permeability evolution
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Pengda Cheng ◽  
Weijun Shen ◽  
Qingyan Xu ◽  
Xiaobing Lu ◽  
Chao Qian ◽  

AbstractUnderstanding the changes of the near-wellbore pore pressure associated with the reservoir depletion is greatly significant for the development of ultra-deep natural gas reservoirs. However, there is still a great challenge for the fluid flow and geomechanics in the reservoir depletion. In this study, a fully coupled model was developed to simulate the near-wellbore and reservoir physics caused by pore pressure in ultra-deep natural gas reservoirs. The stress-dependent porosity and permeability models as well as geomechanics deformation induced by pore pressure were considered in this model, and the COMSOL Multiphysics was used to implement and solve the problem. The numerical model was validated by the reservoir depletion from Dabei gas field in China, and the effects of reservoir properties and production parameters on gas production, near-wellbore pore pressure and permeability evolution were discussed. The results show that the gas production rate increases nonlinearly with the increase in porosity, permeability and Young’s modulus. The lower reservoir porosity will result in the greater near-wellbore pore pressure and the larger rock deformation. The permeability changes have little effect on geomechanics deformation while it affects greatly the gas production rate in the reservoir depletion. With the increase in the gas production rate, the near-wellbore pore pressure and permeability decrease rapidly and tend to balance with time. The reservoir rocks with higher deformation capacity will cause the greater near-wellbore pore pressure.

2022 ◽  
Ziyan Li ◽  
Derek Elsworth ◽  
Chaoyi Wang

Abstract Fracturing controls rates of mass, chemical and energy cycling within the crust. We use observed locations and magnitudes of microearthquakes (MEQs) to illuminate the evolving architecture of fractures reactivated and created in the otherwise opaque subsurface. We quantitatively link seismic moments of laboratory MEQs to the creation of porosity and permeability at field scale. MEQ magnitudes scale to the slipping patch size of remanent fractures reactivated in shear - with scale-invariant roughnesses defining permeability evolution across nine decades of spatial volumes – from centimeter to decameter scale. This physics-inspired seismicity-permeability linkage enables hybrid machine learning (ML) to constrain in-situ permeability evolution at verifiable field-scales (~10 m). The ML model is trained on early injection and MEQ data to predict the dynamic evolution of permeability from MEQ magnitudes and locations, alone. The resulting permeability maps define and quantify flow paths verified against ground truths of permeability.

Amanzhol Kubeyev ◽  
Nathaniel Forbes Inskip ◽  
Tomos Phillips ◽  
Yihuai Zhang ◽  
Christine Maier ◽  

AbstractFlow in fractures is sensitive to their geometrical surface characteristics. The surface can undergo deformation if there is a change in stress. Natural fractures have complex geometries and rough surfaces which complicates the modelling of deformation and fluid flow. In this paper, we present a computational model that takes a digital image of a rough fracture surface and provides a stress–permeability relationship. The model is based on a first-principle contact mechanics approach at the continuum scale. Using this first principle approach, we investigate numerically the effect of fracture surface roughness and shifting of surfaces on the permeability evolution under applied stress and compare the results with laboratory experiments. A mudrock core fracture surface was digitalized using an optical microscope, and 2D cross sections through fracture surface profiles were taken for the modelling. Mechanical deformation is simulated with the contact mechanics based Virtual Element Method solver that we developed within the MATLAB Reservoir Simulation Toolbox platform. The permeability perpendicular to the fracture cross section is determined by solving the Stokes equation using the Finite Volume Method. A source of uncertainty in reproducing laboratory results is that the exact anchoring of the two opposite surfaces is difficult to determine while the stress–permeability relationship is sensitive to the exact positioning. We, therefore, investigate the sensitivity to a mismatch in two scenarios: First, we assess the stress–permeability of a fracture created using two opposing matched surfaces from the rock sample, consequently applying relative shear. Second, we assess the stress–permeability of fractures created by randomly selecting opposing surfaces from that sample. We find that a larger shift leads to a smaller drop in permeability due to applied stress, which is in line with a previous laboratory study. We also find that permeability tends to be higher in fractures with higher roughness within the investigated stress range. Finally, we provide empirical stress–permeability relationships for various relative shears and roughnesses for use in hydro-mechanical studies of fractured geological formations.

2022 ◽  
Yuan-Jian LIN ◽  
Jiang-Feng LIU ◽  
Tao CHEN ◽  
Bing-Xiang HUANG ◽  
Kundwa Marie Judith ◽  

Abstract In this paper, a THMC (Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical) multi-field coupling triaxial cell was used to systematically study the evolution of gas permeability and the deformation characteristics of sandstone. The effects of confining pressure, axial pressure, and air pressure on gas permeability characteristics were fully considered in the test. The gas permeability of sandstone decreases with increasing confining pressure. When the confining pressure is low, the variation of gas permeability is greater than the variation of gas permeability at high confining pressure. The gas injection pressure has a significant effect on the gas permeability evolution of sandstone. As the gas injection pressure increases, the gas permeability of sandstone tends to decrease. At the same confining pressure, the gas permeability of the sample during the unloading path is less than the gas permeability of the sample in the loading path. When axial pressure is applied, it has a significant influence on the permeability evolution of sandstone. When the axial pressure is less than 30 MPa, the gas permeability of the sandstone increases as the axial pressure increases. At axial pressures greater than 30 MPa, the permeability decreases as the axial pressure increases. Finally, the micro-pore/fracture structure of the sample after the gas permeability test was observed using 3D X-ray CT imaging.

Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 70
Zhaoying Chen ◽  
Guofu Li ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Zemin Li ◽  
Mingbo Chi ◽  

Underground coal mining of CH4 gas-rich tectonic coal seams often induces methane outburst disasters. Investigating gas permeability evolution in pores of the tectonic coal is vital to understanding the mechanism of gas outburst disasters. In this study, the triaxial loading–unloading stresses induced gas permeability evolutions in the briquette tectonic coal samples, which were studied by employing the triaxial-loading–gas-seepage test system. Specifically, effects of loading paths and initial gas pressures on the gas permeability of coal samples were analyzed. The results showed the following: (1) The gas permeability evolution of coal samples was correlated with the volumetric strain change during triaxial compression scenarios. In the initial compaction and elastic deformation stages, pores and cracks in the coal were compacted, resulting in a reduction in gas permeability in the coal body. However, after the yield stage, the gas permeability could be enhanced due to sample failure. (2) The gas permeability of the tectonic coal decreased as a negative exponential function with the increase in initial gas pressure, in which the permeability was decreased by 67.32% as the initial gas pressure increased from 0.3 MPa to 1.5 MPa. (3) Coal samples underwent a period of strain development before they began to fail during confining pressure releasing. After the stress releasing-induced yield stage, the coal sample was deformed and cracked, resulting in a quickly increase in gas permeability. With a further releasing process, failure of the sample occurred, and thus induced rapidly increasing gas permeability. These obtained results could provide foundations for gas outburst prevention in mining gas-rich tectonic coal seams.

2022 ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Tong Zhang ◽  
Yankun Ma ◽  
Shuaibing Song ◽  
Ming Tang ◽  

Abstract The permeability and mechanical behavior in sandy mudstone are crucial to the hazard prevention and safety mining. In this study, to investigate the evolution and characteristic of permeability and mechanical properties of mudstone during the in-site loading process, triaxial compression-seepage experiments were performed. The increase of permeability and decrease of mechanical strength gradually evaluated to the decrease of permeability and increase of mechanical strength subjected to the increase of confining stress from 5 to 15 MPa, which corresponds to the transformation from brittleness to ductility of mudstone, and the transformation threshold of 10 MPa confining stress was determined. The shear fractures across the sample at brittle regime, while shear fracture does not cross the sample or even be not generated at semibrittle and ductile state. The dynamic decrease, slight decrease, and residual response were determined in axial strain, and the divided zone increases with the increase of confining stress. The relatively higher permeability corresponds to the higher pore pressure as the increase of confining stress. The volumetric strain increases as the increase of confining stress, compared to that decrease correspond to the increase of the pore pressure, and the higher volumetric strain and the lower permeability. In addition, an improved permeability model was developed to describe the loading-based permeability behavior considering the Klinkenberg effect.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Yin Zeng ◽  
Lu Wang ◽  
Chaofu Deng ◽  
Qiangxing Zhang ◽  
Zhide Wu ◽  

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