brine shrimp lethality
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2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
pp. 24
Yunahara Farida ◽  
Rahmatul Qodriah ◽  
Atika Puti Widyana ◽  
Zauhara Ifani

Daun kemuning (Murraya paniculata L.Jack) secara empiris banyak digunakan  sebagai antibakteri, anti inflamasi, penurun kadar kolesterol darah dan juga sebagai antioksidan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menguji aktivitas antioksidan, antikolesterol secara in vitro dan menguji toksisitas secara BSLT menggunakan ekstrak etanol daun kemuning. Daun kemuning diekstraksi menggunakan etanol 96% secara maserasi kinetik, selanjutnya ekstrak yang diperoleh dilakukan skrining fitokimia, diuji aktivitas antioksidannya menggunakan metode peredaman radikal bebas DPPH, uji antikolesterol menggunakan metode Liebermann-Burchard dan uji toksisitas menggunakan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. Hasil  skrining fitokimia menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun kemuning mengandung flavonoid, saponin, tanin, steroid/triterpenoid, minyak atsiri dan kumarin. Hasil uji aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak etanol daun kemuning diperoleh nilai IC50 sebesar 18,56 µg/mL, hasil uji aktivitas antikolesterol dengan nilai IC50 sebesar 593,95 µg/mL dan uji toksisitas dengan nilai LC50 sebesar 149,52 µg/mL. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daun kemuning mempunyai aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat kuat dan dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai obat herbal.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 24-31
Mastura Mastura ◽  
Mauliza Mauliza ◽  
Hasby Hasby ◽  
Maulidya Husnul Khatimah

Metode penapisan awal pada pengobatan bahan alam untuk antikanker yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan uji toksisitas ekstrak tumbuhan.Berdasarkan uji pendahuluan yang dilakukan ekstrak daun dan bunga tahi kotok jingga (Tagetes erecta) memiliki kandungan metabolit sekunder alkaloid, flavonoid dan fenol. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan metabolit sekunder dan toksisitas ekstrak daun dan bunga tahi kotok jingga (Tagetes erecta) menggunakan metode Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). Kandungan toksisitas dibuktikan melalui perhitungan LC50 yang dianalisis dengan regresi linear melalui microsoft office excel. Kandungan metabolit sekunder berupa flavonoid, alkaloid dan fenol dari ekstrak daun dan bunga tahi kotok jingga (Tagetes erecta) dianalisis dengan uji reagen standar. Penelitian uji toksisitas dilakukan 3 kali pengulangan (triplo) dimana setiap pengulangan menggunakan 1 larutan kontrol dan 3 konsentrasi yang masing-masing terdiri atas konsentrasi 1000 ppm, 100 ppm dan 10 ppm. Berdasarkan analisis regresi linear nilai LC50 yang diperoleh adalah daun tahi kotok jingga (Tagetes erecta) 58,817092 ppm dan bunga tahi kotok jingga (Tagetes erecta) adalah 23,2904713 ppm. Berdasarkan penelitian yang telah dilakukan diketahui bahwa ekstrak kental daun dan bunga tahi kotok jingga (Tagetes erecta) memiliki kandungan metabolit sekunder alkaloid, flavonoid dan fenol. Selain itu, ekstrak kental daun dan bunga tahi kotok jingga (Tagetes erecta) juga bersifat sangat toksik dan toksik.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (6-S) ◽  
pp. 43-48
Lateef Adegboyega Sulaimon ◽  
Fausat Kikelomo Ola-Mudathir ◽  
Bunyamin Alhassan Abdullahi ◽  
Ahmad Ila Mukhtar ◽  
Efere Martins Obuotor

Many medicinal plants have been reported to exhibit protective effects against many physiological diseases as a result of their phytochemical components which are effective antioxidants. This study was aimed at comparing the phenolic and flavonoids contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract of Jatropha curcas seeds and leaves. The cytotoxicity level of J. curcas was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT). The antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide scavenging activities, 2, 2’-azino-bis-(3 ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) + scavenging activities and total antioxidant capacity. The total flavonoids and total phenols content (TPC) were carried out using aluminum chloride and Folin-Ciocalteu assay respectively. The results showed that J. curcas leaves have significant higher phenolic and flavonoids contents than the seeds. The total antioxidant capacity and FRAP were also significantly higher in the leaves than the seeds of J. curcas. Furthermore, the DPPH, ABTS and Nitric oxide scavenging activities were significantly higher in the leaves than the seeds. The J. curcas leaves have a higher LD50 than the seeds.  In conclusion, this study suggests the antioxidant potency as well as the safety of the crude methanol extract of the leaves of J. curcas over the seeds. Keywords:  Jatropha curcas, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, flavonoids, brine shrimp lethality test, total phenolic compounds

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 45
Ferian Firnanda ◽  
Eduardus Bimo Aksono Herupradoto ◽  
Kadek Rahmawati ◽  
Rochmah Kurnijasanti ◽  
Mohammad Sukmanadi ◽  

This research aimed to determine the effects of toxic white pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum L) against larvae of brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) indicated LC50 values below 1000 µg/ml. This study is purely experimental by using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT). The study was divided into seven groups, namely ethanol extract of white pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L) with a concentration of 31,25; 62,5; 125; 250; 500; 1000 µg/ml and negative control (seawater). Mortality data percentage of Artemia salina Leach analyzed by probit analysis. Results showed that the extract of white pomegranate fruit extract (Punica Granatum L) has a toxic effect with LC50 values of 248,6 µg/ml calculate from probit analysis. From these results, it can conclude that white pomegranate extract is toxic to larval shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) with Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) method which means white pomegranate extract has the potential to be an anticancer drug.

Ashpak. M. Tamboli ◽  
Kiran. A. Wadkar

This study was subjected to investigate brine shrimp lethality bioassay of Convolvulus pluricaulis and Mimosa rubicaulis (Lam.) in different polarities of leaves extracts. Brine shrimp organisms were used to assess the cytotoxic activities of various polarities of leaves extracts while using brine shrimp lethality bioassay the cytotoxicity had been assessed and correlated with standard. Five concentrations (20, 50,100,200,500µg/ml) of each extract were used to find out the cytotoxicity. The Artemia salina lethality bioassay result was evaluated in terms of LC50 (lethality concentration).In each plant extracts into three replicates concentration naupli were added. After 24 h the surviving Artemia salina larvae were counted and LC50 was assessed. The cytotoxic activity of all polarities of extracts displayed activity within the value of LC50 (132.10–266.76 µg/ml) for Convolvulus pluricaulis and (213.86–279.47 µg/ml) for Mimosa rubicaulis (Lam.) Results revealed that the ethyl acetate extracts of Convolvulus pluricaulis and ethanolic extracts of Mimosa rubicaulis (Lam.) elicit significant activity compared to other extracts it indicated biologically active components are present in ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts that could be accounted for its pharmacological effects.

Sekinat Okikiola Azeez ◽  
Aanuoluwapo Nifemi Olowu ◽  
Anyim Godwin ◽  
Joseph Tosin Apata ◽  
Bolajoko Ayinke Akinpelu

This study examined the potential cytotoxicity of Mirabilis jalapa L. methanolic crude leaf extract and its fractions against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina L.) and Allium cepa L. roots. The leaf extraction was done according to standard technique and crude extract was partitioned using n-hexane, water, ethyl acetate and butanol to obtain their respective fractions. Allium cepa root growth inhibition of M. jalapa methanolic crude extract and fractions were evaluated as well as brine shrimp lethality of the fractions based on standard methods. Also, phytochemical screening of the methanolic crude leaf extract was carried out according to standard methods. The result showed that M. jalapa methanolic crude leaf extract caused a significant reduction in cell mitotic index (32.96%) compared with the control (52.13%). The butanol fraction produced the highest mitotic inhibitory activity on A. cepa cell division at 0.3 mg/ml. Moreover, the butanol fraction produced the highest percentage lethality (LC50 1.45 μg/ml) against brine shrimp nauplii. There was a strong correlation between brine shrimp lethality and mitotic cell inhibition with butanol fraction as the most potent in both models. The methanolic leaf crude extract tested positive for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tanins and triterpenes. The methanolic crude extract of M. jalapa leaf and its fractions exhibited effective cytotoxic effect on A. cepa and brine shrimps. Butanol fraction, with the most cytotoxic activity among the tested extracts, demonstrates a promising source for novel anticancer agents.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Masteria Yunovilsa Putra ◽  
Firmansyah Karim ◽  
Aji Nugroho

Background: Soft corals of the genus Sinularia are well recognized as a rich source of steroidal compounds. These constituents, mainly steroids, have been reported as possessing antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities. Objectives: This study was designed to isolate and elucidate antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from the soft coral Sinularia polydactila. Methods: Structure elucidation of steroids was determined based on spectroscopic data through 1D and 2D NMR analyses and mass spectrometry, with the results compared to data in the literature. Antibacterial activity was determined using four human bacterial pathogens, namely B. subtilis (ATCC 6633), P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), S. aureus (ATCC 25923), and E. coli (ATCC 25922). Cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the human colon cancer cell HCT 116 and brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA). Results: Two steroids (Compounds 1 - 2) were isolated from the Indonesian soft coral Sinularia polydactila. (22R,23R,24R)-22,23-methylene-24-methylcholest-6-en-5α,8α-epidioxy-3β-ol (1) and 5α,8α-Epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3α-ol (2) showed moderate activity against colon carcinoma cancer HCT 116 at the concentrations of 24.8 and 27.3 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 showed cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality assay with the concentrations of 57.1 and 121.3 3 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 2 showed moderate activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis at the 250 μg/mL concentration. Conclusions: Two steroids isolated from soft coral Sinularia polydactila were found to possess moderate cytotoxic and antibacterial activities.

Yoan De Nanda Herru Adlis Santoni ◽  
Mai Efdi

Pometia pinnata leaves were extracted and fractionated using n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The four fractions obtained were screened for cytotoxic testing using the Brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) method, n-hexane fraction has the highest LC50 419,855 mg/L.The n-hexane fraction was continued for the isolation stage and a secondary metabolite compound was obtained, namely brassicasterol. The structure of this secondary metabolites was determined using spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis, FTIR, and NMR).

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 243-248
Lely Okmawaty Anwar ◽  
Sri Fatmah Sari ◽  
Asrul Ambo Elo ◽  
Rosmawati Rosmawati ◽  
Iin Nurdiyanty Nurdin ◽  

Cacing tambelo merupakan moluska yang menetap pada batang Rhizophora sp yang sudah mati. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat toksisitas dari ekstrak cacing tambelo dengan metode brine shrimp letahlity test (BSLT). Cacing tambelo diambil dari hutan mangrove di Desa Moolo, Kecamatan Batukara, Kabupaten Muna, Sulawesi Tenggara. Ekstrak cacing tambelo dipreparasi memakai larutan metanol. Uji toksisitas BSLT pada penelitian ini terdiri atas dua tahap, uji preliminary dan uji definitif. Uji preliminary bertujuan untuk menentukan kisaran lethal concentration (LC50), nilai kisaran konsentrasi tersebut akan digunakan pada uji selanjutnya (uji definitif). Uji preliminary menggunakan konsentrasi ekstrak tambelo sebesar 10, 100, 1.000 μg/mL dan 0 sebagai kontrol. Uji definitif menggunakan 4 konsentrasi (masing-masing 3 ulangan) yaitu:17,78; 31,61; 56,21; 99,94 μg/mL dan 0 sebagai kontrol. Data yang diperoleh dari uji definitif selanjutnya dianalisis dengan probit. Hasil analisis tersebut menunjukkan bahwa nilai LC50-24jam dari ekstrak tambelo ialah 42,43 μg/mL. Nilai LC50 tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa ekstrak cacing tambelo bersifat sangat toksik terhadap larva udang.

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