British Journal of Radiology
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Published By British Institute Of Radiology

1748-880x, 0007-1285
Updated Sunday, 17 October 2021

Kavi Fatania ◽  
Dr Tufail Patankar

The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) showed superiority for endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms and technology has since moved on rapidly. Many approaches and technology now exist for the endovascular management of ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms, which reflects their varied nature – there is no one-size-fits-all technique. We aim to provide an overview of the various classes of device and the major developments over the past decade. Coiling is the oldest of the technology and continues to demonstrate high levels of occlusion and acceptable risks, making it the default treatment choice, particularly in the acutely ruptured aneurysm setting. Advances on coiling include the use of adjuncts such as balloons, stents and fully retrievable temporary neck-bridging devices, which have facilitated the treatment of more complex aneurysms. Flow divertors have also revolutionised complex aneurysm treatment with small added risk in acute aneurysm treatment and seek to remodel the aneurysm–vessel interface without accessing the aneurysm sac. The latest development and most promising avenue appears to be intrasaccular flow disrupting devices like WEB, Contour and Neqstent that provide excellent opportunities to treat wide neck complex aneurysm with minimal mortality and morbidity and good occlusion rates and may in future replace a significant number of stent-assisted coiling too.

Alessandra D'Amico ◽  
Teresa Perillo ◽  
Renato Cuocolo ◽  
Lorenzo Ugga ◽  
Fabiola Di Dato ◽  

Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystemic disease caused by mutations in genes of Notch pathway, which regulates embryonic cell differentiation and angiogenesis. Clinically, ALGS is characterized by cholestasis, cardiac defects, characteristic facial features, skeletal and ophthalmologic abnormalities. The aim of this review is to illustrate neuroradiological findings in ALGS, which are less well-known and prevalent, including cerebrovascular anomalies (such as aneurysms, dolichoectasia, Moyamoya syndrome and venous peculiarities), Chiari 1 malformation, craniosynostosis, intracranial hypertension, and vertebral anomalies (namely butterfly vertebra, hemivertebra, and craniocervical junction anomalies). Rarer cerebral midline malformations and temporal bone anomalies have also been described.

Maurizio Del Monte ◽  
Stefano Cipollari ◽  
Francesco Del Giudice ◽  
Martina Pecoraro ◽  
Marco Bicchetti ◽  

Objectives: To compare the detection rates of overall prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant PCa (csPCa) and the median percentage of cancer per biopsy core between MRI-guided In-bore and MRI-TRUS fusion-targeted biopsy (TBx). Methods: In this retrospective study, 223 patients who underwent prostate multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and subsequent MR-directed biopsy were included. For PCa and csPCa detection rate (DR), contingency tables were tested via the Pearson’s chi-squared to explore the variance of the outcome distribution. The percentage of cancer per biopsy core was tested with a two-tailed Mann-Withney test. Results: One hundred and seventeen and 106 patients underwent MRI-TRUS fusion or MRI In-bore TBx, respectively. 402 MRI biopsy targets were identified, of which 206 (51.2%) were biopsied with the MRI-TRUS TBx and 196 (48.8%) with the MRI In-bore TBx technique. Per-patient PCa and csPCa detection rates were 140/223 (62.8%) and 97/223 (43.5%), respectively. PCa-DR was 73/117 (62.4%) and 67/106 (63.2%) for MRI-TRUS and MRI In-Bore TBx (p = 0.9), while csPCa detection rate reached 50/117 (42.7%) and 47/106 (44.3%), respectively (p = 0.81). The median per-patient percentage of malignant tissue within biopsy cores was 50% (IQR: 27–65%) for PCa and 60% (IQR: 35–68%) for csPCa, with a statistically significant difference between the techniques. Conclusion No statistically significant difference in the detection rate of MRI In-bore and MRI-TRUS fusion TBx was found. MRI In-bore TBx showed higher per-core percentage of malignant cells. Advances in knowledge MRI In-bore biopsy might impact risk stratification and patient management considering the higher per-core percentage of malignant cells, especially for patients eligible for active surveillance or focal therapy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20210583
Naveen Rajamohan ◽  
Dr Ankur Goyal ◽  
Dr Devasenathipathy Kandasamy ◽  
Dr Ashu Seith Bhalla ◽  
Dr Rajinder Parshad ◽  

Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of CT texture analysis (CTTA) in (1) differentiating Thymoma (THY) from thymic hyperplasia (TH) (2) low from high WHO grade, and (3) low from high Masaoka Koga (MK)/International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) stages. Methods: After institute ethical clearance, this cross-sectional study analyzed 26 patients (THY-18, TH-8) who underwent dual energy CT (DECT) and surgery between Jan 2016 and December 2018. CTTA was performed using TexRad (Feedback Medical Ltd., Cambridge, UK- ) by a single observer. Free hand regions of interest (ROI) were placed over axial sections where there was maximum enhancement and homogeneity. Filtration histogram was used to generate six first order texture parameters [mean, standard deviation (SD), mean of positive pixels (MPP), entropy, skewness, and kurtosis] at six spatial scaling factors “SSF 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6”. Mann Whitney test was applied among various categories and p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Three-step feature selection was performed to determine the best parameters among each category. Results: The best performing parameters were (1) THY vs TH- Mean at “SSF 0” (AUC: 0.8889) and MPP at “SSF 0” (AUC: 0.8889), (2) Low vs high WHO grade- no parameter showed statistical significance with good AUC, and (3) Low vs high MK/ ITMIG stage- SD at “SSF 6” (AUC: 0.8052 and 0.8333 respectively]). Conclusion: CTTA revealed several parameters with excellent diagnostic performance in differentiating thymoma from thymic hyperplasia and MK/ ITMIG high vs low stages. CTTA could potentially serve as a non-invasive tool for this stratification. Advances in knowledge: This study has employed texture analysis, a novel radionomics method on DECT scans to determine the best performing parameter and their corresponding cut off values to differentiate among the above mentioned categories. These new parameters may help add another layer of confidence to non-invasively stratify and prognosticate patients accurately which was only previously possible with a biopsy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20210584
Jin You Kim ◽  
Jin Joo Kim ◽  
Lee Hwangbo ◽  
Hie Bum Suh ◽  
Ji Won Lee ◽  

Objective: To determine whether shear-wave elastography (SWE)-measured tumor stiffness is associated with disease-free survival in females with early-stage invasive breast cancer. Methods: This retrospective study included 202 consecutive females (mean age, 52.9 years; range, 25–84 years) with newly diagnosed T1–two breast cancer who underwent preoperative SWE between April 2015 and January 2016. Tumor stiffness was assessed and quantitative SWE features of each breast lesion were obtained by a breast radiologist. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify associations between SWE features and disease-free survival after adjusting for clinicopathologic factors. Results: Fifteen (7.4%) patients exhibited recurrence after a median follow-up of 56 months. Mean (Emean), minimum, and maximum elasticity values were higher in females with recurrence than in those without recurrence (184.4, 138.3, and 210.5 kPa vs 134.9, 101.7, and 163.6 kPa, respectively; p = 0.005, p = 0.005, and p = 0.012, respectively). Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis for prediction of recurrence showed that Emean yielded the largest area under the curve (0.717) among the quantitative SWE parameters, and the optimal cut-off value was 121.7 kPa. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that higher Emean (>121.7 kPa) [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 10.01; 95% CI: 1.31–76.33; p = 0.026] and lymphovascular invasion (adjusted HR, 7.72; 95% CI: 1.74–34.26; p = 0.007) were associated with worse disease-free survival outcomes. Conclusion: Higher SWE-measured Emean was associated with worse disease-free survival in females with early-stage invasive breast cancer. Advances in knowledge: Tumor stiffness assessed with shear-wave elastography might serve as a quantitative imaging biomarker of disease-free survival in females with T1–two breast cancer.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20210589
Xiaotian Li ◽  
Fangjie Xia ◽  
Lihua Chen ◽  
Xiaodong Zhang ◽  
Chunbai Mo ◽  

Objective: The study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of assessment for living renal donors before transplantation by using 3.0 T non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA). Methods: Thirty renal donors were investigated and underwent computed tomography angiography (CTA) and 3.0 T NCE-MRA before nephrectomy. Two radiologists independently assessed arterial and venous anatomy and potential kidney lesions. The image quality score, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), diameters and lengths of renal arteries and veins were compared between CTA and NCE-MRA. Imaging findings were compared with the surgical results served as reference standard. Agreement was assessed using κ test. The Wilcoxon test and paired sample t test were used for statistically significant differences. Results: The results of image quality score for renal arteries and veins were highly consistent between the two radiologists in NCE-MRA (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the scores of renal arterial and venous branches between NCE-MRA and CTA (p > 0.05). The SNR and CNR of renal vessels were higher than CTA (p < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in the length of renal vessels measured by the two methods (p > 0.05), and the diameter was smaller than that of CTA (p < 0.05). The detection of normal renal arteries and early branches by both examination techniques was consistent with intraoperative findings. Both methods showed good consistency between the anatomical variation of renal vein and the intraoperative diagnosis (p < 0.001). Conclusions: 3.0 T NCE-MRA can be used for evaluation of main renal arteries and veins with high accuracy for anatomy and variation classification, and can be used for preoperative vascular evaluation of living donor kidney transplantation. Advances in knowledge: 3.0 T NCE-MRA can be used for evaluation of main renal arteries and veins with high accuracy for anatomy and variation classification, and can be used for preoperative vascular evaluation of living donor kidney transplantation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20210290
Ankita Aggarwal ◽  
Chandan Jyoti Das ◽  
Neena Khanna ◽  
Raju Sharma ◽  
Deep Narayan Srivastava ◽  

Objective: Early detection of peripheral neuropathy is extremely important as leprosy is one of the treatable causes of peripheral neuropathy. The study was undertaken to assess the role of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ulnar neuropathy in leprosy patients. Methods: This was a case–control study including 38 patients (72 nerves) and 5 controls (10 nerves) done between January 2017 and June 2019. Skin biopsy proven cases of leprosy, having symptoms of ulnar neuropathy (proven on nerve conduction study) were included. MRI was performed on a 3 T MR system. Mean cross-sectional area, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of ulnar nerve at cubital tunnel were calculated. Additional ancillary findings and appearance of base sequences were evaluated. Results: Ulnar nerve showed thickening with altered T2W signal in all the affected nerves, having an average cross-sectional area of 0.26 cm2. Low FA with mean of 0.397 ± 0.19 and high ADC with mean of 1.28 ± 0.427 x 10 −3 mm2/s of ulnar nerve in retrocondylar groove was obtained. In the control group, mean cross-sectional area was 0.71cm2 with mean FA and ADC of 0.53 ± 0.088 and 1.03 ± 0.24 x 10 −3 mm2/s respectively. Statistically no significant difference was seen in diseased and control group. Cut-off to detect neuropathy for FA and ADC is 0.4835 and 1.1020 × 10 −3 mm2/s respectively. Conclusion: DTI though is challenging in peripheral nerves, however, is proving to be a powerful complementary tool for assessment of peripheral neuropathy. Our study validates its utility in infective neuropathies. Advances in knowledge: 1. DTI is a potential complementary tool for detection of peripheral neuropathies and can be incorporated in standard MR neurography protocol. 2. In leprosy-related ulnar neuropathy, altered signal intensity with thickening or abscess of the nerve is appreciated along with locoregional nodes and secondary denervation changes along with reduction of FA and rise in ADC value. 3. Best cut-offs obtained in our study for FA and ADC are 0.4835 and 1.1020 × 10 −3 mm2/s respectively.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20210141
Anne Schomöller ◽  
Lucie Risch ◽  
Hannes Kaplick ◽  
Monique Wochatz ◽  
Tilman Engel ◽  

Objective: To assess the reliability of measurements of paraspinal muscle transverse relaxation times (T2 times) between two observers and within one observer on different time points. Methods: 14 participants (9f/5m, 33 ± 5 years, 176 ± 10 cm, 73 ± 12 kg) underwent 2 consecutive MRI scans (M1,M2) on the same day, followed by 1 MRI scan 13–14 days later (M3) in a mobile 1.5 Tesla MRI. T2 times were calculated in T2 weighted turbo spin-echo-sequences at the spinal level of the third lumbar vertebrae (11 slices, 2 mm slice thickness, 1 mm interslice gap, echo times: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 ms) for M. erector spinae (ES) and M. multifidius (MF). The following reliability parameter were calculated for the agreement of T2 times between two different investigators (OBS1 & OBS2) on the same MRI (inter-rater reliability, IR) and by one investigator between different MRI of the same participant (intersession variability, IS): Test–Retest Variability (TRV, Differences/Mean*100); Coefficient of Variation (CV, Standard deviation/Mean*100); Bland–Altman Analysis (systematic bias = Mean of the Differences; Upper/Lower Limits of Agreement = Bias+/−1.96*SD); Intraclass Correlation Coefficient 3.1 (ICC) with absolute agreement, as well as its 95% confidence interval. Results: Mean TRV for IR was 2.6% for ES and 4.2% for MF. Mean TRV for IS was 3.5% (ES) and 5.1% (MF). Mean CV for IR was 1.9 (ES) and 3.0 (MF). Mean CV for IS was 2.5% (ES) and 3.6% (MF). A systematic bias of 1.3 ms (ES) and 2.1 ms (MF) were detected for IR and a systematic bias of 0.4 ms (ES) and 0.07 ms (MF) for IS. ICC for IR was 0.94 (ES) and 0.87 (MF). ICC for IS was 0.88 (ES) and 0.82 (MF). Conclusion: Reliable assessment of paraspinal muscle T2 time justifies its use for scientific purposes. The applied technique could be recommended to use for future studies that aim to assess changes of T2 times, e.g. after an intense bout of eccentric exercises.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20210465
Tsutomu Tamada ◽  
Ayumu Kido ◽  
Yu Ueda ◽  
Mitsuru Takeuchi ◽  
Takeshi Fukunaga ◽  

Objective: High b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (hDWI) with a b-value of 2000 s/mm2 provides insufficient image contrast between benign and malignant tissues and an overlap of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) between Gleason grades (GG) in prostate cancer (PC). We compared image quality, PC detectability, and discrimination ability for PC aggressiveness between ultra-high b-value DWI (uhDWI) of 3000 s/mm2 and hDWI. Methods: The subjects were 49 patients with PC who underwent 3T multiparametric MRI. Single-shot echo-planar DWI was acquired with b-values of 0, 2000, and 3000 s/mm2. Anatomical distortion of prostate (AD), signal intensity of benign prostate (PSI), and lesion conspicuity score (LCS) were assessed using a 4-point scale; and signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, and mean ADC (×10–3 mm2/s) of lesion (lADC) and surrounding benign region (bADC) were measured. Results: PSI was significantly lower in uhDWI than in hDWI (p < 0.001). AD, LCS, signal-to-noise ratio, and contrast-to-noise ratio were comparable between uhDWI and hDWI (all p > 0.05). In contrast, lADC was significantly lower than bADC in both uhDWI and hDWI (both p < 0.001). In comparison of lADC between tumors of ≤GG2 and those of ≥GG3, both uhDWI and hDWI showed significant difference (p = 0.007 and p = 0.021, respectively). AUC for separating tumors of ≤GG2 from those of ≥GG3 was 0.731 in hDWI and 0.699 in uhDWI (p = 0.161). Conclusion: uhDWI suppressed background signal better than hDWI, but did not contribute to increased diagnostic performance in PC. Advances in knowledge: Compared with hDWI, uhDWI could not contribute to increased diagnostic performance in PC.

2021 ◽  
pp. 20210573
Romaric Loffroy ◽  
Kévin Guillen ◽  
Olivier Chevallier

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