symptomatic treatment
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2022 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
Andrea Miuli ◽  
Giacomo d'Andrea ◽  
Mauro Pettorruso ◽  
Gianluca Mancusi ◽  
Alessio Mosca ◽  

Abstract: Cocaine Use Disorder (CUD) is one of the diseases with the greatest social and health impact, due to the high cost of rehabilitation management and the high risk of dangerous behavior and relapse. This pathology frequently leads to unsuccessful attempts to interrupt the consumption, resulting in relapses and a vicious circle binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation (craving). The alternation of these phases in addictions was well illustrated by Koob and colleagues in the so-called “addictive cycle”, which nowadays represents a landmark in the addiction field. Recently, there has been an increased interest in the international literature for biomarkers able to explain the several phases of addiction, and one of the most studied biomarkers is undoubtedly Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). In this perspective article, we discuss the potential role of BDNF as biomarker of the CUD phases described in the “Addictive Cycle”, speculating about the close relationship between BDNF fluctuations and the clinical course of CUD. Furthermore, we discuss BDNF potential role as “staging” biomarker, able to predict disease worsening. Finding valuable biomarkers of CUD severity and disease stage could shift clinicians' attention from the perspective of behavioral symptomatic treatment to a novel brain-based approach, allowing more effective and targeted therapeutic strategies to be developed, thus determining major benefits for CUD patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Nikhil Vikas Pawar ◽  
Fatima Farid Mir

A 4-month-old, previously healthy boy presented with acute onset of prolonged, recurrent seizure activity followed by neurodevelopmental deterioration and concurrent hair shaft hypopigmentation with fragility. Initial evaluation revealed significant low serum copper and ceruloplasmin, electrical status epilepticus on electroencephalography, and generalized subcortical white matter changes with diffuse tortuosity of intracranial vessels on MRI brain. In addition, a genetic study with whole-genome sequencing demonstrated a hemizygous pathogenic variant at c.2179G>A p(Gly727Arg) on ATP7A, thereby confirming the diagnosis of Menkes disease. Symptomatic treatment with antiepileptic medications was provided along with an urgent referral to an advanced center for multidisciplinary care and copper histidine replacement therapy.

Hany Akeel Al-hussaniy ◽  
Raghid R. Altalebi ◽  
Ali H. Albu-Rghaif ◽  
Abdul-Ghaffar A. Abdul-Amir

Diseases of the respiratory system are a common cause of antibiotic prescription in Iraq and worldwide. Technology has been recently used for its diagnosis, such as the Film Array Respiratory Panel. This study aims to identify the correlation between the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory tract infections with the result of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses. A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study included 134 patients treated at Alkharama Hospital and the Private Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, in the period from January 2020 to March 2020 For all cases, the results of the panel and the treatment received by the patients were analysed. 58% received antibiotic treatment upon admission, 13% combined treatment (antibiotic + antiviral), 27% received symptomatic treatment, and 2% were treated with the first-instance antiviral. After the result, 38% continued with antibiotics, 30% with antibiotics and antivirals, 13.8% with antivirals and 18.2% with symptomatic treatment. Despite the worldwide alarm over antimicrobial resistance, patients continue to be treated with antibiotics due to a situation that is influenced by several factors.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 71
Danuta Nowicka ◽  
Karolina Chilicka ◽  
Iwona Dzieńdziora-Urbińska

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition with a complex and unclear aetiology. Possible causes of AD encompass alterations in the structure and function of the epidermal barrier, disturbances in the skin microbiome, immune factors, allergens, bacterial and fungal infections as well as environmental and genetic factors. In patients with AD, acute skin lesions are colonized by a greater number of bacteria and fungi than chronic lesions, clinically unchanged atopic skin and the skin of healthy people. Mechanisms promoting skin colonization by pathogens include complex interplay among several factors. Apart from disturbances of the skin microbiome, increased adhesion in atopic skin, defects of innate immune response resulting in the lack of or restriction of growth of microorganisms also contribute to susceptibility to the skin colonization of and infections, especially with Staphylococcus aureus. This review of the literature attempts to identify factors that are involved in the pathogenesis of AD-related bacterial and fungal skin colonization. Studies on the microbiome, commensal microorganisms and the role of skin microorganisms in maintaining healthy skin bring additional insight into the treatment and prevention of AD. In the light of presented mechanisms, reduction in colonization may become both causative and symptomatic treatment in AD.

2022 ◽  
pp. 35-44
N. V. Pizova

Vertigo is a fairly common complaint with which patients present to physicians of various profiles, and especially to general practitioners, neurologists, and otorhinolaryngologists. Vertigo is a condition where a person has the illusion of movement or of surrounding objects moving when they are not. Vertigo is a symptom of a wide range of diseases, both benign and life-threatening. Vertigo can have a variety of causes, and the suggested treatment should depend on the cause. Due to the multifactorial etiology of medical care, many patients receive inadequate treatment under the primary healthcare scheme, especially during initial presentation. The main causes of vertigo are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Meniere’s disease, vestibular neuritis, vestibular migraine, and cerebrovascular diseases. Patients with other disorders, such as depression and hyperventilation syndrome, may present with complaints of nonrotary vertigo. Differential diagnosis of vertigo can be made using easy-to-perform tests during physical examination, including assessment of nystagmus, Dix-Hallpike maneuver, and blood pressure measurements with head-up tilt table tests. Treatment of patients with complaints of vertigo includes drug and non-drug therapy, depending on the established nosological form. However, due to the multifactorial etiology, many patients receive inadequate treatment under the primary healthcare scheme, especially during initial presentation. The dimensionhydrinate/cinnarizine combination is one of the drugs for the symptomatic treatment of vertigo of various origins in adults.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-36
Sanjay Kalra ◽  
Asit Mittal ◽  
Roheet M. Rathod ◽  
Colette Pinto ◽  
Rahul Rathod ◽  

Pruritus is a common dermatological condition observed in patients with diabetes, making it a dermatometabolic condition. Being multiaethiological, pruritis is caused by autoimmune, genetic, infectious and various systemic diseases. The present survey aimed to understand the knowledge, attitude and practice toward pruritus among Indian physicians and patients with diabetes presenting with pruritus. A telephonic, cross-sectional, qualitative survey was conducted among physicians and patients across five cities in India from July–August 2020. An open-ended discussion guide was used for the interview; the data were analyzed to check for common themes and trends. A majority of the consulting physicians (CPs) believed that uncontrolled diabetes is the main causal factor for pruritus in patients with diabetes and reported that currently there are no standard tests or treatment guidelines for its management. CPs emphasized proper monitoring and counseling to overcome current challenges. Patients reported a negative impact of pruritus on their daily activities and quality of life. The survey concluded that poor management of diabetes is one of the main causal factors for patients with diabetes presenting with pruritus in India. CPs emphasized controlling diabetes along with symptomatic treatment. For patients, pruritus has multifaceted effects on their health, overall well-being, and quality of life.

2022 ◽  
Arpankumar Patel ◽  
Rutikbhai Desai ◽  
Hilloni Shah ◽  
Laseena Vaisyambath ◽  
Manozna Karri ◽  

Abstract Background Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, previously known as inflammatory pseudotumors, are rare soft tissue carcinomas with variable presentation and location. Due to non-specific symptoms and location, the diagnosis of this condition is often clinically challenging. Only a handful of case reports have been published in the literature describing this tumor, and there is still a lack of consensus on pathogenesis, risk factors, and treatment strategy. Most tumors have shown mutation in the anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) gene. In this article, we describe a case of ALK-negative malignant inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Case A 46 years old male with no risk factors presented with a mass in the inguinal region. The ultrasound was suggestive of a mixed echoic mass suggestive of inguinal hernia, which led to surgical repair with resection of the tumor segment. Subsequently, histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed that the mass was an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor which then recurred in a few years and failed to respond to multiple chemotherapy regimens, and over time, it progressively metastasized to the anterior abdominal wall and lungs. The patient is currently receiving palliative chemotherapy and symptomatic treatment. Conclusion This rare soft tissue tumor has not received much attention, and clinicians often miss the diagnosis. We stress that further study should be carried out on these soft tissue tumors, and adequate diagnostic and therapy recommendations should be developed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 106-114
Syed Sayeed Ahmad ◽  
Haroon Khan ◽  
Mohammad Khalid ◽  
Abdulraheem SA Almalki

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative ailment and the most familiar type of dementia in the older population with no effective cure to date. It is characterized by a decrease in memory, associated with the mutilation of cholinergic neurotransmission. Presently, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have emerged as the most endorsed pharmacological medications for the symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to research the molecular enzymatic inhibition of human brain acetylcholinesterase by a natural compound emetine and I3M. Molecular docking studies were used to identify superior interaction between enzyme acetylcholinesterase and ligands. Furthermore, the docked acetylcholinesterase-emetine complex was validated statistically using an analysis of variance in all tested conformers. In this interaction, H-bond, hydrophobic interaction, pi-pi, and Cation-pi interactions played a vital function in predicting the accurate conformation of the ligand that binds with the active site of acetylcholinesterase. The conformer with the lowest free energy of binding was further analyzed. The binding energy for acetylcholinesterase complex with emetine and I3M was -9.72kcal/mol and -7.09kcal/mol, respectively. In the current study, the prediction was studied to establish a relationship between binding energy and intermolecular energy (coefficient of determination [R2 linear = 0.999), and intermolecular energy and Van der wall forces (R2 linear = 0.994). These results would be useful in gaining structural insight for designing novel lead compounds against acetylcholinesterase for the effective management of Alzheimer's disease.

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (10) ◽  
pp. 316-316 ◽  
Elena Favaretto ◽  
Giulia Gortani ◽  
Gabriele Simonini

The present retrospective observational study on thirty children with Sydenham chorea shows that steroid treatment seems to be more effective than symptomatic treatment in both clinical remission and clinical improvement of symptoms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 41-44
Royasa Shakya ◽  
Bandana Koirala ◽  
Mamta Dali ◽  
Sneha Shrestha

Tongue is a complex organ associated with functions of taste, speech, mastication, deglutition, and development of jaws. It is considered the mirror of physical health as it can be the site of infections, immunological and drug-induced reactions, neoplasms and systemic diseases. This paper aims to present challenges in diagnosing a case of a 7-year-old male child who presented with ulceration and extensive white coating on the dorsum of tongue accompanied by fever, chills, tonsillitis, and submandibular lymphadenopathy. Despite symptomatic treatment done, the white coating with patches of depapillation lasted for a relatively long time. This may be the first reported case in the literature with such unusual tongue lesions in a child till date. Thus, pediatric dentists should have sound knowledge of the commonly encountered oral soft tissue lesions along with the rarer lesions and unusual presentation of common lesions for timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and referral if necessary.

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