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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. M. Mousa ◽  
M. E. Taha ◽  
SH. M. ELdeighdye ◽  
A. M. Kamal

Abstract Consuming a high-fat diet causes a harmful accumulation of fat in the liver, which may not reverse even after switching to a healthier diet. Different reports dealt with the role of purslane as an extract against high-fat diet; meanwhile, it was necessary to study the potential role of fresh purslane as a hypolipidemic agent. This study is supposed to investigate further the potential mechanism in the hypolipidemic effect of fresh purslane, by measuring cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr). Rats were divided into two main groups: the first one is the normal control group (n=7 rats) and the second group (n=28 rats) received a high fat diet for 28 weeks to induce obesity. Then the high fat diet group was divided into equal four subgroups. As, the positive control group still fed on a high fat diet only. Meanwhile, the other three groups were received high-fat diet supplemented with a different percent of fresh purslane (25, 50 and 75%) respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for molecular, biochemical, and histological studies. Current study reported that, supplementation of fresh purslane especially at a concentration of 75% play an important role against harmful effects of high-fat diet at both cellular and organ level, by increasing CYP7A1 as well as Ldlr mRNA expression. Also, there were an improvement on the tested liver functions, thyroid hormones, and lipid profile. Fresh purslane plays the potential role as a hypolipidemic agent via modulation of both Ldlr and Cyp7A, which will point to use fresh purslane against harmful effects of obesity.

2022 ◽  
Yohei Shirakami ◽  
Junichi Kato ◽  
Toshihide Maeda ◽  
Takayasu Ideta ◽  
Hiroyasu Sakai ◽  

Abstract Although liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy, the mechanism behind their association has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of aging and NASH on the skeletal muscle and the interaction between the liver and muscle were investigated using a diet-induced NASH model in senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). A total of four groups of SAM and its control mice were fed either an NASH-inducing or control diet. In the SAM/NASH group, the histopathology of NASH and markers of oxidative stress were significant. Skeletal muscles were also markedly atrophied. The expression of the ubiquitin ligase Murf1 in the muscle was significantly increased with muscle atrophy, while that of Tnfa was not significantly different. In contrast, the hepatic Tnfa expression and serum TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the SAM/NASH group. These results suggest that liver-derived TNF-α might promote muscle atrophy associated with steatohepatitis and aging through Murf-1. The metabolomic analysis of skeletal muscle indicated higher spermidine and lower tryptophan levels in the NASH-diet group. The findings of this study revealed an aspect of liver-muscle interaction, which might be important in developing treatments for sarcopenia associated with liver diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Mustafa S. Torlak ◽  
Gulsum Gonulalan ◽  
Osman Tufekci ◽  
Merve S. Nazli ◽  
Emine Atici

Abstract Background and purpose In recent years, dietary practices have begun to be used in painful conditions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a vegan diet and therapeutic exercise in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Materials and methods A total of 45 young female patients with chronic non-specific neck pain, aged 18–25 years, participated in the study. Body mass index and body fat percentage were measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Pain severity was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale, quality of life with the short form-36 scale, kinesiophobia with the Tampa scale of kinesiophobia and neck disability with the Neck Disability Index. Results The pain severity reduced in the diet group and exercise group after treatment (p = 0.001). After treatment, Neck Disability Index score decreased in the diet group and exercise group (p = 0.001). Tampa scale of kinesiophobia score decreased in the diet group and exercise group (p = 0.001). The eight domains of the short form-36 scale score increased in the diet group and exercise group (p < 0.05). No difference was found in the body mass index and fat percentage in all groups before and after treatment (p˃ 0.05). Conclusion A vegan diet and therapeutic exercise are beneficial to patients with chronic non-specific neck pain in terms of pain severity and quality of life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 315-320
Guoying Zhang ◽  
Yuewu Yan ◽  
Xujiao Feng

Purpose: To determine the effect of diosmetin on young, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats. Methods: Five groups of SD rats were used: control group, high-fat diet group, low-dose diosmetin group, medium-dose diosmetin group, and high-dose diosmetin group, each with 10 rats. After 3 months, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1β) and TNF-α) were assayed. Protein expressions of p-AMPKα, CPT-1 and PPAR-α, AMPKα, SREBP-1c and FAS were assayed. Results: In the high-fat diet group, the levels of p-AMPKα, CPT-1 and PPAR-α were lower than the corresponding control values, while p-AMPKα, CPT-1 and PPAR-α levels were dose-dependently higher in all diosmetin groups than in NAFLD group (p < 0.05). There were higher levels of SREBP-1c and FAS in the high-fat diet group than in control group, while SREBP-1c and FAS levels in all diosmetin groups were dose-dependently lower than the corresponding levels in NAFLD group. Serum IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α levels in NAFLD group were raised, relative to control values (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Diosmetin alleviates NAFLD lesions induced by high-fat diet, slows down liver cell apoptosis, and inhibits inflammation via activation of AMPK pathway. Thus, diosmetin has potentials for use in the repair of hepatic damage induced by high-fat diet.

Kristina Pigsborg ◽  
Gözde Gürdeniz ◽  
Oscar Daniel Rangel-Huerta ◽  
Kirsten B. Holven ◽  
Lars Ove Dragsted ◽  

Abstract Purpose Replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the changes in the serum metabolome after this replacement is not well known. Therefore, the present study aims to identify the metabolites differentiating diets where six energy percentage SFA is replaced with PUFA and to elucidate the association of dietary metabolites with cardiometabolic risk markers. Methods In an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, 99 moderately hyper-cholesterolemic adults (25–70 years) were assigned to a control diet (C-diet) or an experimental diet (Ex-diet). Both groups received commercially available food items with different fatty acid compositions. In the Ex-diet group, products were given where SFA was replaced mostly with n-6 PUFA. Fasting serum samples were analysed by untargeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS). Pre-processed data were analysed by double cross-validated Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) to detect features differentiating the two diet groups. Results PLS-DA differentiated the metabolic profiles of the Ex-diet and the C-diet groups with an area under the curve of 0.83. The Ex-diet group showed higher levels of unsaturated phosphatidylcholine plasmalogens, an unsaturated acylcarnitine, and a secondary bile acid. The C-diet group was characterized by odd-numbered phospholipids and a saturated acylcarnitine. The Principal Component analysis scores of the serum metabolic profiles characterizing the diets were significantly associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels but not with glycaemia. Conclusion The serum metabolic profiles confirmed the compliance of the participants based on their diet-specific metabolome after replacing SFA with mostly n-6 PUFA. The participants' metabolic profiles in response to the change in diet were associated with cardiovascular disease risk markers. This study was registered at as NCT 01679496 on September 6th 2012.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Shigeru Murakami ◽  
Chihiro Hirazawa ◽  
Rina Yoshikawa ◽  
Toshiki Mizutani ◽  
Takuma Ohya ◽  

Abstract Background The obesity epidemic has become a serious public health problem in many countries worldwide. Seaweed has few calories and is rich in active nutritional components necessary for health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Campylaephora hypnaeoides J. Agardh (C. hypnaeoides), an edible seaweed traditionally eaten in Japan, on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and related metabolic diseases in mice. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the following groups: normal diet group, HF diet group, HF diet supplemented with 2% C. hypnaeoides, and HF diet supplemented with 6% C. hypnaeoides. After 13 weeks of treatment, the weight of the white adipose tissue and liver, and the serum levels of glucose, insulin, adipokines, and lipids were measured. Hepatic levels of adipokines, oxidant markers, and antioxidant markers were also determined. Insulin resistance was assessed by a glucose tolerance test. Polysaccharides of C. hypnaeoides were purified and their molecular weight was determined by high-performance seize exclusion chromatography. The anti-inflammatory effects of purified polysaccharides were evaluated in RAW264.7 cells. Results Treatment of HF diet-induced obese mice with C. hypnaeoides for 13 weeks suppressed the increase in body weight and white adipose tissue weight. It also ameliorated insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and hypercholesterolemia. The ingestion of an HF diet increased serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), while it decreased serum adiponectin levels. In the liver, an HF diet markedly increased the MDA, TNF-α, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, while it decreased glutathione and superoxide dismutase. These metabolic changes induced by HF diet feeding were ameliorated by dietary C. hypnaeoides. Purified polysaccharides and ethanol extract from C. hypnaeoides inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced overproduction of nitric oxide and TNF-α in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Conclusions The present results indicated that C. hypnaeoides was able to alleviate HF diet-induced metabolic disorders, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and hypercholesterolemia by attenuating inflammation and improving the antioxidant capacity in mice. Polysaccharides and polyphenols may be involved in these beneficial effects of C. hypnaeoides.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 235
Min Jung Kim ◽  
Sunmin Park ◽  
Hye Jeong Yang ◽  
Phil-Kyung Shin ◽  
Haeng Jeon Hur ◽  

A traditional balanced Korean diet (K-diet) may improve energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism. To evaluate this, we conducted a randomized crossover clinical trial, involving participants aged 30–40 years, who were randomly assigned to two groups—a K-diet or westernized Korean control diet daily, with an estimated energy requirement (EER) of 1900 kcal. After a 4-week washout period, they switched the diet and followed it for 4 weeks. The carbohydrate, protein, and fat ratios based on energy intake were close to the target values for the K-diet (65:15:20) and control diet (60:15:25). The glycemic index of the control diet and the K-diet was 50.3 ± 3.6 and 68.1 ± 2.9, respectively, and daily cholesterol contents in the control diet and K-diet were 280 and 150 mg, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters involved in energy, glucose, and lipid metabolism were measured while plasma metabolites were determined using UPLC-QTOF-MS before and after the 4-week intervention. After the four-week intervention, both diets improved anthropometric and biochemical variables, but the K-diet significantly reduced them compared to the control diet. Serum total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. The waist circumference (p = 0.108) and insulin resistance index (QUICKI, p = 0.089) tended to be lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. Plasma metabolites indicated that participants in the K-diet group tended to reduce insulin resistance compared to those in the control diet group. Amino acids, especially branched-chain amino acids, tyrosine, tryptophan, and glutamate, and L-homocysteine concentrations were considerably lower in the K-diet group than in the control diet group (p < 0.05). Plasma glutathione concentrations, an index of antioxidant status, and 3-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations, were higher in the K-diet group than in the control diet group. In conclusion, a K-diet with adequate calories to meet EER alleviated dyslipidemia by decreasing insulin resistance-related amino acids and increasing ketones in the circulation of obese women.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Samantha J. Potter ◽  
Nicholas J. Bamford ◽  
Courtnay L. Baskerville ◽  
Patricia A. Harris ◽  
Simon R. Bailey

Ponies and some horse breeds such as Andalusians exhibit an ‘easy keeper’ phenotype and tend to become obese more readily than other breeds such as Standardbreds. Various hypotheses have been proposed, including differences in appetite or metabolic efficiency. This study aimed to investigate the effect of breed on nutrient digestibility. Ponies, Standardbreds and Andalusian horses were adapted to consuming either a control fibre-based diet (n = 9), a hypercaloric cereal-rich diet (n = 12) or a hypercaloric fat-rich diet (n = 12) over 20 weeks. Total faecal collection was performed over 24 h to determine apparent total tract digestibility of gross energy, dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), starch, crude protein and crude fat. There was no effect of breed on apparent digestibility for any of the nutrients studied (all p > 0.05). However, there was a significant effect of diet, with animals consuming the cereal-rich or fat-rich diets demonstrating higher digestibility of gross energy, DM, NDF and crude protein compared with those consuming the control diet (all p < 0.05). Animals adapted to the cereal-rich diet demonstrated higher digestibility of starch (p < 0.001) and animals adapted to the fat-rich diet demonstrated higher digestibility of fat (p < 0.001). This study found that horses and ponies had similar nutrient digestibility when adapted to the same diets and management conditions. Limitations included the relatively small number of animals from each breed per diet group and the short period of total faecal collection. The tendency towards increased adiposity in ponies and Andalusian-type horse breeds is more likely to reflect differences in metabolism, rather than differences in feed digestibility.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Marta Wójcik ◽  
Klaudia Stachal ◽  
Mateusz Burzec ◽  
Kamil Gruszczyński ◽  
Agnieszka Korga-Plewko

Our goal was to determine the responses of body weight (BW) and bone hydroxyproline (Hyp) concentration in turkeys fed a corn silage (CS) diet with different values of dietary cation–anion differences (DCADs). The turkeys (n = 90) were divided into five groups and fed as follows: group A (control)—standard diet (SD) (60%) plus CS (40%); group B—SD (60%), CS (40%) plus 240 g of CaCl2 per 100 kg of diet; group C—SD (60%), CS (40%) plus 480 g of CaCl2 per 100 kg of diet; group D—SD (60%), CS (40%) plus 240 g of NaHCO3 per 100 kg of diet; group E—SD (60%), CS (40%) plus 480 g NaHCO3 per 100 kg of diet. The addition of a lesser amount of CaCl2 lowered the DCAD, which ranged between 52.5 ± 4.19 and 91.14 ± 3.14 mEq/kg DM. An increased content of CaCl2 led to high negative values of DCAD. NaHCO3 supplemented in both doses resulted in a significant elevation of DCAD. Compared to each experimental group, feeding birds with a diet supplemented only with CS resulted in a lower BW. Addition of CaCl2 or NaHCO3 to the diet improved BW, but only CaCl2 addition enhanced the bone Hyp amount. In conclusion, we suggest that an anionic diet with low DCAD can prevent bone abnormalities in large turkeys, especially in the final course of production.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 284-292
Rajesh Vaderav ◽  
Kavitha K ◽  
Subadhra Devi Velichety ◽  
Anand Acharya

Chronic exposure to stress and diet rich in saturated fat is one of the major reasons for the development of dementia and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study aims to examine the neuroprotective potential of and Ascorbic acid against high fat diet and stress induced neurotoxicity in brain. Animals were randomly divided into five groups. Group I received normal diet, Group II received high fat diet along with stress, Group III were treated with 100mg/kg body weight, and Group IV were treated with Ascorbic acid 100mg/kg body weight, Group V were treated with 100mg/kg body weight and Ascorbic acid 100mg/kg body weight. After the treatment all rats were sacrificed and brains were removed. Golgi staining was done and dendritic branching points and dendritic intersections were quantified with the help of cameralucida.There was a significant increase in dendritic length and branching points was observed in brain in rats treated with and Ascorbic acid.Present study concludes that and Ascorbic acid have neuroprotective role against high fat diet and stress induced Wistar rats.

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