valuable sources of calcium, chromium, zinc and selenium. In the future, additional efforts should be employed in product modification with the aim of optimising nutritional value and to obtain the protect designation of origin.

2021 ◽  
Dongjin Qing ◽  
Yinghua Pan ◽  
Gaoxing Dai ◽  
Lijun Gao ◽  
Haifu Liang ◽  

Low temperature is one of the important environmental factors that affect rice growth and yield. To better understand the japonica rice responses to cold stress, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling based quantitative proteomics approach was used to detected changes in protein level. Two-week-old seedlings of the cold tolerance rice variety Kongyu131 were treated at 8? for 24, 48 and 72 h, then the total proteins were extracted from tissues and used for quantitative proteomics analysis. A total of 5082 proteins were detected for quantitative analysis, of which 289 proteins were significantly regulated, consisting of 169 uniquely up-regulated proteins and 125 uniquely down-regulated proteins in cold stress groups relative to control group. Functional analysis revealed most of regulation proteins involved in photosynthesis, metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and carbon metabolism. Western blot analysis showed that protein regulation was consistent with the iTRAQ data. The corresponding genes of 25 regulation proteins were used for quantitative real time PCR analysis, and the results showed that the mRNA level was not always parallel to the corresponding protein level. The importance of our study is providing new insights into cold stress responses in rice on proteomic aspect.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 39-45
Omnia El-sayed ◽  
Mohamed Kandiel ◽  
Sally Ibrahim ◽  
Karima Mahmound ◽  

This study aimed at evaluating the litter size influence on fetal growth (marked by biparietal diameter), steroid hormones (estradiol and progesterone), oxidative stress markers [Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA)], total proteins, and serum-free RNA. Goats (n=150) were blood sampled and assessed ultrasonographically during the mid-stage of pregnancy (6th to 14th week) and were classified into non-pregnant (n=64), single (n= 55) twine (n= 25), and triple (n= 6) pregnancy according to a number of feti. The correlation coefficient of caprine fetal growth was R² = 0.9609, 0.9418, and, 0.928 in single, twin, and triple feti, respectively. The area under the curve of the fetal growth was 286.2, 282.1, and 263.4 for single, twin, and triple caprine fetuses. The mean reduction rate in fetal growth compared to singleton pregnancy was 1.65±1.03 and 8.32±2.41 % in twine and triple feti, respectively. Estradiol significantly (P< 0.05) decreased, while progesterone (P< 0.01) and serum-free RNA (P< 0.001) increased in pregnant animals compared to non-pregnant. TAC and MDA increased in multiple pregnancies compared to non-pregnancy in association with the decrease of SOD and catalase activities. GPx activity and total proteins substantially decreased in triple pregnancy than non-pregnancy. Cell-free RNA negatively correlated with estradiol, CAT, GPx, and total proteins, and positively correlated with P4, TAC, and MDA. In conclusion, litter size greatly impacted fetal growth, maternal steroids, and serum-free RNA, and preload to oxidative stressmediated health disorders in pregnant goats.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (16) ◽  
pp. 4858
Stefano De Benedetti ◽  
Valeria Girlando ◽  
Matias Pasquali ◽  
Alessio Scarafoni

Okara is a soybean transformation agri-food by-product, the massive production of which currently poses severe disposal issues. However, its composition is rich in seed storage proteins, which, once extracted, can represent an interesting source of bioactive peptides. Antimicrobial and antifungal proteins and peptides have been described in plant seeds; thus, okara is a valuable source of compounds, exploitable for integrated pest management. The aim of this work is to describe a rapid and economic procedure to isolate proteins from okara, and to produce an enzymatic proteolyzed product, active against fungal plant pathogens. The procedure allowed the isolation and recovery of about 30% of okara total proteins. Several proteolytic enzymes were screened to identify the proper procedure to produce antifungal compounds. Antifungal activity of the protein digested for 24 h with pancreatin against Fusarium and R. solani mycelial growth and Pseudomonas spp was assessed. A dose-response inhibitory activity was established against fungi belonging to the Fusarium genus. The exploitation of okara to produce antifungal bioactive peptides has the potential to turn this by-product into a paradigmatic example of circular economy, since a field-derived food waste is transformed into a source of valuable compounds to be used in field crops protection.

Suruchi Sharma ◽  
Geetanjali Singh ◽  
Rishika Vij ◽  
Varun Sankhyan ◽  
Krishanender Dinesh

Background: Crossbreeds of indigenous chicken are suitable for sustainable rural farming practices in developing countries as they are better adapted to local environment than pure breeds. Study was conducted to compare physical and biochemical parameters of egg between indigenous crossbreed of chicken (DND) locally called Himsamridhi and exotic chicken breed Dahlem Red (DR) under similar rearing conditions. Methods: 45 egg samples were collected from DND and 45 from DR. Physical characteristics and biochemical parameters of eggs were determined. Further, effect of these egg characteristics on hatching and progeny health were investigated. Result: External physical characteristics viz. weight, length, breadth, shell weight and total egg surface were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in DR whereas shape index and shell ratio were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in DND. Internal physical characteristics viz. yolk, albumen weights and albumen volume were significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in DR whereas Haugh unit was significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in DND. Biochemical parameters viz. total proteins significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in DND and total cholesterol significantly (P less than 0.05) higher in DR. Egg hatchability on fertile egg set basis (FES) and total egg set basis (TES) was higher in DND. Thus, some parameters were better in indigenous crossbreed, such as low cholesterol, higher total proteins, higher hatchability and chick survivability

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
E. C. Michelin ◽  
C. M. Bedoya-Serna ◽  
L. C. S. Carrion ◽  
N. Levy-Pereira ◽  
F. S. Cury ◽  

The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver in Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus) and Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fish chronically exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Fish feed was artificially contaminated with aflatoxins and the treatments were: Control – feed without toxin; Treatment A – feed + 10 μg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg; Treatment B – feed + 20 μg AFB1/kg; and Treatment C – feed + 50 μg AFB1/kg. Matrinxã and Pacu juvenile fish were placed in tanks for 180 days. Five experimental units per treatment were monthly sampled and submitted to blood collection and removal of hepatic tissue. Thus, twenty blood and liver samples for each species were collected monthly, adding up to 240 samples analysed. To verify biochemical changes, analyses included total proteins, albumin, globulins, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The hepatic tissue was examined microscopically and the slides presenting histopathological changes were photo-documented. There was effect of treatment (P<0.05) for AST and ALP in Matrinxã, while no effect (P>0.05) was observed in Pacu. A reduction (P<0.05) in AST and ALP values during the time of exposure was observed in all treatments for both species. Fatty degeneration and liver damage were observed for both species in treatments exposed to aflatoxins. Fatty degeneration in Pacu was noticed after 30 days of exposure, while in Matrinxã it was observed after 60 days. Disorganisation of the hepatocyte cord arrangement was also observed in those treatments exposed to aflatoxin, following 90 days of exposure in Matrinxã, and after 60 days in Pacu. Therefore, aflatoxins have little influence on biochemical parameters in the species evaluated. However, exposure to aflatoxins caused liver changes, such as cell death, fatty and hydropic degeneration, thus it could be concluded that both species are susceptible to the toxic effects of long-term exposure to dietary AFB1.

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