final height
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 611-628
João Marcos Monteiro Batista ◽  
Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal ◽  
José Humberto Vilar da Silva ◽  
Veruska Dilyanne Silva Gomes ◽  

Fish larviculture exert great influence in the subsequent phases, in which nutrition is a basic prerequisite for success. Therefore, when it is in an intensified production system, it promotes the limitation of some minerals, making it necessary to supplement selenium in diets for post-larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate selenium levels and sources in post-larvae Nile tilapia diets on muscle performance and histology. A total of 1,260 post-larvae with an initial average weight of 0.010 g were used, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme with four supplementation levels (0.6; 0.9; 1.2 and 1.5 mg of Se/Kg) and two sources (sodium selenite and selenium yeast), plus the negative control, with 35 post-larvae Nile tilapia used per experimental unit. The physical-chemical parameters of water quality were within those recommended for tilapia cultivation. Feed consumption (p < 0.05) and hepatosomatic index (p < 0.05) were affected by the source used. Effects of supplemented selenium levels and sources were not observed for the other performance variables. Higher values for final height, final width, specific development rate and protein efficiency rate were found (p < 0.05) when comparing the control diet with diets containing the sodium selenite source. No effects on muscle fiber morphometry were observed (p > 0.05) in the studied variables. It is concluded that 0.6 mg of selenium in the diet, regardless of the source used, met the mineral requirement for post-larvae Nile tilapia.

Camila P. Cagna ◽  
Osvaldo Guedes Filho ◽  
Alexandre R. C. Silva ◽  
Cássio A. Tormena

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to automate the acquisition of water travel time, as well as the computation of hydraulic conductivity of saturated soil by the falling head method, using water sensors and the Arduino platform. To automate the measurement of travel time, the Arduino Uno board was used, and two water sensors were installed at the initial (h0) and final (h1) heights of the water inside the core. When the water flows across the soil and the water level passes the bottom part of the initial sensor (h0), the time recording starts; it ends when the water is absent from the final height of the second sensor (h1). The equation for calculating the hydraulic conductivity was inserted into the algorithm so the calculation was automatic. Undisturbed soil samples were taken in a long-term no-tillage area. There were no significant differences for the time and hydraulic conductivity means between the permeameters. The coefficient of the residual mass index showed an overestimation of the time variable; thus, the automated permeameter improves the precision of time recording and saturated hydraulic conductivity estimated by the falling head method.

Douglas Villalta ◽  
Jose Bernardo Quintos

Abstract Gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHas) are an effective treatment to address the compromise in height potential seen in patients with central precocious puberty. There is no evidence in the literature of a single GnRHa used for longer than 2 years before being removed or replaced. We describe a patient who was on continuous gonadotropin suppression for 7 years and despite this, achieved a height potential within one standard deviation of mid-parental height. A boy aged 10 years and 3 months presented to endocrine clinic with signs of precocious puberty and advanced bone age. Initial labs showed random LH 9.4 mIU/mL, FSH 16.3 mIU/mL, DHEAS 127 mcg/dl, and testosterone 628 ng/dL. He was initially started on Lupron injections before transitioning to a Histrelin implant. Follow-up laboratory results 5 months post-suppression showed pre-pubertal random LH 0.2 mIU/mL, FSH 0.1 mIU/mL, and testosterone 5 ng/dL. The patient was lost to follow-up and returned 5 years later presenting with gynecomastia and delayed bone age. He had continuous gonadotropin suppression with random LH 0.10 mIU/mL, FSH 0.16 mIU/mL, and testosterone 8 ng/dL. The Histrelin implant was removed and 4 months after removal labs showed random pubertal hormone levels with LH 5.6 mIU/mL, FSH 4.3 mIU/mL, and testosterone 506 ng/dl. The patient’s mid-parental height was 175.3 cm and the patient’s near final height was 170.6 cm which is within one standard deviation of his genetic potential. Further studies are needed to explore continuous gonadotropin hormone suppression with a single Histrelin implant beyond 2 years.

Joanna Smyczyńska

According to current guidelines, growth hormone (GH) therapy is strongly recommended in children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD) in order to accelerate growth rate and attain normal adult height. The diagnosis of GHD requires demonstration of decreased GH secretion in stimulation tests, below the established threshold value. Currently, GHD in children is classified as secondary insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. Most of children diagnosed with isolated GHD presents with normal GH secretion at the attainment of near-final height or even in mid-puberty. The most important clinical problems, related to the diagnosis of isolated GHD in children and to optimal duration of rhGH therapy include: arbitrary definition of subnormal GH peak in stimulation tests, disregarding factors influencing GH secretion, insufficient diagnostic accuracy and poor reproducibility of GH stimulation tests, discrepancies between spontaneous and stimulated GH secretion, clinical entity of neurosecretory dysfunction, discrepancies between IGF-1 concentrations and results of GH stimulation tests, significance of IGF-1 deficiency for the diagnosis of GHD, a need for validation IGF-1 reference ranges. Many of these issues have remained unresolved for 25 years or even longer. It seems that finding solutions to them should optimize diagnostics and therapy of children with short stature.

2022 ◽  
Kobra Shiasi Arani ◽  
Seyed-AmirAbbas Ahadiat ◽  
Zeinab Hosseinian ◽  
Shayesteh Najafi ◽  
Fatemeh Aghamahdi ◽  

Irriga ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 599-612
Renata da Silva Cuba de Carvalho ◽  
Mara Rúbia Mendes de Melo ◽  
Francielly Guieiro Gomes de Sousa ◽  
Antonio Evaldo Klar

DESENVOLVIMENTO INICIAL DE MUDAS DE GUANANDI SUBMETIDAS A DOIS NÍVEIS DE LENÇOL FREÁTICO E DOSES CRESCENTES DE FÓSFORO1     RENATA DA SILVA CUBA DE CARVALHO2; MARA RÚBIA MENDES DE MELO3; fRANCIELLY GUIEIRO GOMES DE SOUSA4; antonio evaldo klar5   1Trabalho originado da tese de doutorado do primeiro autor intitulada: “Cultivo de pimentão em sistema hidropônico com água de reúso em diferentes níveis de disponibilidade de água no substrato”. 2Doutora, Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronomia – Irrigação e Drenagem, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Universitária, 3780, CEP 18610-034, Altos do Paraíso, Botucatu-SP, Brasil, [email protected] 3Doutoranda, Programa de Pós- graduação em Agronomia, Departamento de Produção e Melhoramento Vegetal. Faculdade de Ciências Agronômica, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rua José Barbosa de Barros, 1780. CEP: 18.610-307, Botucatu-SP - Brasil. E-mail: [email protected] 4Doutora, Programa de Pós- graduação em Agronomia – Irrigação e Drenagem, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômica, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Universitária, 3780, CEP 18610-034, Altos do Paraíso, Botucatu-SP, [email protected] 5 Professor Emérito do Departamento de Engenharia Rural da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Universitária, 3780, CEP 18610-034, Altos do Paraíso, Botucatu-SP, Brasil. E-mail: [email protected]     1 RESUMO   O guanandi é uma espécie nativa com potencial para reflorestamento, porém com poucos resultados na literatura sobre seu cultivo. Diante disto, objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de guanandi submetidas a dois níveis de disponibilidade de água no solo e doses crescentes de fósforo. O cultivo foi realizado de fevereiro a junho de 2016, utilizando-se dez lisímetros de lençol freático constante, simulando duas alturas do lençol freático, 0,40 m e 0,70 m. Em cada lisímetro, foram colocados seis vasos contendo uma muda por vaso. As doses de fósforo foram de 0, 40, 80, 120 e 160 mg dm-3 de solo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em fatorial 2 x 5, com seis repetições, considerando cada vaso uma unidade amostral, totalizando 60. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: altura e diâmetro final, massa fresca da parte aérea, raízes e total, teor relativo, potencial de água na folha (Ψf) e consumo de água. Os resultados permitem inferir que, nas condições avaliadas, a dose de 160 mg dm-3 de fósforo associada ao fornecimento de 537,2 mm de água nos primeiros cinco meses de implantação da cultura, proporciona melhor desenvolvimento morfológico e fisiológico.   Palavras chaves: irrigação, lisímetro, adubação fosfatada.     CARVALHO, R. S. C.; MELO, M. R. M.; GOMES, F. G.; KLAR, A. E. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF GUANANDI SEEDLINGS SUBJECTED TO TWO LEVELS OF WATER TABLE AND INCREASING DOSES OF PHOSPHORUS     2 ABSTRACT   The guanandi is a native species with potential for reforestation, but with few results in the literature about its cultivation. Because of this, the objective was to evaluate the initial development of guanandi seedlings subjected to two levels of water availability in the soil and crescent phosphorus dosages. The cultivation was conducted from February to June 2016 by using ten lysimeters of constant water table, simulating two heights of the water table, 0.40 m and 0.70 m. In each lysimeter, one of them, six pots were placed, with one seedling by pot. The crescent phosphorus dosages used were 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mg dm-1 of soil. The experimental design adopted was the factorial 2 x 5, with six replications, in which each, pot was considered a plot, totalizing 60 of them. The evaluated parameters were final height and diameter, aerial parts fresh mass, root fresh mass, total fresh mass, relative water level, water potential in the leaf (Ψf), and consumption of water. The results allow us to infer that, under the conditions evaluated, the dosage of 160 mg dm-3 of phosphorus associated with the supply of 537.2 mm of water in the first five months of crop implantation provides better morphological and physiological development, under the conditions evaluated.   Keywords: irrigation, lysimeter, phosphate fertilization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 185 (5) ◽  
pp. 629-635
Aristeidis Giannakopoulos ◽  
Alexandra Efthymiadou ◽  
Dionisios Chrysis

Objective The diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children is not always straightforward because insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) or GH stimulation tests may not be able to discriminate GHD from constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP) or other causes of short stature. Design Boys and girls (n = 429, 0.7–16 years) who attended our department for short stature participated in this study. They were followed up for an average period of 9 years. At the end of follow-up after reaching the final height, a definitive diagnosis was assigned, and all the components of ternary complex (IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), acid-labile subunit (ALS), and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio) were evaluated as biomarkers for the respective diagnosis. Results All the components of the ternary complex were tightly correlated with each other and were positively related to age. IGF-I, IGFBP-3, ALS, and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio differed significantly between GHD and normal groups. IGF-I and ALS levels were lower in GHD compared to children with familial short stature, while IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was significantly lower in GHD compared to children with CDGP. IGF-I and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 receiver operating curve cutoff points were unable to discriminate between GHD and normal groups or between GHD and CDGP groups. Conclusion Despite the tight correlation among all the components of the ternary complex, each one shows a statistically significant diagnosis-dependent alteration. There is a superiority of IGF-I, ALS, and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in the distinction between GHD and CDGP or between GHD and normal groups but without usable discriminating power, making auxology as the primary criterion for establishing the diagnosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sung Eun Kim ◽  
Dong-Yun Lee ◽  
Min-Sun Kim ◽  
Sung Yoon Cho ◽  
Dong-Kyu Jin ◽  

ObjectiveThis study aimed to determine the most appropriate age for height control treatment in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS).Materials and MethodsThis retrospective study included patients with MFS who underwent height control treatment with estradiol valerate. The estrogen dose was increased according to the height change. The cut-off age for the maximum difference between the expected height and actual final height was evaluated.ResultsSeventeen patients were included in this study. The difference between the height predicted by the growth curve and the final height (gcHtD) and that predicted by the bone age and the final height (baHtD) was the largest in the 10.5 years age group (p=0.0045 and p=0.0237, respectively). The gcHtD was 10.6 (10.2, 13.5) cm for patients aged ≤10.5 years, whereas it was 0.6 (−3.65, 5.85) cm for patients aged &gt;10.5 years. The baHtD was 10.1 (7.31, 11.42) cm for patients aged ≤10.5 years, while it was 3.83 (0.84, 6.4) cm for patients aged &gt;10.5 years. When height change was observed for a minimum of 6 months after completion of estrogen treatment, the average growth was 0.6 (0.2, 2.1) cm.ConclusionInitiating height control treatment before the age of 10.5 years is effective in female patients with MFS.

Tobias Troger ◽  
Grit Sommer ◽  
Mariarosaria Lang-Muritano ◽  
Daniel Konrad ◽  
Beatrice Kuhlmann ◽  

Abstract Context Patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) often fail to achieve their full growth potential. Adrenarche may accelerate bone maturation and thereby result in decreased growth in CAH. Objective To analyze the impact of growth during adrenarche on final height of adequately treated classic CAH patients. Design Retrospective, multi-center study. Setting Four academic pediatric endocrinology centers. Participants Fourty-one patients with classical CAH, born between 1990 and 2012. Main outcome measures We assessed skeletal maturation (bone age), growth velocity and (projected) adult height outcomes, and analyzed potential influencing factors, such as sex, genotype, and glucocorticoid therapy. Results Patients with classic CAH were shorter than peers (-0.4SDS±0.8SD) and their parents (corrected final height -0.6SDS±1.0SD). Analysis of growth during adrenarche revealed two different growth patterns: patients with accelerating bone age (49%), and patients with non-accelerating bone age compared to chronological age (BA-CA). Patients with accelerating BA-CA were taller than the normal population during adrenarche years (p=0.001) and were predicted to achieve a lower adult height SDS (-0.9SDS, 95%CI -1.3;-0.5) than non-accelerating patients when assessed during adrenarche (0.2SDS, 95%CI -0.3;0.8). Final adult height was similarly reduced in both accelerating and non-accelerating BA-CA groups (-0.4SDS, 95%CI -0.9;0.1 vs -0.3SDS, 95%CI -0.8;0.1). Conclusions Patients with and without significant bone age advancement, and thus differing height prediction during adrenarche, showed similar (predicted) final height when reassessed during pubertal years. Bone age alone should not be used during adrenarche as clinical marker for metabolic control in CAH treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Emmanuelle Blanc ◽  
Pierre Barbillon ◽  
Christian Fournier ◽  
Christophe Lecarpentier ◽  
Christophe Pradal ◽  

Increasing the cultivated diversity has been identified as a major leverage for the agroecological transition as it can help improve the resilience of low input cropping systems. For wheat, which is the most cultivated crop worldwide in terms of harvested area, the use of cultivar mixtures is spreading in several countries, but studies have seldom focused on establishing mixing rules based on plant architecture. Yet, the aerial architecture of plants and the overall canopy structure are critical for field performance as they greatly influence light interception, plant interactions and yield. The very high number of trait combinations in wheat mixtures makes it difficult to conduct experimentations on this issue, which is why a modeling approach appears to be an appropriate solution. In this study, we used WALTer, a functional structural plant model (FSPM), to simulate wheat cultivar mixtures and try to better understand how differences between cultivars in key traits of the aerial architecture influence mixture performance. We simulated balanced binary mixtures of cultivars differing for different critical plant traits: final height, leaf dimensions, leaf insertion angle and tillering capability. Our study highlights the impact of the leaf dimensions and the tillering capability on the performance of the simulated mixtures, which suggests that traits impacting the plants' leaf area index (LAI) have more influence on the performance of the stand than traits impacting the arrangement of the leaves. Our results show that the performance of mixtures is very variable depending on the values of the explored architectural traits. In particular, the best performances were achieved by mixing cultivars with different leaf dimensions and different tillering capability, which is in agreement with numerous studies linking the diversity of functional traits in plant communities to their productivity. However, some of the worst performances were also achieved by mixing varieties differing in their aerial architecture, which suggests that diversity is not a sufficient criterion to design efficient mixtures. Overall, these results highlight the importance of simulation-based explorations for establishing assembly rules to design efficient mixtures.

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