freundlich model
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Maryam Rezaei ◽  
Nima Pourang ◽  
Ali Mashinchian Moradi

AbstractThe biosorptive potentials of three aquatics-based biosorbents, including shells of a bivalve mollusk and scales of two fish species for Pb removal from aqueous solutions were evaluated, for the first time. A Box–Behnken design with the response surface methodology was used to investigate the effects of the seven important variables (contact time, temperature, initial concentration, dosage, size, salinity and pH) on the sorption capacity of the sorbents. Among the seven studied factors, the effects of biosorbent dosage, initial concentration and pH were significant for all the response variables, while biosorbent size was not significant for any of the responses. The initial concentration was the most influential factor. The presence of Pb ions on the surfaces of the biosorbents after the adsorption was clearly confirmed by the SEM–EDX and XRF analyses. The maximum sorption capacities of the biosorbents were comparable to the literature and the descending order was as follows: scales of Rutilus kutum and Oncorhynchus mykiss and the shells of Cerastoderma glaucum. The isotherm studies revealed Langmuir model applicability for the Pb adsorption by R. kutum and O. mykiss scales, while Freundlich model was fitted to the adsorption C. glaucum shells.

2022 ◽  
Changjin Jiang ◽  
Ting Zhang ◽  
Shuhui Li ◽  
Zhaoguang Yang

Abstract Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB composites were prepared using an ionotropic gelation method. Various techniques were used to analyze the morphology, structure, and property of the adsorbents, including SEM, EDS, FT-IR, XPS, and zeta potential. Compared with Fe(III)-chitosan, Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB was more effective for As(V) adsorption at a wide range of pH (3–8). The adsorption of As(V) onto Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB could reach equilibrium in 20 min, and their maximum adsorption capacities were 33.85 and 31.69 mg g‒1, respectively. The adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model (R2=0.998 and 0.992), whereas the adsorption isotherms was fitted well by the Freundlich model (R2=0.963 and 0.987). The presence of H2PO4− significantly inhibited the adsorption of As(V) onto Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB, and humic acid also led to a slight decrease in As(V) adsorption by Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB. Over 94% of As(V) at the initial concentration of no more than 5 mg L−1 was removed from real water by the two adsorbents. 1% (w/v) NaOH solution was determined to be the most suitable desorption agent. Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB still maintained their initial adsorption capacities after five adsorption-desorption cycles. Based on different characterization results, both electrostatic attraction and surface complexation mechanisms played important roles in As(V) adsorption on Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-75
Jamil Yousef Ahmed ◽  
Rana Th. ABD Alrubaye

Dry gas is considered one of the most environmentally friendly sources of energy. As a result, developing an efficient strategy for storing this gas has become essential. In this work, MOF-199 was synthesized and characterized in order to investigate the MOF-199 in dry gas adsorption using a built-in volumetric system (methane, ethane, and propane from Basrah gas company). The MOF-199 (metal organic framework) was synthesized using the solvothermal method at 373K for 24h, and then it was characterized. The dry gas adsorption on MOF-199 was studied under various conditions (adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, and pressure). The isothermal adsorption of the dry gas had been studied on MOF-199 using two types of models: Freundlich and Langmuir. The results of the isothermal adsorption shown corresponded to the Freundlich model with a correlation coefficient (R²) of 0.9426. Also, the rate of adsorption kinetic of the first and second-order was studied, and the results showed that the reaction rate was second-order.  

2021 ◽  
Mona Eid ◽  
Magda Elarnaouty ◽  
Mohamed Hassouna ◽  
Afaf Hafez ◽  
Mohamed Salem

Abstract Co-polymeric hydrogels containing poly (Acrylamide /Epichlorohydrine) P(AAm/EPI) with different acrylamide and Epichlorohydrine content were fabricated by gamma radiation at different irradiation doses as adsorbent materials for wastewater treatment. The mechanisms of radiation-induced crosslinking of hydrogel in aqueous solution has been evaluated. The gel contents and the swelling/diffusion kinetic parameters were evaluated at different irradiation doses, and the result confirm a non-fichian mechanism. The shape, surface morphology, and porosity of P (AAm/ Epi) hydrogel were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Adsorption experiments were carried out for the removal of sulphate and phosphate ions from wastewater using P(AAm/EPI) hydrogels as adsorbent materials. The isotherm data were analyzed by Freundlich equation. The equilibrium isotherm results show a better fitting (R2 > 0.9) to the Freundlich model for all anions. The calculated regeneration efficiency (%) values of sulphate and phosphate ions found to be ranged between 63.2 (%) and 46 (%).The relatively higher regeneration efficiency (%) and keeping the hydrogels its shape without any deformation promising to use the same hydrogels further times which decrease the economic cost.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Jingjie Yang ◽  
Hongwei Sun ◽  
Yucan Liu ◽  
Xiaohan Wang ◽  
Kamran Valizadeh

In this study, the sludge-based biochar was prepared and utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of two commonly used pesticides in agriculture, namely tebuconazole (Teb) and linuron (Lin) in an aqueous solution. The main contributing factors such as biochar preparation conditions, persistent free radicals as well as contact time, agitation speed, biochar dose, temperature, and pH were investigated. The physicochemical properties were characterized by SEM + EDS, FTIR, BET, EPR, etc. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities based on the Langmuir model was 7.8650 mg g−1 for tebuconazole and that based on Freundlich model was 9.0645 mg·g-1 for linuron at 25°C. The pseudo-second-order kinetic equations were all fitted well to the kinetic process of the adsorption of the two pesticides with all R2 ≥ 0.915. The maximum values of tebuconazole adsorption capacity occur at pH = 3. Meanwhile, linuron was not affected by pH. Both Cr6+ (r = −0.793∗∗/ −0.943∗∗) and humic acid (r = −0.798∗∗/ −0.947∗∗) significantly inhibited the adsorption amount of tebuconazole and linuron onto the biochar. Electron spin resonance signals (ESR) indicated that environmentally persistent radicals (EPFRs) are preferentially formed at lower pyrolysis temperatures and lower transition metal concentrations. The g-factors for BC400, BC600, BCF400, and BCF600 were 2.0036, 2.0035, 2.0034, and 2.0033, respectively, indicating that the EPFRs mainly have a carbon-centered structure with adjacent oxygen atoms. In addition, to close to the actual situation, natural water (from YanTai) was collected to simulate pesticide contamination. This study demonstrates that sludge-based biochar can achieve efficient removal of tebuconazole and linuron in aqueous environment in a short period of time with no secondary environmental risk especially on the waste activated sludge.

2021 ◽  
Seyyed Ali Razavikia ◽  
Mehdi Faramarzi ◽  
Seyed Aboutaleb Mousavi Parsa ◽  
Hajir Karimi

Abstract Disposal of Malachite green containing sewage from related industries has resulted in global concern. Thus, removing Malachite green from aqueous solutions is highly significant and necessary. during this study, magnetic graphene oxide coated with dendrimer (G (1) -MGO-chitosan) was prepared successfully and applied for removing cationic malachite green in various conditions. The properties of the synthesized adsorbent (G (1) -MGO-chitosan) were evaluated using XRD, FTIR, BET, FESEM, TEM and TGA. Furthermore, the effect of different parameters on malachite green removal was studied. The results indicated that at pH = 8, temperature of 40 °C, initial concentration 600 µg mL-1 and contact time 10 min were obtained as optimal values for removing malachite green with nanoadsorbent (G (1) -MGO-chitosan) with maximum adsorption capacity of malachite green was obtained at 38.71 µg mg-1. The high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9947) for the Freundlich model confirmed that the Freundlich model is appropriate for fitting laboratory data. Based on the model, Temkin heat adsorption for malachite green j mol-1 is B = 8.1447, indicating that the process of dye adsorption with Nano adsorbent is of physical type. Based on the results of fitting the kinetic models of Malachite green adsorption by Nano adsorbent, Hu and McKay’s model with higher correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9994) is more consistent with experimental data than other models. Since no large decrease is observed in Malachite green removal in seven consecutive recovery cycles, thus Nano adsorbent has a high stability and can be used several times.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2018
Elisabetta Loffredo ◽  
Claudia Carnimeo ◽  
Roccangelo Silletti ◽  
Carmine Summo

Anaerobic digestion of biomass has increasing implementation for bioenergy production. The solid by-product of this technology, i.e., the digestate, has relevant potential in agricultural and environmental applications. This study explored the capacity of a digestate from mixed feedstock to remove from water four endocrine-disrupting chemicals, namely the pesticides metribuzin (MET) and boscalid (BOS) and the xenoestrogens bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-tert-octylphenol (OP). The surface micromorphology and functional groups of the digestate were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. Results of sorption kinetics showed that all compounds reached the steady state in a few hours according to a pseudo-first-order model in the cases of MET and OP, a pseudo-second-order model for BOS and both models in the case of BPA. Data of adsorption isotherms were fitted to the Henry, Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equations. The adsorption of MET preferentially followed the non-linear Freundlich model, whereas the adsorption of the other compounds was properly described by both the linear and Freundlich models. The organic carbon partition coefficients, KOC, were 170, 1066, 256 and 2180 L kg−1 for MET, BOS, BPA and OP, respectively. The desorption of BOS, BPA and OP was slow and incomplete, indicating a phenomenon of hysteresis. In conclusion, the digestate showed a remarkable efficiency in the removal of the compounds, especially those with high hydrophobicity, thus behaving as a promising biosorbent for environmental remediation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Yeit Haan Teow ◽  
Wan Nur Athirah Wan Mohammad Hamdan ◽  
Abdul Wahab Mohammad

The ability of POME-based graphene shell composite (P-GSC), an adsorbent generated from oil palm wastes abundantly available in Malaysia such as POME and PKS, was examined in removing methylene blue (MB) dye by adsorption. Adsorption experiments, involving a batch column study and a batch equilibrium study, were conducted to investigate the efficiency of synthesized P-GSC from PKS as a base material in the removal of MB dye. The batch column study demonstrated that small-sized synthesized P-GSC from PKS as a base material could remove up to 98.5% for concentration. Therefore, the following batch equilibrium study was carried out on small-sized P-GSC only. Adsorption isotherms and kinetic isotherms were studied, from which the experimental data showed that the adsorption exhibited a good fit with the Freundlich model ( R 2 = 0.8923 ) and followed the pseudo-second order model ( R 2 > 0.98 ). FESEM, XPS, and XRD morphological and elemental analysis indicated the successful graphinization of POME on the P-GSC surface. The concept of deploying POME as the carbonaceous source to produce P-GSC, and then, deploying the resultant P-GSC as the adsorbent for MB dye removal has presented promising practical potential. Such cost-effective and environmentally friendly reuse of waste materials is envisioned to promote a ‘zero-waste industry.’

Zafarullah Muhammad ◽  
Rabia Ramzan ◽  
Ruifen Zhang ◽  
Dong Zhao ◽  
Mehak Gul ◽  

Lead (Pb) is a pestilent and relatively nonbiodegradable heavy metal, which causes severe health effects by inducing inflammation and oxidative stress in animal and human tissues. This is because of its significant tolerance and capability to bind Pb (430 mg/L) and thermodynamic fitness to sequester Pb in the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.98421) in vitro. Lactobacillus acidophilus KLDS1.1003 was selected for further in vivo study both in free and maize resistant starch (MRS)–based microencapsulated forms to assess its bioremediation aptitude against chronic Pb lethality using adult female BALB/c mice as a model animal. Orally administered free and microencapsulated KLDS 1.1003 provided significant protection by reducing Pb levels in the blood (127.92 ± 5.220 and 101.47 ± 4.142 µg/L), kidneys (19.86 ± 0.810 and 18.02 ± 0.735 µg/g), and liver (7.27 ± 0.296 and 6.42 ± 0.262 µg/g). MRS-microencapsulated KLDS 1.0344 improved the antioxidant index and inhibited changes in blood and serum enzyme concentrations and relieved the Pb-induced renal and hepatic pathological damages. SEM and EDS microscopy showed that the Pb covered the surfaces of cells and was chiefly bound due to the involvement of the carbon and oxygen elements. Similarly, FTIR showed that the amino, amide, phosphoryl, carboxyl, and hydroxyl functional groups of bacteria and MRS were mainly involved in Pb biosorption. Based on these findings, free and microencapsulated L. acidophilus KLDS 1.0344 could be considered a potential dietetic stratagem in alleviating chronic Pb toxicity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Tingyu Fan ◽  
Jie Zhao ◽  
Yingxiang Chen ◽  
Miao Wang ◽  
Xingming Wang ◽  

Plastic particles with a diameter of 5 mm or less are called microplastics. Microplastics are one of the primary sources of pollution in the environment. It has been proven that microplastics are also carriers of heavy metals, but there are few studies on their adsorption mechanism. In this study, the adsorption of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn by polypropylene (PP) microplastics was analyzed and discussed. The morphology of PP was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface elemental composition of PP was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the functional groups of PP were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the adsorption behavior of microplastics to different heavy metals could be balanced in 32 hours. Kinetics experiments showed that the adsorption process could be fitted well by a two-stage dynamic model, and the adsorption of Pb and Cu by PP is greater than that of Cd and Zn. The Freundlich model has the best fitting effect on Pb for the adsorption isothermal results. The Langmuir model showed that the process is favorable for adsorption. The adsorption of mixed heavy metals by microplastics showed that when the concentration of the mixed adsorption mass was low, the presence of a coexistence system promoted the adsorption of Zn and Cu by microplastics. With an increasing concentration, the adsorption of 4 heavy metals by microplastics is inhibited.

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