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2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ye Zheng ◽  
Mingzhu Xu ◽  
Dong Zeng ◽  
Haitao Tong ◽  
Yuhan Shi ◽  
...  

Abstract Aims Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is the major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in East Asia. Here we aimed to further investigate the abundance of viral antigen and DNA within HBV-related HCC and surrounding tissues at histological level. Method In addition to routine histopathology, in situ hybridization (ISH) of HBV DNA and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of HBsAg were performed in tissues from 131 HBsAg-positive HCC patients undergoing liver resection. Serum α-fetoprotein together with basic biochemical and immunological parameter was also measured. Results Overall, the ISH of HBV DNA and IHC of HBsAg showed 31.3% and 92.9% positive rate respectively (p < 0.0001). The level of correlation between these two markers was much more significant in tumor (p < 0.0001) than in tumor-surrounding tissue (p = 0.01). HBsAg exhibited a much higher positive rate in tumor-adjacent tissue than in tumor tissue (86.6% versus 29.9%, p < 0.0001) with significantly different staining pattern. By contrast, the positive rate of HBV DNA ISH was comparable in tumor and surrounding tissue (17.6% versus 22.9%, p = 0.36). Yet the HBV DNA signal in tumor tissue showed predominant nuclear localization (87.0%) whereas staining pattern in adjacent tissue was mixed (43.3% nuclear localization, p = 0.0015). Finally, no significant association between intra-tumor HBV DNA/HBsAg positivity and major histological markers (microvascular invasion, tumor differentiation, etc.) or recurrence after surgery was observed. Conclusions These data confirmed the largely integrated state of HBV DNA, weaker expression and altered localization of surface antigen in tumor compared with surrounding tissue. The strikingly different prevalence and localization of HBsAg and HBV DNA reflected the complex and heterogeneous mechanisms leading to HBV-induced tumorigenesis.


Author(s):  
Jonathan Wesley Revels ◽  
Sherry S Wang ◽  
Jennifer S Weaver ◽  
Jordan R Foreman ◽  
Maxx A Gallegos ◽  
...  

Optimum radiological assessment of the male urethra requires knowledge of the normal urethral anatomy and ideal imaging techniques based on the specific clinical scenario. Retrograde urethrography is the workhorse examination for male urethral imaging, usually utilized as the initial, and often solitary, modality of choice not only in the setting of trauma, but also in the pre- and post-operative evaluation of urethral strictures. There is, however, growing interest in utilization of ultrasound and magnetic resonance for evaluation of the male urethra owing to lack of ionizing radiation and improved delineation of the adjacent tissue. We review the various modalities utilized for imaging of the male urethra for a variety of known or suspected disorders, and provide an update on current treatments of urethral strictures. Additionally, we detail the key information needed by urologists to guide management of urethral strictures. We conclude with a brief discussion of neophallus urethral diseases following female-to-male sexual confirmation surgery.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (e) ◽  
pp. e5-e5
Author(s):  
Catarina Queirós ◽  
Luís Uva ◽  
Paulo Filipe

In the last two decades, 308-nm excimer laser has been increasingly recognized as a therapeutic alternative for several dermatological conditions, being currently FDA approved for the treatment of localized vitiligo and moderately severe localized psoriasis unresponsive to topical treatments. We describe the case of a 17-year-old with a recalcitrant form of dermatitis occupying the entire perioral region, previously unresponsive to several treatments, who was treated with 308-nm excimer laser with an excellent result. 308-nm monochromatic excimer laser has several advantages over other types of phototherapy, including lower UV dose exposure, shorter courses of therapy and a better sparing of adjacent tissue. Although infrequently used, 308-nm excimer laser certainly has a vast potential in Dermatology, particularly regarding recalcitrant and localized inflammatory conditions, such as the one we present.


Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7375
Author(s):  
Paulina Lewandowska ◽  
Izabela Szczuka ◽  
Iwona Bednarz-Misa ◽  
Berenika M. Szczęśniak-Sięga ◽  
Katarzyna Neubauer ◽  
...  

The mechanisms underlying the antineoplastic effects of oxicams have not been fully elucidated. We aimed to assess the effect of classic and novel oxicams on the expression/secretion of macrophage-associated chemokines (RTqPCR/Luminex xMAP) in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, and on the expression of upstream the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated genes NAG1, NFKBIA, MYD88, and RELA, as well as at the chemokine profiling in colorectal tumors. Meloxicam downregulated CCL4 9.9-fold, but otherwise the classic oxicams had a negligible/non-significant effect. Novel analogues with a thiazine ring substituted with arylpiperazine and benzoyl moieties significantly modulated chemokine expression to varying degree, upregulated NAG1 and NFKBIA, and downregulated MYD88. They inhibited CCL3 and CCL4, and their effect on CCL2 and CXCL2 depended on the dose and exposure. The propylene linker between thiazine and piperazine nitrogens and one arylpiperazine fluorine substituent characterized the most effective analogue. Only CCL19 and CXCL2 were not upregulated in tumors, nor was CXCL2 in tumor-adjacent tissue compared to normal mucosa. Compared to adjacent tissue, CCL4 and CXCL2 were upregulated, while CCL2, CCL8, and CCL19 were downregulated in tumors. Tumor CCL2 and CCL7 increased along with advancing T and CCL3, and CCL4 along with the N stage. The introduction of arylpiperazine and benzoyl moieties into the oxicam scaffold yields effective modulators of chemokine expression, which act by upregulating NAG1 and interfering with NF-κB signaling.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yilin Bao ◽  
Jennis Gabrielpillai ◽  
Jörn Dietrich ◽  
Romina Zarbl ◽  
Sebastian Strieth ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Dysregulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway has been observed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is a promising therapeutic target for selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Potential predictive biomarkers for response to FGFR-targeted therapies are urgently needed. Understanding the epigenetic regulation of FGF pathway related genes, i.e. FGFRs, FGFs, and CCND1, could enlighten the way towards biomarker-selected FGFR-targeted therapies. Methods We performed DNA methylation analysis of the encoding genes FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, FGF1-14, FGF16-23, and CCND1 at single CpG site resolution (840 CpG sites) employing The Cancer Genome Research Atlas (TCGA) HNSCC cohort comprising N = 530 tumor tissue and N = 50 normal adjacent tissue samples. We correlated DNA methylation to mRNA expression with regard to human papilloma virus (HPV) and gene amplification status. Moreover, we investigated the correlation of methylation with sensitivity to the selective FGFR inhibitors PD 173074 and AZD4547 in N = 40 HPV(−) HNSCC cell lines. Results We found sequence-contextually nuanced CpG methylation patterns in concordance with epigenetically regulated genes. High methylation levels were predominantly found in the promoter flank and gene body region, while low methylation levels were present in the central promoter region for most of the analyzed CpG sites. FGFRs, FGFs, and CCND1 methylation differed significantly between tumor and normal adjacent tissue and was associated with HPV and gene amplification status. CCND1 promoter methylation correlated with CCND1 amplification. For most of the analyzed CpG sites, methylation levels correlated to mRNA expression in tumor tissue. Furthermore, we found significant correlations of DNA methylation of specific CpG sites with response to the FGFR1/3–selective inhibitors PD 173074 and AZD4547, predominantly within the transcription start site of CCND1. Conclusions Our results suggest an epigenetic regulation of CCND1, FGFRs, and FGFs via DNA methylation in HNSCC and warrants further investigation of DNA methylation as a potential predictive biomarker for response to selective FGFR inhibitors in clinical trials.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jian Song ◽  
Shuyong Yu ◽  
Dunjing Zhong ◽  
Weizhong Yang ◽  
Zhen Jia ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The present study aimed to identify a specific circular RNA (circRNA) for early diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). Methods Totally 82 patients with GC, 30 with chronic nonatrophic gastritis and 30 with chronic atrophic gastritis were included in this study. Four of the 82 GC patients were selected for screening. Total RNA from malignant and adjacent tissue samples was extracted, and circRNAs in four patients were screened. According to the screening results, the eight most upregulated and downregulated circRNAs with a statistically significant association with GC were identified by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, the most regulated circRNA was selected for further sensitivity and specificity assessments. CircRNA expression was examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in 78 GC (21 and 57 early and advanced GC, respectively) and adjacent tissue samples, as well as in gastric fluid samples from 30 patients with chronic nonatrophic gastritis, 30 with chronic atrophic gastritis, and 78 GC. Results A total of 445 circRNAs, including 69 upregulated and 376 downregulated circRNAs, showed significantly altered expression in GC tissue samples. Hsa_circ_000780 was significantly downregulated in 80.77% of GC tissue samples, with levels in GC tissue samples correlating with tumor size, tumor stage, T stage, venous invasion, carcinoembryonic antigen amounts, and carbohydrate antigen 19–9 levels. Strikingly, this circRNA was found in the gastric fluid of patients with early and advanced GC. Conclusions The present study uncovered a new circRNA expression profile in human GC, with hsa_circ_000780 significantly downregulated in GC tissue and gastric fluid specimens. These findings indicate that hsa_circ_000780 should be considered a novel biomarker for early GC screening.


Author(s):  
Mahabuba Shirin ◽  
◽  
Salahuddin Al-Azad ◽  
Farzana Alam ◽  
Anil Yadav ◽  
...  

Fungal ball or fungal bezoar is the saprophytic colonization of a preformed cavity by a conglomerate of fungal mycelia without invasion of the adjacent tissue. Fungal bezoar is seen commonly in immunocompromised individuals. We present a case of urinary tract infection, complicated by unliateral fungus balls in a 25-year old female whose imaging findings (USG and CT scan), laboratory investigation and histopathological findings are consistent with renal fungal ball. Keywords: fungal ball; urinary tract infection.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. S234-S234
Author(s):  
Milan Kapadia ◽  
Alissa Burge ◽  
Eric Bogner ◽  
Peter Sculco ◽  
Alberto V Carli

Abstract Background Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is commonly utilized to treat acute periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) where thorough debridement of affected tissues is considered essential. Small case series describe occurrences where PJI spreads into adjacent tissues (iliopsoas recess in hips; neurovascular bundle in knees) and bone (osteomyelitis). Surgeons often cite adjacent tissue/bone infiltration as a poor predictor for DAIR. We sought to evaluate if the presence of adjacent tissue/bony lesions on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was associated with poorer DAIR outcomes. Methods MSIS criteria-positive hip (n=22) and knee (n=12) PJI cases in our institution from 2010-2020, with preoperative MRI prior to DAIR treatment, were evaluated. Demographics, microbiology, chronicity, and host grade were recorded. MRIs were assessed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to treatment outcomes, scoring images based on the presence of 18 distinct findings. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using bias adjusted Kappa scores. Failure was defined as repeat surgery for PJI. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine predictors of DAIR success at 90 days and 2 years. Results When comparing successful and non-successful hip PJI cases, the presence of a psoas recess fluid collection on MRI was significantly predictive of a higher rate of treatment failure at 2 years (odds ratio=0.12; p = 0.045), with a moderate adjusted kappa score of 0.5. With regard to knee PJI cases, capsular disruption (40% [2/5] vs 100% [7/7], p= 0.046) and patellar tendon disruption (25% [1/4] vs 100% [8/8], p = 0.018) were independently associated with higher 90-day failure. However, knee MRI findings were not predictive of failure using regression. Conclusion In this preliminary study, preoperative MRI findings anecdotally linked with PJI treatment failure could be reliably identified. However, few predicted DAIR failure. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of MRI in predicting PJI treatment success. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures


2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (Suppl 3) ◽  
pp. A952-A952
Author(s):  
Imene Hamaidi ◽  
Anders Berglund ◽  
Matthew Mills ◽  
Ryan Putney ◽  
James Mule ◽  
...  

BackgroundCancer immunotherapy represents a major paradigm shift in cancer care. Despite such breakthrough, majority of cancer patients remains refractory to existing immunotherapeutic modalities highlighting the inherent capacity of tumors to escape immunosurveillance mechanisms. Frequently, cancer cells utilize the epigenetic machinery to silence tumor suppressors or activate oncogenes for survival and proliferation. Likewise, tumor cells might employ the epigenetic reprogramming of immune-related pathways to evade the immune system. Methylation is one of the major epigenetic mechanisms modulating gene transcription. Thus, we investigated the methylation profile of both co-stimulatory and immune checkpoint genes in cancer.MethodsData from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for methylation profiling and RNA-sequencing analysis. Twenty-six epithelial cancer cell lines with more than 3 mock and three 5-azacitidine–treated samples were selected for analysis from the GSE57342 dataset. t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) was calculated using 247 probes for the selected 20 genes across all TCGA samples. t-SNE analysis was performed on 8,186 solid tumors and 745 normal adjacent tissues for methylation levels for all probes. For principal component analysis, first and second principal components were used to represent the overall methylation status for 8,931 tumor and normal samples in the TCGA database. Survival analyses were retrieved from a prior publication.1ResultsWe found that methylation profile of immune synapse genes is distinct in tumor versus normal adjacent tissue. Interestingly, our results demonstrate hypermethylation of co-stimulatory genes such as CD40 and hypo-methylation of immune checkpoint genes such as HHLA2 and PDL1 across multiple tumor types in comparison with the normal adjacent tissue. In addition, an inverse correlation between methylation and gene expression was manifest among tumor and normal adjacent tissue, confirming the epigenetic mechanism of gene suppression by gene methylation. Furthermore, we observed a reversal of hypermethylation of the co-stimulatory genes including CD40 by the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine in the data set of 26 epithelial cancer cell lines. Finally, we found that that hypomethylation of co-stimulatory genes within the immune synapse correlates with functional T cell recruitment to the tumor microenvironment and is followed by a favorable clinical outcome in melanoma patients.ConclusionsOur finding unveils methylation of immune synapse genes as a crucial driver of the immune evasive phenotype of cancer cells. Notably, identification of actionable targets to restore tumor immunogenicity is an attractive strategy in combination with immune checkpoint blockade.AcknowledgementsThis work was supported by NIH grant K08 CA194273, the Immunology Innovation Fund, an NCI Cancer Center Support grant, (P30-CA076292), the Miriam and Sheldon G. Adelson Foundation, and the Moffitt Foundation.ReferenceLiu J, Lichtenberg T, Hoadley KA, Poisson LM, Lazar AJ, Cherniack AD, Kovatich AJ, Benz CC, Levine DA, Lee AV, Omberg L, Wolf DM, Shriver CD, Thorsson V, Cancer Genome Atlas Research N, Hu H. An integrated TCGA pan-cancer clinical data resource to drive high-quality survival outcome analytics. Cell 2018;173(2):400–16 e11.


2021 ◽  
pp. 019459982110493
Author(s):  
Annette A. Wang ◽  
Roy Xiao ◽  
Rosh K.V. Sethi ◽  
Vinay K. Rathi ◽  
George A. Scangas

In January 2021, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services began requiring hospitals to publish price transparency files listing all prices negotiated with payers. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of payer-negotiated prices for commonly performed outpatient otolaryngology surgery at all hospitals scored by the US News & World Report in otolaryngology. We compared prices among hospitals (across-center ratios) and among payers at the same hospital (within-center ratios). Price disclosure rates were low overall for otolaryngologic surgery (maximum, 26.7% for bronchoscopy). Across-center ratios ranged from 3.5 (adjacent tissue transfer/rearrangement <10 cm2; raw median price range, $1384-$7047) to 18.6 (cochlear implant placement; raw median price range, $2417-$60,255). Median within-center ratios ranged between 2.7 (intraoperative navigation) and 5.4 (total thyroidectomy). Although price variation may signal opportunities for cost savings, patients may have limited ability to comparison shop due to hospital nondisclosure. Further investigation is necessary to examine the factors affecting price variation for otolaryngologic procedures.


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