Biochemical Characteristics
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Milena do Amaral ◽  
Ana Camila Oliveira Freitas ◽  
Ariana Silva Santos ◽  
Everton Cruz dos Santos ◽  
Monaliza Macêdo Ferreira ◽  

AbstractProtease inhibitors (PIs) are important biotechnological tools of interest in agriculture. Usually they are the first proteins to be activated in plant-induced resistance against pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize a Theobroma cacao trypsin inhibitor called TcTI. The ORF has 740 bp encoding a protein with 219 amino acids, molecular weight of approximately 23 kDa. rTcTI was expressed in the soluble fraction of Escherichia coli strain Rosetta [DE3]. The purified His-Tag rTcTI showed inhibitory activity against commercial porcine trypsin. The kinetic model demonstrated that rTcTI is a competitive inhibitor, with a Ki value of 4.08 × 10–7 mol L−1. The thermostability analysis of rTcTI showed that 100% inhibitory activity was retained up to 60 °C and that at 70–80 °C, inhibitory activity remained above 50%. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that the protein is rich in loop structures and β-conformations. Furthermore, in vivo assays against Helicoverpa armigera larvae were also performed with rTcTI in 0.1 mg mL−1 spray solutions on leaf surfaces, which reduced larval growth by 70% compared to the control treatment. Trials with cocoa plants infected with Mp showed a greater accumulation of TcTI in resistant varieties of T. cacao, so this regulation may be associated with different isoforms of TcTI. This inhibitor has biochemical characteristics suitable for biotechnological applications as well as in resistance studies of T. cacao and other crops.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Daniel Kevin Llanera ◽  
Rebekah Wilmington ◽  
Haika Shoo ◽  
Paulo Lisboa ◽  
Ian Jarman ◽  

ObjectiveTo identify clinical and biochemical characteristics associated with 7- & 30-day mortality and intensive care admission amongst diabetes patients admitted with COVID-19.Research Design and MethodsWe conducted a cohort study collecting data from medical notes of hospitalised people with diabetes and COVID-19 in 7 hospitals within the Mersey-Cheshire region from 1 January to 30 June 2020. We also explored the impact on inpatient diabetes team resources. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed and optimised by splitting the dataset into a training, test, and validation sets, developing a robust predictive model for the primary outcome.ResultsWe analyzed data from 1004 diabetes patients (mean age 74.1 (± 12.6) years, predominantly men 60.7%). 45% belonged to the most deprived population quintile in the UK. Median BMI was 27.6 (IQR 23.9-32.4) kg/m2. The primary outcome (7-day mortality) occurred in 24%, increasing to 33% by day 30. Approximately one in ten patients required insulin infusion (9.8%). In univariate analyses, patients with type 2 diabetes had a higher risk of 7-day mortality [p < 0.05, OR 2.52 (1.06, 5.98)]. Patients requiring insulin infusion had a lower risk of death [p = 0.02, OR 0.5 (0.28, 0.9)]. CKD in younger patients (<70 years) had a greater risk of death [OR 2.74 (1.31-5.76)]. BMI, microvascular and macrovascular complications, HbA1c, and random non-fasting blood glucose on admission were not associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, CRP and age remained associated with the primary outcome [OR 3.44 (2.17, 5.44)] allowing for a validated predictive model for death by day 7.ConclusionsHigher CRP and advanced age were associated with and predictive of death by day 7. However, BMI, presence of diabetes complications, and glycaemic control were not. A high proportion of these patients required insulin infusion warranting increased input from the inpatient diabetes teams.

2022 ◽  
Mahmoud Yassin Mohamed ◽  
Ahmed Mohamed Abd El-Hafeez ◽  
Mohamed El-said Ibrahim ◽  
Mohamed Hussein Ramadan ◽  
Amin Mohamed Amin ◽  

Abstract Alteration of the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of cervical mucus (CM) due to differences in steroid hormones through the estrus cycle leads to different pregnancy rates. This investigation aims to study the possible relationship between CM properties with biochemical profiles, macro-mineral levels, and steroid hormones concentrations, and their effects on pregnancy rates of Egyptian cows. Fourteen Baladi cows were used and synchronized. The model log-likelihood ratio was highly significant (P=0.0009), and reported that the spinnbarkeit (SPK), electrical conductivity (EC), and crystallization (CRS) had significant effect on high pregnancy rate. The 3rd level of SPK (>13.5 cm) and EC (>15 mS/cm) was the highest significant (P=0.0016 & 0.0517, respectively) and a clear positive of estimate marginal effect (20.2543 & 10.6192, respectively) attitude towards the pregnancy rate. However, in case of the CRS, the significant effect was in the first two levels (P=0.0321 & 0.0425, respectively) with a high pregnancy rate, reverse the last 2 levels. Total protein, cholesterol, glucose, potassium, chloride levels, and estradiol concentrations were observed higher with increasing levels of SPK and EC and appearance of typical fern patterns (first two levels of CRS), in contrast to sodium, and progesterone concentrations that decreased with elevating levels of SPK and EC and appearance of atypical fern patterns (last two levels of CRS). There was a close correlation between CM properties and steroid hormones (P4 & E2). So, alterations in CM properties, especially SPK, EC, and CRS, can be utilized to foresee estrus time and, as a result, insemination time.

2022 ◽  
Fangyuan Xu ◽  
Liqiang Liu ◽  
Jun Liu ◽  
Wei He ◽  
Kang Liao

Abstract Wild apricot in Yili wild fruit forest in Xinjiang have been seriously affected by leaf spot-hole disease, with the incidence reaching 100%. To identify the pathogen of apricot perforation in the Yili wild fruit forest, two bacterial strains with strong virulence were obtained by the dilution separation method. The bacterial strains were gram-negative bacteria with yellow colonies, smooth surfaces and neat edges. The results of the pathogenicity test showed that the bacteria could cause symptoms of leaf spot-hole disease in wild apricot, similar to the symptoms in the field, and could cause HR in tobacco. Based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence and multilocus sequence analysis of fusA, gyrB, leuS, pyrG, rpoB and rlpB, combined with the physiological and biochemical characteristics, the isolated strain was identified as Pantoea agglomerans. The pathogen causing bacterial leaf spot-hole disease in wild apricot was determined to be P. agglomerans in the wild fruit forest of Yili, Xinjiang. The whole genome of the pathogen strain GL9-2 was sequenced based on the Illumina HiSeq500 and PacBio RS platforms. The genome size was 4765392 bp, and the G+C value was 55.27%. There was one chromosome and two plasmids in the genome, and 4353 CDs were identified. The annotation results showed that 52 glycoside hydrolase-related genes, 38 bacterial secretory system-related genes and 600 toxin-related genes were predicted.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (6) ◽  
pp. 690-699
M'hamed Bouricha ◽  
Roukia Hammoudi ◽  
Soumia Djelloul Daouadji ◽  
Samia Bissati Bouafia ◽  
Mahfoud Hadj Mahammed ◽  

Leuconostoc (Ln) sp. belongs to a group of lactic acid bacteria, which has the capacity to produce dextran (an exopolysaccharides) in the presence of su-crose. dextran is industrially important, it was the first microbial exopolysac-charide affirmed for commercial use. This study aimed to optimize the pro-duction of the synthesized dextran by Ln strains species isolated from differ-ent dairy products. Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify 23 isolated strains. We have identi-fied the species: Ln. gelidum, Ln. carnosum, Ln. citreum, Ln. fallax, Ln. mesen-teroides subsp mesenteroides, Ln. mesenteroides subsp dextranicum, Ln. mesenteroides subsp cremoris. 20 strains had the capacity to produce dex-tran from sucrose. The precipitation and quantification of EPS on MRSs (Mark rogosa et sharpe sucrose) medium revealed a difference between the strains, by the total sugars assay method, the amount of EPS varied between 0.63 ± 0.19 and 2.41 ± 0.17 g / L of strains LnF70 and LnC1 (isolated from goat's milk), respectively. The dextran production from MRSs medium was better than from liquid MSE. The optimization of production on MRSs medi-um with different concentration of glucose, yeast extract and sucrose showed that the strains had good production with a concentration of 2% glucose, 0.3% yeast extract and 10% sucrose.

Linyi Zhang ◽  
Chen Song ◽  
Yaoyao Xu ◽  
Yajun Shi ◽  
Xiaoling Liu

Abstract A single strain capable of efficient S2−-oxidizing was isolated from a black-odor river in Beijing. The single strain was identified as Stenotrophomonas through the physiology and biochemical characteristics as well as the 16S rRNA sequencing experiment. This strain was named as Stenotrophomonas sp.sp3 (strain sp3). The experimental results showed that for the strain sp3 growth and S2− oxidization, the optimal conditions were as follows: 25 °C of temperature, initial pH 7, 2.5 g/L of initial glucose concentration and 1.00 g/L of initial cell concentration. It was found that there were 31 kinds of sulfur oxidation related genes in the strain sp3 through the whole genomic analysis. The results of the transcriptome analysis suggested that the main metabolic pathway of S2− to SO42− was the paracoccus sulfur oxidation process. The bioconversion processes of S2− to S0, S2− to SO32−, S2O32− to S0 and SO32−, and SO32− to SO42− were controlled by hdrA, cysIJ, tst and sox gene, respectively.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kamila Szeliga ◽  
Aleksandra Antosz ◽  
Karolina Skrzynska ◽  
Barbara Kalina-Faska ◽  
Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciakowska ◽  

IntroductionThyroid dysfunctions are one of the most common abnormalities coexisting in children with Down’s syndrome (DS) and have been reported in up to 54% of cases.Aim of the StudyThe purposes of this retrospective study were to investigate the course of subclinical hypothyroidism in children with DS, to evaluate the thyroid function of these subjects in relation to the risk of developing overt thyroid disease and autoimmunity, and to identify clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients prescribed L-T4 therapy in children and adolescents with DS and SH.Material and MethodsThe records of DS patients referred to the Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic between 2010 and 2015 for screening of thyroid function were observed till the end of 2019 June and analyzed retrospectively. The children diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and seizures and treated with drugs that may have interfered with thyroid function like lithium, antiepileptic, or iodinated drugs and glucocorticoids were excluded from the study.ResultsThe data of 77 DS patients were collected, evaluated, and analyzed. The study group consisted of 73 patients (32 girls and 41 boys with the mean age at baseline of 3.0 ± 4.5 years). A total of 63/73 (87%) children were diagnosed with SH. The 16/63 (25.4%) patients were followed-up without the treatment (group SH-T0), and therapy with levothyroxine (L-T4) was introduced in 47/63 (74.6%) SH children with a mean dosage of 1.8 ± 1.0 μg/kg/day (group SH-T1). Thyroxine supplementation did not improve growth expressed as ΔhSDS (0.1 ± 1.3, ranged −2.1 to 3.8 in SH-T0 vs. 0.0 ± 0.7, ranged −1.7 to 1.4 in SH-T1, p = 0.96) and ΔBMI Z-score (0.3 ± 0.9, ranged −0.9 to 2.6 in SH-T0 vs. 0.3 ± 1.1, ranged −2.1 to 2.9 in SH-T1, p = 0.65). Positive anti-TPO and anti-TG antibodies were detected in 7/63 (11.1%) DS cases.ConclusionsSH is the most frequent presentation of thyroid gland dysfunction in DS children. A small percentage of patients develop an overt hypothyroidism, particularly in females with mostly positive titer of antithyroid autoantibodies.

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 20
Eleni C. Pappa ◽  
Thomas G. Bontinis ◽  
John Samelis ◽  
Kyriaki Sotirakoglou

Traditional hard Xinotyri cheese was manufactured using raw or pasteurized goat milk, without starter cultures, and the changes in microbiological and biochemical characteristics were studied during ripening and storage. Mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominated (>8.5 log CFU/g) in freshly fermented Xinotyri cheeses (pH 4.5–4.6), regardless of milk pasteurization. Enterobacteria, pseudomonads and staphylococci were suppressed below 6 and 4–5 log CFU/g in fresh cheeses from raw and pasteurized milk, respectively. Salmonella and Listeria spp. were absent in 25 g cheese samples. Coagulase-positive staphylococci exceeded the 5-log safety threshold in fresh raw milk cheeses, which also had 10-fold higher levels of enterococci than pasteurized milk cheeses. Non-LAB groups declined <100 CFU/g, whereas yeasts increased to 5–6 log CFU/g in both cheeses during ripening. Milk pasteurization affected the protein, fat, ash, moisture, nitrogen fractions, total free fatty acids and total free amino acids content of cheeses. Primary proteolysis, detectable by urea-PAGE, was more intense in raw milk cheeses than in pasteurized milk cheeses. However, the hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides and their ratio in the water-soluble fraction were similar in both cheeses. Cheeses discriminated clearly according to the milk kind (raw, pasteurized) and the stage of ripening, based on the examined biochemical characteristics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (4) ◽  
pp. 743-756
Najwa Alharbi ◽  
Hanan Mohammed Alhashim

Beauty salons may draw in customers with glamour; however, they could also be considered a major health issue. They can cause the spread of bacterial and fungal infections. The purpose of this research was to identify pathogenic microbes from beauty salon tools. Microorganisms from contaminated salon tools and cosmetic products were isolated using various selective media. Microbial isolates were identified based on their molecular and biochemical characteristics. The most common bacterial species isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Microbacterium spp., Bacillus siamensis, Bacillus subtilis, Sphingomonas aeria, Macrococcus spp., Microbacterium oxydans, Brachybacterium spp., Micrococcus luteus, and Brachybacterium nesterenkovii. Fungal isolates included Penicillium spp., Aspergillus niger, Purpureocillium lilacium, and Aspergillus flavus. Overall, Staphylococcus spp. and A. niger were the most common organisms isolated from the samples. The presence of potential pathogens indicates that the tools used in salons have not been adequately sterilized and the high risk of diseases spread.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 145-150
ELGHOUAT Ghita ◽  
NAKHLI Raja ◽  
RAISSI Abderrahim ◽  
CHELLAK Saliha ◽  
BOUKHIRA Abderrahim

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal proliferation of plasma cells invading the bone marrow and secreting monoclonal immunoglobulin. In order to study the epidemiological and biological and biochemical characteristics of MM, we carried out a retrospective work on a cohort of 50 cases collected at the Avicenna Military Hospital in Marrakesh, during a period of 5 years (from January 2013 to December 2017). Our study included 32 men (64%) and 18 women (36%), with an average age of 60.6 years, with extremes at 44 and 87 years. The circumstances of discovery were dominated by bone pain and alteration in general condition, which are revealing in more than 65% of cases. Biologically: the sedimentation rate was accelerated in 86% of cases, a monoclonal peak appearance was revealed on serum proteins electrophoresis in 88%of cases, most often located in the γ zone (64%), a predominance of the Ig G isotype (64%), and kappa light chains in 60% of cases, Bence Jones protein (BJP) was found in 7 patients, i.e. 14% of cases, and plasmacytosis over 10% was found on the myelograms in 90 % of cases.

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