box behnken design
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Samsudeen AZEEZ ◽  
Ismaila SAHEED ◽  
Folahan ADEKOLA ◽  
Akeem JIMOH ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Maryam Rezaei ◽  
Nima Pourang ◽  
Ali Mashinchian Moradi

AbstractThe biosorptive potentials of three aquatics-based biosorbents, including shells of a bivalve mollusk and scales of two fish species for Pb removal from aqueous solutions were evaluated, for the first time. A Box–Behnken design with the response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of the seven important variables (contact time, temperature, initial concentration, dosage, size, salinity and pH) on the sorption capacity of the sorbents. Among the seven studied factors, the effects of biosorbent dosage, initial concentration and pH were significant for all the response variables, while biosorbent size was not significant for any of the responses. The initial concentration was the most influential factor. The presence of Pb ions on the surfaces of the biosorbents after the adsorption was clearly confirmed by the SEM–EDX and XRF analyses. The maximum sorption capacities of the biosorbents were comparable to the literature and the descending order was as follows: scales of Rutilus kutum and Oncorhynchus mykiss and the shells of Cerastoderma glaucum. The isotherm studies revealed Langmuir model applicability for the Pb adsorption by R. kutum and O. mykiss scales, while Freundlich model was fitted to the adsorption C. glaucum shells.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yunhong Wang ◽  
Weihan Qin ◽  
Yujie Yang ◽  
Hui Bai ◽  
Jirui Wang ◽  

Abstract Background The present study intends to optimize the processing technology for the wine-processing of Rhizoma Coptidis, using alkaloids as indicators. Method In the present study, the Box–Behnken design method was adopted to optimize the processing technology for Rhizoma Coptidis, using the alkaloid component quantities as the index. 100 g of Rhizoma Coptidis slices and 12.5 g of Rhizoma Coptidis wine were used. After full mixing, box-Behnken design method was used to optimize the processing time, processing temperature and processing time of coptis chinensis by taking alkaloid content as index. After mixing well, these components were fried in a container at 125 °C for 6 min and exhibited good parallelism. Results The content of alkaloids in coptis chinensis was the highest after roasting at 125 °C for 6 min. The characteristic components were berberine hydrochloride, and the relative content was about 15.96%. And showed good parallelism. The effective components of Rhizoma Coptidis were primarily alkaloids. Conclusion The optimized processing technology for Rhizoma Coptidis is good.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 831
Hamida Akli ◽  
Spyros Grigorakis ◽  
Abdessamie Kellil ◽  
Sofia Loupassaki ◽  
Dimitris P. Makris ◽  

The extraction of phenolic compounds from olive leaves was optimized using three glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) with lysine, proline, and arginine. A three-level Box–Behnken design was used to examine the influence of the liquid/solid ratio, concentration of DESs, and extraction temperature on the yield of the extraction process. A second-order polynomial model was used for predicting the polyphenol extraction yield. The optimal predicted conditions were used for extractions and they provided the highest total phenol yields with the glycerol–lysine exhibiting the best performance. Quantification of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and rutin in the extracts showed high content in tyrosol in all DESs, particularly with glycerol–lysine and relatively similar contents with other studies for the other phenolic compounds. Finally, a linear relationship between tyrosol content and the total phenolic content of the extracts was observed.

Ming Zhang ◽  
Kuo Zhang ◽  
Jinpeng Wang ◽  
Runjuan Zhou ◽  
Jiyuan Li ◽  

Abstract The waste pomelo peel was pyrolyzed at 400 °C to prepare biochar and used as adsorbent to remove norfloxacin (NOR) from simulated wastewater. The adsorption conditions of norfloxacin by biochar were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). On the basis of single-factor experiment, the adsorption conditions of biochar dosage, solution pH and reaction temperature were optimized by Box-Behnken Design (BBD), and the quadratic polynomial regression model of response value Y1 (NOR removal efficiency) and Y2 (NOR adsorption capacity) were obtained respectively. The results show that the two models are reasonable and reliable. The influence of single factor was as follows: solution pH > biochar dosage > reaction temperature. The interaction between biochar dosage and solution pH was very significant. The optimal adsorption conditions after optimization were as follows: biochar dosage = 0.5 g/L, solution pH = 3, and reaction temperature = 45 °C. The Y1 and Y2 obtained in the verification experiment were 75.68% and 3.0272 mg/g, respectively, which were only 2.38% and 0.0242 mg/g different from the theoretical predicted values of the model. Therefore, the theoretical model constructed by response surface methodology can be used to optimize the adsorption conditions of norfloxacin in water.

2022 ◽  
Vijayalakshmi Rajadurai ◽  
Brinda Lakshmi Anguraj ◽  
Muthuvel Inbasekaran ◽  
Hemalatha Manivannan

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