To detect the corrosion resistance of a friction stud welding (FSW) joint in simulated seawater (a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution), the pulse electrochemical deposition method was used for electroplating Ni coating with different duty ratios (50%, 80%, and 100%) on the surface of FSW joint. The microstructure and surface structure of the coating were observed by micro-spectroscopy and other characterization methods. The corrosion behavior of the coating was analyzed by means of macroscopic electrochemical testing. The local corrosion law of joint surface and coating surface defects were innovatively explored by using micro-zone electrochemical scanning system. The coating characterization results showed that, as the duty ratio continues to increase, the coating surface becomes denser and smoother, and the corrosion products such as Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and FeOOH are generated. The results of macroscopic electrochemical experiment indicated that the coating with 100% duty ratio has the lowest corrosion current density and the maximum polarization resistance. The scanning vibrating electrode technique results showed that the corrosion current density in the defect area is higher than that in the coating area, and the maximum corrosion current density decreases with the increase of duty ratio. The localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results indicated that the localized impedance at the welded zone was the largest, and with the increase of the pulse duty ratio, the impedance diffusion in the defect area was decreasing.
Plasma polymer coatings fabricated from Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil and its derivatives have been previously shown to reduce the extent of microbial adhesion on titanium, polymers, and other implantable materials used in dentistry. Previous studies have shown these coatings to maintain their performance under standard operating conditions; however, when used in e.g., a dental implant, these coatings may inadvertently become subject to in situ cleaning treatments, such as those using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet, a promising tool for the effective in situ removal of biofilms from tissues and implant surfaces. Here, we investigated the effect of such an exposure on the antimicrobial performance of the Melaleuca alternifolia polymer coating. It was found that direct exposure of the polymer coating surface to the jet for periods less than 60 s was sufficient to induce changes in its surface chemistry and topography, affecting its ability to retard subsequent microbial attachment. The exact effect of the jet exposure depended on the chemistry of the polymer coating, the length of plasma treatment, cell type, and incubation conditions. The change in the antimicrobial activity for polymer coatings fabricated at powers of 20–30 W was not statistically significant due to their limited baseline bioactivity. Interestingly, the bioactivity of polymer coatings fabricated at 10 and 15 W against Staphylococcus aureus cells was temporarily improved after the treatment, which could be attributed to the generation of loosely attached bioactive fragments on the treated surface, resulting in an increase in the dose of the bioactive agents being eluted by the surface. Attachment and proliferation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells and mixed cultures were less affected by changes in the bioactivity profile of the surface. The sensitivity of the cells to the change imparted by the jet treatment was also found to be dependent on their origin culture, with mature biofilm-derived P. aeruginosa bacterial cells showing a greater ability to colonize the surface when compared to its planktonic broth-grown counterpart. The presence of plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the culture media was also found to enhance the bioactivity of polymer coatings fabricated at power levels of 10 and 15 W, due to a synergistic effect arising from simultaneous exposure of cells to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and eluted bioactive fragments. These results suggest that it is important to consider the possible implications of inadvertent changes in the properties and performance of plasma polymer coatings as a result of exposure to in situ decontamination, to both prevent suboptimal performance and to exploit possible synergies that may arise for some polymer coating-surface treatment combinations.
This article describes the modification of UV-curable coatings with silicon aluminum oxynitride (Sialon) and aluminum oxide (Alu C), which improve the hydrophobicity of the coating surface and the scratch hardness. The contact angle is greater due to surface roughness being enhanced with inorganic fillers. Improved scratch resistance results from the formation of a sliding layer triggered by the diffusion of Sialon or alumina on the coating surface. One can observed an increase in the surface hydrophobicity as well as in the scratch hardness (up to 100%) when small amounts (5 wt.%) of the inorganic compounds are added. Imaging microscopies, i.e., SEM, OM, and AFM (with nanoscopic Young’s modulus determination), revealed the good distribution of both types of fillers in the studied matrix.
NiCr–Cr3C2 coatings are widely used for high temperature and tribological applications due to their high hardness, oxidation, and wear resistance properties. In the present investigation, an attempt is made to further enhance the hardness and adhesion strength of NiCr–Cr3C2 coatings by reinforcing them with multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes (3–7 wt%) with varying weight percentages were mixed with NiCr–Cr3C2 using a planetary ball rolling mill and sprayed on SA213 T12 (T12 alloy steel tube) using a high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying process. The microstructures of mixed powder, coating cross-section, and fractured coating surface were characterized using a scanning electron microscope while X-ray diffraction was used for phase identification in the fractured coating surface. The coated samples were subjected to microhardness and adhesion strength tests according to ASTM E384 and ASTM D4541-09 standards. Out of all coatings, NiCr–Cr3C2/7% carbon nanotube composite coating showed the lowest porosity of 1.17%, highest microhardness, and adhesion strength of 563.8 HV and 55.8 MPa, respectively. A fracture analysis after a pull-off adhesion test revealed adhesion failure for NiCr–Cr3C2 coating and combined adhesion/cohesion failure for NiCr–Cr3C2/7% carbon nanotube composite coating.
Low Infrared emissivity coating (LIREC) is prone to generating some problems such as bulges, degumming, and abrasion. In order to study whether the performance of LIREC under different damages can meet the work needs, it is essential to timely measure and evaluate the performance state of LIREC in the application process. The existing methods for measuring the damage of LIREC have some disadvantages such as expensive equipment, complex operation, and inaccurate measurement results. In this paper, a measurement method of LIREC damage capability based on thermal imager is proposed. The radiation temperature is measured by thermal imager, the real temperature and ambient temperature of coating surface are measured by thermocouple, and the emittance of coating surface is calculated. Non-contact and continuous large-area emissivity measurements are carried out on the damaged parts of the coating and verified by experiments. The measurement results show that the different damage types and damage degrees directly affect the measurement results of LIREC. Wear damage increases the emissivity of the coating while debonding damage basically does not change the coating emissivity. Shedding damage of small diameter forms voids, which causes the increase of the damage parts of emittance. In addition, bulge damage impedes temperature transfer and reduces emissivity. This method can timely and accurately measure and evaluate the performance state of LIREC and can provide a new idea for the accurate measurement of damage emissivity of LIREC.
A hybrid anti-/de-icing system combining a superhydrophobic coating and an electrothermal heater is an area of active research for aircraft icing prevention. The heater increases the temperature of the interaction surface between impinging droplets and an aircraft surface. One scientific question that has not been studied in great detail is whether the temperatures of the droplet and the surface or the temperature difference between the two dominate the anti-/de-icing performance. Herein, this scientific question is experimentally studied based on the mobility of a water droplet over a superhydrophobic coating. The mobility is characterized by the sliding angle between the droplet and the coating surface. It was found that the temperature difference between the droplet and the coating surface has a higher impact on the sliding angle than their individual temperatures.
Inspired by the antifouling properties of scaly fish, the conventional silicone coating with phenylmethylsilicone oil (PSO/PDMS) composite coating was fabricated and modified with single layer polystyrene (PS) microsphere (PSO/PDMS-PS) arrays. The fish scale like micro-nano structures were fabricated on the surface of bio-inspired coating, which can reduce the contact area with the secreted protein membrane of fouling organisms effectively and prevent further adhesion between fouling organisms and bio-inspired coating. Meanwhile, PSO exuded to the coating surface has the similar function with mucus secreted by fish epidermis, which make the coating surface slithery and will be polished with the fouling organisms in turbulent waters. Compared to PSO/PDMS coating without any structure and conventional silicone coating, PSO/PDMS-PS showed better antiadhesion activity against both marine bacteria and benthic diatom (Navicula sp.). Additionally, the existence of PS microspheres can reduce the release rate of PSO greatly, which will extend the service life of coating. Compared to PSO/PDMS coating, the sustained release efficiency of PSO/PDMS-PS coating can reach 23.2%. This facile method for fabricating the bio-inspired composite slow-release antifouling coating shows a widely fabricating path for the development of synergistic anti-fouling coating.