skeletal muscle atrophy
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2022 ◽  
Yohei Shirakami ◽  
Junichi Kato ◽  
Toshihide Maeda ◽  
Takayasu Ideta ◽  
Hiroyasu Sakai ◽  

Abstract Although liver diseases, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are associated with skeletal muscle atrophy, the mechanism behind their association has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the effects of aging and NASH on the skeletal muscle and the interaction between the liver and muscle were investigated using a diet-induced NASH model in senescence-accelerated mice (SAM). A total of four groups of SAM and its control mice were fed either an NASH-inducing or control diet. In the SAM/NASH group, the histopathology of NASH and markers of oxidative stress were significant. Skeletal muscles were also markedly atrophied. The expression of the ubiquitin ligase Murf1 in the muscle was significantly increased with muscle atrophy, while that of Tnfa was not significantly different. In contrast, the hepatic Tnfa expression and serum TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the SAM/NASH group. These results suggest that liver-derived TNF-α might promote muscle atrophy associated with steatohepatitis and aging through Murf-1. The metabolomic analysis of skeletal muscle indicated higher spermidine and lower tryptophan levels in the NASH-diet group. The findings of this study revealed an aspect of liver-muscle interaction, which might be important in developing treatments for sarcopenia associated with liver diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 887
Shiqiang Liu ◽  
Pengyu Fu ◽  
Kaiting Ning ◽  
Rui Wang ◽  
Baoqiang Yang ◽  

Exposure to high altitude environment leads to skeletal muscle atrophy. As a hormone secreted by skeletal muscles after exercise, irisin contributes to promoting muscle regeneration and ameliorating skeletal muscle atrophy, but its role in hypoxia-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is still unclear. Our results showed that 4 w of hypoxia exposure significantly reduced body weight and gastrocnemius muscle mass of mice, as well as grip strength and the duration time of treadmill exercise. Hypoxic treatment increased HIF-1α expression and decreased both the circulation level of irisin and its precursor protein FNDC5 expression in skeletal muscle. In in vitro, CoCl2-induced chemical hypoxia and 1% O2 ambient hypoxia both reduced FNDC5, along with the increase in HIF-1α. Moreover, the decline in the area and diameter of myotubes caused by hypoxia were rescued by inhibiting HIF-1α via YC-1. Collectively, our research indicated that FNDC5/irisin was negatively regulated by HIF-1α and could participate in the regulation of muscle atrophy caused by hypoxia.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261723
Jamie-Lee M. Thompson ◽  
Daniel W. D. West ◽  
Thomas M. Doering ◽  
Boris P. Budiono ◽  
Sarah J. Lessard ◽  

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a physiological response to disuse, aging, and disease. We compared changes in muscle mass and the transcriptome profile after short-term immobilization in a divergent model of high and low responders to endurance training to identify biological processes associated with the early atrophy response. Female rats selectively bred for high response to endurance training (HRT) and low response to endurance training (LRT; n = 6/group; generation 19) underwent 3 day hindlimb cast immobilization to compare atrophy of plantaris and soleus muscles with line-matched controls (n = 6/group). RNA sequencing was utilized to identify Gene Ontology Biological Processes with differential gene set enrichment. Aerobic training performed prior to the intervention showed HRT improved running distance (+60.6 ± 29.6%), while LRT were unchanged (-0.3 ± 13.3%). Soleus atrophy was greater in LRT vs. HRT (-9.0 ±8.8 vs. 6.2 ±8.2%; P<0.05) and there was a similar trend in plantaris (-16.4 ±5.6% vs. -8.5 ±7.4%; P = 0.064). A total of 140 and 118 biological processes were differentially enriched in plantaris and soleus muscles, respectively. Soleus muscle exhibited divergent LRT and HRT responses in processes including autophagy and immune response. In plantaris, processes associated with protein ubiquitination, as well as the atrogenes (Trim63 and Fbxo32), were more positively enriched in LRT. Overall, LRT demonstrate exacerbated atrophy compared to HRT, associated with differential gene enrichments of biological processes. This indicates that genetic factors that result in divergent adaptations to endurance exercise, may also regulate biological processes associated with short-term muscle unloading.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Young In Kim ◽  
Hyunjung Lee ◽  
Farida S. Nirmala ◽  
Hyo-Deok Seo ◽  
Tae Youl Ha ◽  

Skeletal muscle atrophy is defined as wasting or loss of muscle. Although glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-known anti-inflammatory drugs, their long-term or high-dose use induces skeletal muscle atrophy. Valeriana fauriei (VF) is used to treat restlessness, anxiety, and sleep disorders; however, its effects on skeletal muscle health have not been investigated. This study investigated whether Valeriana fauriei could ameliorate muscle atrophy. We induced muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo, by treatment with dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic GC. In DEX-induced myotube atrophy, Valeriana fauriei treatment increased the fusion index and decreased the expression of muscle atrophic genes such as muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx/Atrogin-1) and muscle RING-finger protein 1 (MuRF1). In DEX-treated mice with muscle atrophy, Valeriana fauriei supplementation increased the ability to exercise, muscle weight, and cross-sectional area, whereas it inhibited myosin heavy chain isoform transition and the expression of muscle atrophy biomarkers. Valeriana fauriei treatment led to via the downregulation of muscle atrophic genes via inhibition of GC receptor translocation. Valeriana fauriei was also found to act as a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Didrovaltrate (DI), an iridoid compound from Valeriana fauriei, was found to downregulate atrophic genes and decrease ROS in the DEX-induced myotube atrophy. Consolidated, our results indicate that Valeriana fauriei prevents DEX-induced muscle atrophy by inhibiting GC receptor translocation. Further, Valeriana fauriei acts as a ROS scavenger, and its functional compound is didrovaltrate. We suggest that Valeriana fauriei and its functional compound didrovaltrate possess therapeutic potentials against muscle atrophy.

Yanglan Ou ◽  
Kohei Jobu ◽  
Tomoaki Ishida ◽  
Shumpei Morisawa ◽  
Hiroko Fujita ◽  

AbstractSarcopenic obesity is associated with increased visceral fat and decreased muscle mass, resulting in decreased insulin sensitivity, increased production of inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of herbal medicines on the transcriptional activity of the Sirtuin 1 (sirt1) promoter in vitro as an indicator of their therapeutic effect. Our data suggested that hot water Saikokeishikankyoto (SKK) extracts increased sirt1 transcriptional activity in vitro, identifying it as a candidate therapeutic for evaluation in the KKAy type 2 diabetic obesity mouse model. These in vivo evaluations revealed that SKK treatment increased the wet weight and muscle fiber content in cross sections of the gastrocnemius muscle (GA) and restored motor function in these animals. In addition, SKK treatment reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) expression in the sera and suppressed Atrogin1 and MuRF1 transcription in the GA samples. This treatment also increased sirt1 expression in these tissues. These results suggest that SKK inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy and improves motor function in KKAy mice by suppressing inflammation. In actual clinical practice, SKK is expected to inhibit muscle atrophy and improve motor dysfunction in sarcopenic obesity. Graphical abstract

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Wei Wang ◽  
Dingding Shen ◽  
Lilei Zhang ◽  
Yanan Ji ◽  
Lai Xu ◽  

Denervated muscle atrophy is a common clinical disease that has no effective treatments. Our previous studies have found that oxidative stress and inflammation play an important role in the process of denervated muscle atrophy. Extracellular vesicles derived from skin precursor-derived Schwann cells (SKP-SC-EVs) contain a large amount of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory factors. This study explored whether SKP-SC-EVs alleviate denervated muscle atrophy by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. In vitro studies have found that SKP-SC-EVs can be internalized and caught by myoblasts to promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Nutrient deprivation can cause myotube atrophy, accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation. However, SKP-SC-EVs can inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation caused by nutritional deprivation and subsequently relieve myotube atrophy. Moreover, there is a remarkable dose-effect relationship. In vivo studies have found that SKP-SC-EVs can significantly inhibit a denervation-induced decrease in the wet weight ratio and myofiber cross-sectional area of target muscles. Furthermore, SKP-SC-EVs can dramatically inhibit highly expressed Muscle RING Finger 1 and Muscle Atrophy F-box in target muscles under denervation and reduce the degradation of the myotube heavy chain. SKP-SC-EVs may reduce mitochondrial vacuolar degeneration and autophagy in denervated muscles by inhibiting autophagy-related proteins (i.e., PINK1, BNIP3, LC3B, and ATG7). Moreover, SKP-SC-EVs may improve microvessels and blood perfusion in denervated skeletal muscles by enhancing the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. SKP-SC-EVs can also significantly inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in target muscles after denervation, which indicates that SKP-SC-EVs elicit their role by upregulating Nrf2 and downregulating ROS production-related factors (Nox2 and Nox4). In addition, SKP-SC-EVs can significantly reduce the levels of interleukin 1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor α in target muscles. To conclude, SKP-SC-EVs may alleviate the decrease of target muscle blood perfusion and passivate the activities of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory response, then reduce skeletal muscle atrophy caused by denervation. This study not only enriches the molecular regulation mechanism of denervated muscle atrophy, but also provides a scientific basis for SKP-SC-EVs as a protective drug to prevent and treat muscle atrophy.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 104
Tsun-Li Cheng ◽  
Zi-Yun Lin ◽  
Keng-Ying Liao ◽  
Wei-Chi Huang ◽  
Cian-Fen Jhuo ◽  

Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is a primary hydrophilic component of Danshen, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza used in traditional medicine, and its beneficial effects on obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities were reported in our previous study. The present study investigated the anti-muscle atrophy potential of MLB in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. In addition to metabolic abnormalities, the HFD mice had a net loss of skeletal muscle weight and muscle fibers and high levels of muscle-specific ubiquitin E3 ligases, namely the muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) and muscle RING finger protein 1 (MuRF-1). MLB supplementation alleviated those health concerns. Parallel changes were revealed in high circulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), skeletal TNF receptor I (TNFRI), nuclear factor-kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), p65 phosphorylation, and Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) as well as low skeletal phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation. The study revealed that MLB prevented obesity-associated skeletal muscle atrophy, likely through the inhibition of MAFbx/MuRF-1-mediated muscular degradation. The activation of the PI3K-Akt-FoxO1 pathway and inhibition of the TNF-α/TNFRI/NF-κB pathway were assumed to be beneficial effects of MLB.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 169
Lisa A. Walter ◽  
Lauren P. Blake ◽  
Yann S. Gallot ◽  
Charles J. Arends ◽  
Randall S. Sozio ◽  

Denervation of skeletal muscle is a debilitating consequence of injury of the peripheral nervous system, causing skeletal muscle to experience robust atrophy. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling the wasting of skeletal muscle due to denervation are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that transection of the sciatic nerve in Sprague–Dawley rats induced robust skeletal muscle atrophy, with little effect on the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Moreover, the following study indicates that all three arms of the unfolded protein response (UPR) are activated in denervated skeletal muscle. Specifically, ATF4 and ATF6 are elevated in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle, while XBP1 is elevated in the nuclei of skeletal muscle. Moreover, XBP1 is expressed in the nuclei surrounding the NMJ. Altogether, these results endorse a potential role of the UPR and, specifically, XBP1 in the maintenance of both skeletal muscle and the NMJ following sciatic nerve transection. Further investigations into a potential therapeutic role concerning these mechanisms are needed.

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