neighbourhood deprivation
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2022 ◽  
Matthew Hazell ◽  
Emma Thornton ◽  
Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli ◽  
Praveetha Patalay

There are socio-economic inequalities in the experience of mental ill-health. However, less is known about the extent of inequalities by different indicators of socio-economic position (SEP). This is relevant for insights into the mechanisms by which these inequalities arise. For young people's mental health there is an additional layer of complexity provided by the widespread use of proxy reporters. Using data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (N=10,969), we investigated the extent to which five objective SEP indicators (parent education, household income, household wealth, parent occupational status, and relative neighbourhood deprivation) predict adolescent internalising mental health and how this varies as a function of reporter. Both parent report and adolescent self-report were considered. Regression models demonstrated that whilst all five SEP indicators were associated with parent-reported adolescent mental health (regression coefficients for the most disadvantaged groups and adolescent mental health: parent education β=0.53 [0.44;0.62], household income β=0.56 [0.50;0.62], household wealth β=0.18 [0.10;0.27], parent occupational status β=0.40 [0.35;0.46], and relative neighbourhood deprivation β=0.41 [0.33;0.49]), only income (β=0.11 [0.04;0.17]), wealth (β=0.12 [0.02;0.21]), and occupational status (β=0.08 [0.03;0.13]) were associated with self-reported mental health. The magnitude of these effects was greater for parent-reported than self-reported adolescent internalising symptoms: SEP indicators jointly predicted 5.2% of the variance in parent-reported compared to 1.4% of the variance in self-reported internalising mental health. Income predicted the most variance in both parent (4.2% variance) and self-reported internalising symptoms (0.5% variance). Interestingly, the gradient of parent-reported adolescent mental health across SEP indicators mirrors that of parent's own mental health (for example, income predicted 7.3% variance). Our findings highlight that the relevance of different SEP indicators to adolescent internalising mental health differs between parent and adolescent reports. Therefore, it is important to consider the various perspectives of mental health inequalities gained from different types of reporters.

Mark A. Green ◽  
Matthew Hobbs ◽  
Ding Ding ◽  
Michael Widener ◽  
John Murray ◽  

The aim of our study is to utilise longitudinal data to explore if the association between the retail fast food environment and overweight in adolescents is confounded by neighbourhood deprivation. Data from the Millennium Cohort Study for England were obtained for waves 5 (ages 11/12; 2011/12; n = 13,469) and 6 (ages 14/15; 2014/15; n = 11,884). Our outcome variable was overweight/obesity defined using age and sex-specific International Obesity Task Force cut points. Individuals were linked, based on their residential location, to data on the density of fast food outlets and neighbourhood deprivation. Structural Equation Models were used to model associations and test for observed confounding. A small positive association was initially detected between fast food outlets and overweight (e.g., at age 11/12, Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.0006, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) = 1.0002–1.0009). Following adjusting for the confounding role of neighbourhood deprivation, this association was non-significant. Individuals who resided in the most deprived neighbourhoods had higher odds of overweight than individuals in the least deprived neighbourhoods (e.g., at age 11/12 OR = 1.95, 95% CIs = 1.64–2.32). Neighbourhood deprivation was also positively associated to the density of fast food outlets (at age 11/12 Incidence Rate Ratio = 3.03, 95% CIs = 2.80–3.28).

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-21
Tony Robertson ◽  
Ruth Jepson ◽  
Kyle Lambe ◽  
Jonathan R Olsen ◽  
Lukar E Thornton

Abstract Objective: Outdoor advertisements for food and drink products form a large part of the food environment and they disproportionately promote unhealthy products. However, less is known about the social patterning of such advertisements. The main aim of this study was to explore the socioeconomic patterning of food and drink advertising at bus stops in Scotland’s capital city, Edinburgh. Design: Bus stop advertisements were audited to identify food/drink adverts and classify them by food/drink category (i.e. ‘advert category’). This data was then linked to area-based deprivation and proximity measures. Neighbourhood deprivation was measured using the bus stop x/y co-ordinates, which were converted to postcodes to identify the matching 2012 deprivation level via the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). Distance to schools and leisure centres were also collected using location data. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) and linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between the promotion of advert categories and deprivation and proximity to schools/leisure centres, respectively. Setting: Edinburgh city, United Kingdom Results: 561 food/drink advertisements were identified across 349 bus stops, with eight advertisement categories noted and included in the final analysis, including alcohol, fast food outlets and confectionary. The majority of adverts were for ‘unhealthy’ food and drink categories, however there was no evidence for any socioeconomic patterning of these advertisements. There was no evidence of a relationship between advertisements and proximity to schools and leisure centres. Conclusions: While there is no evidence for food and drink advertising being patterned by neighbourhood deprivation, the scale of unhealthy advertising is an area for policy evaluations and interventions on the control of such outdoor advertising.

2021 ◽  
pp. jech-2021-216445
Jing Xu ◽  
Kaitlyn G Lawrence ◽  
Katie M O'Brien ◽  
Chandra L Jackson ◽  
Dale P Sandler

BackgroundSocioeconomic status (SES) at the individual level is associated with hypertension risk. Less is known about neighbourhood level SES or how neighbourhood and individual level SES may jointly affect hypertension risk.MethodsThe Area Deprivation Index (ADI) includes 17 census-based measures reflecting neighbourhood SES. The ADI was linked to enrolment addresses of 47 329 women in the Sister Study cohort and categorised as ≤10% (low deprivation), 11%–20%, 21%–35%, 36%–55% and >55% (high deprivation). Hypertension was defined as either high systolic (≥140 mm Hg) or diastolic (≥90 mm Hg) blood pressure or taking antihypertensive medication. We used log binomial regression to investigate the cross-sectional association between ADI and hypertension and evaluated interactions between ADI and race/ethnicity and between ADI and individual SES.ResultsThe highest ADI level of >55% was associated with increased prevalence of hypertension, compared with the lowest level of ADI≤10%, in a model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment and annual household income (prevalence ratio=1.26, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.32). We observed interaction between race/ethnicity and ADI (interaction contrast ratio (ICR)=1.9; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.8 comparing non-Hispanic Black women with ADI >55% to non-Hispanic White women with ADI≤10%) and between household income and ADI (ICR 0.38; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.65 comparing participants with household income ≤US$49 999 and ADI>55% to those with household income >US$100 000 and ADI≤10%).ConclusionsThese findings suggest that neighbourhood deprivation measured by ADI may be a risk factor for hypertension and that ADI may act synergistically with race/ethnicity and individual household income to contribute to hypertension.

BMJ Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. e049075
Dionne V Gootjes ◽  
Anke G Posthumus ◽  
Vincent W V Jaddoe ◽  
Eric A P Steegers

ObjectiveTo study the associations between neighbourhood deprivation and fetal growth, including growth in the first trimester, and adverse pregnancy outcomes.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingThe Netherlands, Rotterdam.Participants8617 live singleton births from the Generation R cohort study.ExpositionLiving in a deprived neighbourhood.Main outcome measuresFetal growth trajectories of head circumference, weight and length.Secondary outcomes measuresSmall-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth (PTB).ResultsNeighbourhood deprivation was not associated with first trimester growth. However, a higher neighbourhood status score (less deprivation) was associated with increased fetal growth in the second and third trimesters (eg, estimated fetal weight; adjusted regression coefficient 0.04, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.06). Less deprivation was also associated with decreased odds of SGA (adjusted OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.97, p=0.01) and PTB (adjusted OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.96, p=0.01).ConclusionsWe found an association between neighbourhood deprivation and fetal growth in the second and third trimester pregnancy, but not with first trimester growth. Less neighbourhood deprivation is associated with lower odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The associations remained after adjustment for individual-level risk factors. This supports the hypothesis that living in a deprived neighbourhood acts as an independent risk factor for fetal growth and adverse pregnancy outcomes, above and beyond individual risk factors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Paul A. Longley ◽  
Justin van Dijk ◽  
Tian Lan

AbstractEmpirical analysis of social mobility is typically framed by outcomes recorded for only a single, recent generation, ignoring intergenerational preconditions and historical conferment of opportunity. We use the detailed geography of relative deprivation (hardship) to demonstrate that different family groups today experience different intergenerational outcomes and that there is a distinct Great Britain-wide geography to these inequalities. We trace the evolution of these inequalities back in time by coupling family group level data for the entire Victorian population with a present day population-wide consumer register. Further geographical linkage to neighbourhood deprivation data allows us to chart the different social mobility outcomes experienced by every one of the 13,378 long-established family groups. We identify clear and enduring regional divides in England and Scotland. In substantive terms, use of family names and new historical digital census resources are central to recognising that geography is pivotal to understanding intergenerational inequalities.

Stephen Jivraj ◽  
Owen Nicholas ◽  
Emily T. Murray ◽  
Paul Norman

There is an overreliance on concurrent neighbourhood deprivation as a determinant of health. Only a small section of the literature focuses on the cumulative exposure of neighbourhood deprivation over the life course. This paper uses data from the 1958 National Child Development Study, a British birth cohort study, linked to 1971–2011 Census data at the neighbourhood level to longitudinally model self-rated health between ages 23 and 55 by Townsend deprivation score between ages 16 and 55. Change in self-rated health is analysed using ordinal multilevel models to test the strength of association with neighbourhood deprivation at age 16, concurrently and cumulatively. The results show that greater neighbourhood deprivation at age 16 predicts worsening self-rated health between ages 33 and 50. The association with concurrent neighbourhood deprivation is shown to be stronger compared with the measurement at age 16 when both are adjusted in the model. The concurrent association with change in self-rated health is explained by cumulative neighbourhood deprivation. These findings suggest that neglecting exposure to neighbourhood deprivation over the life course will underestimate the neighbourhood effect. They also have potential implications for public policy suggesting that neighbourhood socioeconomic equality may bring about better population health.

Mark Green ◽  
Matt Hobbs ◽  
Ding Ding ◽  
Michael Widener ◽  
John Murray ◽  

The aim of our study is to utilise longitudinal and representative national data to explore the extent that the association between the fast food environment and overweight in adolescents is confounded by neighbourhood deprivation. Longitudinal data from the Millennium Cohort Study for England were obtained for waves 5 (ages 11/12; 2011/12; n=13,469) and 6 (ages 14/15; 2014/15; n=11,884). Our outcome variable was overweight/obesity defined using age and sex-specific International Obesity Task Force cut points. Individuals were linked, based on their residential location, to data on the density of fast food outlets and neighbourhood deprivation. Structural Equation Models were used to model associations at both ages and explicitly test for confounding. While we found some evidence for an association between the number of fast food outlets and overweight, any associations disappeared following accounting for the confounding nature of neighbourhood deprivation. Neighbourhood deprivation was consistently associated to overweight, with adolescents who resided in deprived areas more likely to be overweight. Results were largely consistent depending on different methodological decisions. Our findings suggest that policy efforts should prioritise focusing on tackling the social determinants of excess body mass which will be more effective than interventions aimed at the built environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Hei Wan Mak ◽  
Rory Coulter ◽  
Daisy Fancourt

Abstract Background Previous research has shown the benefits of arts and cultural engagement for physical, mental and social wellbeing. This engagement is socially and geographically patterned. Yet it remains unclear whether place-based attributes are associated with engagement behaviour independent of individual factors. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to robustly disentangle associations between geographical deprivation and arts engagement from the individual socio-demographic factors that tend to correlate with residential locations. Methods Two different samples drawn from two representative surveys of adults living in England were compared – Understanding Society Wave 2 (2010/12) (N = 14,782) and Taking Part survey (2010/11) (N = 4575). Propensity score matching (PSM) was applied to investigate the association between neighbourhood deprivation (20% most deprived vs 20% least deprived) and arts engagement (arts participation, cultural attendance and museums and heritage engagement). Results Higher levels of neighbourhood deprivation were associated with lower arts, culture and heritage engagement independent of individuals’ demographic backgrounds, socio-economic characteristics and regional locations. When exploring subcategories of deprivation, similar results were obtained across deprivation domains. Results were also consistent when using more distinct categories of deprivation (i.e. 10% most deprived vs 10% least deprived) and when comparing people living in the 20% most deprived neighbourhoods with those living in the 40% medium-deprived areas. Conclusion This study is the first to apply a robust PSM technique to examine the association between neighbourhood deprivation and arts engagement using two nationally-representative samples. Results show that neighbourhood deprivation may act as a barrier that could prevent people from engaging in the arts, which in turn may exacerbate social and health inequalities. This highlights the importance of place-based schemes that focus on increasing individual motivation and capacity to engage in arts and cultural activities, especially in areas of high deprivation.

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