organic production
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261109
Author(s):  
Dil Thavarajah ◽  
Tristan J. Lawrence ◽  
Sarah E. Powers ◽  
Joshua Kay ◽  
Pushparajah Thavarajah ◽  
...  

A primary criticism of organic agriculture is its lower yield and nutritional quality compared to conventional systems. Nutritionally, dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a rich source of low digestible carbohydrates, protein, and micronutrients. This study aimed to evaluate dry pea cultivars and advanced breeding lines using on-farm field selections to inform the development of biofortified organic cultivars with increased yield and nutritional quality. A total of 44 dry pea entries were grown in two USDA-certified organic on-farm locations in South Carolina (SC), United States of America (USA) for two years. Seed yield and protein for dry pea ranged from 61 to 3833 kg ha-1 and 12.6 to 34.2 g/100 g, respectively, with low heritability estimates. Total prebiotic carbohydrate concentration ranged from 14.7 to 26.6 g/100 g. A 100-g serving of organic dry pea provides 73.5 to 133% of the recommended daily allowance (%RDA) of prebiotic carbohydrates. Heritability estimates for individual prebiotic carbohydrates ranged from 0.27 to 0.82. Organic dry peas are rich in minerals [iron (Fe): 1.9–26.2 mg/100 g; zinc (Zn): 1.1–7.5 mg/100 g] and have low to moderate concentrations of phytic acid (PA:18.8–516 mg/100 g). The significant cultivar, location, and year effects were evident for grain yield, thousand seed weight (1000-seed weight), and protein, but results for other nutritional traits varied with genotype, environment, and interactions. “AAC Carver,” “Jetset,” and “Mystique” were the best-adapted cultivars with high yield, and “CDC Striker,” “Fiddle,” and “Hampton” had the highest protein concentration. These cultivars are the best performing cultivars that should be incorporated into organic dry pea breeding programs to develop cultivars suitable for organic production. In conclusion, organic dry pea has potential as a winter cash crop in southern climates. Still, it will require selecting diverse genetic material and location sourcing to develop improved cultivars with a higher yield, disease resistance, and nutritional quality.


2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
María D. Raigón ◽  
María D. García-Martínez ◽  
Octavian P. Chiriac

The loss of genetic diversity due to the replacement of local tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) varieties by improved cultivars has been mitigated in many cases by the good work of organic farmers in maintaining local agricultural biodiversity. In parallel to these initiatives, in recent years, consumers have developed an increasing awareness of both food-related health, environmental issues, and food demand to recover the flavors of the past. In the case of tomatoes, these attributes (nutritional, organoleptic, social, and environmental) are closely related to organic production using local varieties. “Malacara” tomato is an example of a local variety. Coming from Sierra de Cádiz, it is a varietal type called “Cuelga” (“for hanging,” because the tomato trusses are hung from beams in the farmhouses). Cultivated and harvested in the open air during the summer months, these tomatoes are commercialized and consumed in the winter. Historically, this variety has enabled the fresh consumption of tomatoes during the winter, without the need to force cultivation. It is highly appreciated in the local cuisine and is the basis for sauces figuring in typical dishes. Its characteristic traits are small, pallid fruits, and long shelf life. The main objective of this work has been to typify two Malacara tomato cultivars (red and yellow color) grown under organic farming conditions, through the characterization of morphological, nutritional, and volatile parameters. The main differences are due to morphological parameters (fruit weight and color of the exocarp and endocarp). Other characteristics such as the content of ash, fiber, moisture, the concentration of iron, magnesium, and calcium, and content of lycopene are different between both cultivars. This study provides information on the nutritional and aromatic composition of two Malacara tomato cultivars, differentiated by their color and grown under organic farming conditions. The results add value to the native horticultural heritage and can aid in the selection of tomato varieties suitable for a sustainable production system and to produce tomatoes with high nutritional value and rich in aroma.


Author(s):  
Gumataw Kifle Abebe ◽  
Andrew Traboulsi ◽  
Mirella Aoun

The future of food value chains has increasingly been reliant on the wider adoption of sustainable farming practices that include organic agriculture. Organic farming in developed countries is standardized and occupies a niche in agro-food systems. However, such a standard model, when transferred to developing countries, faces difficulty in implementation. This study aims to investigate the factors affecting the expansion of organic agriculture in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern context, and analyzes the economic performance of organic tomato among smallholder farmers. Accordingly, the study was able to determine the production costs, map the organic value chain and assess the profitability of organic tomato by comparing it with the conventional tomato in the same value chain. The study finds organic farming being increasingly expensive primarily due to the inherently high cost of production in Lebanon and the inefficient organization of the organic value chain. As a result, we suggest a blended approach of organic farming with other models, in particular agro-tourism, as a local solution to the sustainability of organic farming in developing countries with limited resources (land and labor) and characterized by long marketing channels. In countries such as Lebanon, a country endowed with rich cultural heritage and natural and beautiful landscapes, the agro-tourism model can harness organic farming and tourism activities. We also propose the adoption of local collective guarantee systems for organic production as a way to alleviate the costs of third-party auditing in Lebanon.


Author(s):  
Tibebu Belete ◽  
Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) is known as one of the most important seed-borne destructive pathogens on beans worldwide. Nowadays, Xap is considered to acquire resistance to antibiotics and synthetic bactericides which concerns the scientific world for its future management. This has made the use of plant extracts, the best alternative in the control of plant disease pathogens by inhibiting the quorum sensing (QS) mediated virulence factors. This research was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities and the anti-QS effects of the 14 different aromatic and medicinal plants against QS-mediated virulence factors of Xap. The results revealed that Syzgium aromaticum showed the largest inhibition zone diameter and strongest antimicrobial (antibacterial) effect among the 14 plant extracts followed by Thymus vulgaris and Coriandrum sativum. Similarly, the lowest swarming, swimming, and twitching motility values were measured from the Syzgium aromaticum application followed by Coriandrum sativum, Thymus vulgaris, Brassica nigra, Lepidium sativum, and Ruta chalepenis. These results indicated that S. aromaticum, C. sativum, T. vulgaris, B. nigra, L. sativum, and R. chalepenis will be a potential candidates as anti-quorum sensing agents in preventing common bacterial disease of beans caused by Xap. Compounds derived from aromatic and medicinal plants have demonstrated successful control of diseases in crops and the use of these substances provides a valuable tool to the growers around the world for diseases management in organic production.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 503
Author(s):  
Yongrui Hou ◽  
Tianyuan Luo ◽  
Jing Hao

As the demand for organic products quickly grows in the U.S., the domestic supply of organic commodities has stagnated and failed to meet the increasing needs. To expand the organic supply capacity in the country, it is crucial to identify the key factors that could effectively promote the scale of organic farming in the U.S. Using a multivariate analytic model and state level data from multiple sources and years, this study examines a wide range of determinants that could affect organic agriculture. The results show that research funding would significantly increase organic vegetable production and the number of organic farms. The development of organic farming could be greatly encouraged by the support of research institutions. In addition, the evidence shows that abundant farm workers are essential for the organic farming sector, which is labor-intensive. Finally, a large population base could create a more stable consumer group that would promote the development of organic agriculture. These results suggest the importance of exploring and expanding consumer groups for organic commodities. These findings provide insightful implications that research support, labor availability, and a solid consumer base are crucial to boost the organic sector in the U.S. and other countries.


Author(s):  
Z. Fedorova

Purpose: studying the features of the formation of signs of meat productivity in chickens of the egg-meat direction in the juvenile period in ontogenesis and fixing the most informative age for early assessment of meat qualities.Materials and methods. Young grew in group cells of a 3-tier cellular battery. The dynamics of growth and the development of exterior and interior indicators, characterizing meat productivity in ontogenesis in the young of the Pushkin breed of chickens, which refers to an egg-meat type on productivity through periodic (every 2 weeks) weighing and taking protections of the physique in 100 heads of young people. On 21 heads, an anatomical cutting was carried out at which the mass of the heart, liver, two parts of the stomach (muscular, iron), the sum of the muscles (femur, crus, metatisium) took into account. The development of meat forms of the physique to determine the age and individual characteristics was determined using exterior articles of industrial (the length of the body, the length of the keel, the gripping of the chest, the length of the leg, hips, plus). Prombs were taken from the entire experienced livestock, together with weighing, every 2 weeks. In order to find the most informative age for an early estimate of meat quality, which would characterize meat productivity at an older age, the correlation was calculated between the industrial over the age periods and the mass of muscles at 16 weeks.Results. The dynamics of the average daily growth of the living mass and the mass of the carved carcass in the roosters was uneven. Until 8-week age, the average daily increase increased, then began to decline until 14 weeks of age, during 16-week aged an average increase increased dramatically. The dynamics of average daily growths in the roosters of individual muscles was similar, namely, from 4 to 8-week age, high rates of average daily growth were noted, and from 8 to 14 months of age there is a decrease, and then again activation of growth. Studies have shown that the growth of the skeleton is slowed down by 14 weeks. The dynamics of the average daily growth of internal organs in the roosters in the juvenile period occurs asynchronously. The greatest intensity of the growth of the heart, liver and stomach was observed on a 8-week age. Studies have shown that the stomach is most intensively developing up to 8 weeks, then development is braked sharply.Conclusion. Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that for the preliminary selection of chickens of the egg-meat direction of cultivation with the best genetic potential for meat productivity, it is possible at 8 weeks old, but the final rating should be carried out no earlier than 14-week age. The estimation of meat qualities in a 14-week age should be carried out on the basis of live masses and industrial, namely, the oblique length of the body, the girth plus, the length of the leg, the preliminary estimate can be done in such a precursor, as the slanting the length of the body, the length of the leg and girth plus.


OCL ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 29 ◽  
pp. 4
Author(s):  
Cécile Le Gall ◽  
Vincent Lecomte ◽  
Dominique Wagner

The development of organic agriculture in France was steady since 2010 but became stronger since 2014. Like other crops, the cultivated areas of organic soybean and sunflower doubled from 2014 to 2018. With a view to better characterize cultural practices in organic production, Terres Inovia and ITAB (in collaboration with Agence Bio) conducted in 2016 and 2017 a national farmers’ survey. These surveys reveal that sunflower was mainly cultivated over the same types of soil than in conventional production but were integrated in more diversified rotations. The main differences between organic and conventional systems concern sowing date and weed control. Organic sunflower was sown very lately compared to conventional one, which impacted the yield severely. Weed were controlled through ploughing, mechanical weeding and crop rotation and weed control was judged as satisfying by a major part of producers. Concerning soybean, a great difference is the use of irrigation which is almost systematic in conventional but concerned only 50% of cultivated area in organic production. Contrary to sunflower, soybean is integrated in short crop rotation, particularly when it was irrigated. This demonstrated the high profitability of soybean in organic systems. Like for sunflower, weed control done through ploughing, mechanical weeding, and crop rotation and weed control was also judged satisfying; nevertheless, criteria on harvest impurities are more severe and to respect them, organic farmers also use hand weeding in complement. These surveys will be reconducted over the years to be able to follow the changes of cultural practices over the years.


2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 99-109
Author(s):  
Gabriella Navarro Donato Pereira ◽  
Everton Hilo de Souza ◽  
José da Silva Souza ◽  
Carlos Estevão Leite Cardoso ◽  
Adenildo Bernardo dos Santos ◽  
...  

Abstract The growth of Brazilian floriculture is remarkable, both in terms of the number of producers and the cultivated area. To reduce costs and add value, the organic production of ornamental pineapple plants is an option for some consumer markets. This study was carried at the Fundação José Carvalho, municipality of Entre Rios (Bahia State), Brazil, to evaluate the economic viability of the organic production of ornamental pineapple plants, as well as to analyze the economic factors from implantation of the crop to the final production phase. Primary and secondary data collection (technical coefficients and prices) was carried out, which allowed updating the value of these coefficients. After determining the technical coefficients, input prices and product prices were surveyed and were inserted in spreadsheets of production cost and profitability. Data processing and profitability analysis were carried out under deterministic and risk conditions. The organic cultivation system for ornamental pineapples proved to be economically viable, providing greater profitability and production of stems, which is the product of interest.


2022 ◽  
Vol 42 ◽  
pp. 06004
Author(s):  
Dilara S. Samenbetova ◽  
Oleg Yu. Patlasov

The paper evaluates the status and prospects for a wider market capacity of organic foods and items. The paper analyzes regulatory framework for organic market in Kazakhstan. The paper describes the conditions for the development of the organic market. The transformation of global food market structures has influenced the organic farming. Demand for organic products has been growing rapidly. Whereas the European Union has put in place at the time an effective system for regulating organic production, the EAEU, CIS, and SCO countries can see this production taking shape only now. It is argued that Kazakhstan is harnessing its agricultural potential only partially, including organic food production. The paper proves that the development of green farming entrepreneurship in Kazakhstan will enable agricultural organizations, aided by the measures of state support, to form a new niche in the market for organic products and expand the supply of organic products in the world market. New approaches are proposed for the first time in regard to formulating regulations, model laws, and recommendations of international unions.


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