Head Posture
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Ahmad Kamil Solihin ◽  
Endro Yulianto ◽  
Her Gumiwang Ariswati ◽  
K. K. Mujeeb Rahman

The development of technology also affects human health, including body posture due to poor human position when using gadgets, both smartphones, and laptops. This study is design a tool that can measure the elevation of a person's neck angle equipped with electromyography, to help health workers, medical rehabilitation doctors to diagnose and provide treatment to patients with a bent head posture or forward head posture. In this research, an electromyography module is designed which consists of a series of instruments, a pre-amplifier circuit, a high pass filter, a low pass filter, and a dc offset regulator to be converted to digital so that it can be displayed on a laptop. In this study, the tapped muscle was the upper trapezius muscle using disposable electrodes. Meanwhile, to measure the angular elevation, the MPU 6050 sensor is used to measure the movement of the head forward. The frequency of the electromyography signal is 20-500 Hz. For software or display readings from this tool is Delphy. Meanwhile, the microcontroller used for ADC communication is Arduino Uno. From the research, it was found that the neck angle elevation gauge has a 0,597% error rate, for conditioning conducted on respondents, all respondents experienced a decrease in amplitude on the same frequency spectrum in the last ten minutes. Meanwhile, a drastic decrease occurred at the neck angle of 60°. Thus, it can be concluded that the forward position of the head affects the frequency spectrum of the neck muscles.

G.V. Gladysheva ◽  
I.L. Plisov ◽  
N.G. Antsiferova ◽  
V.B. Pushchina ◽  

Purpose. Analysis the effectiveness of prismatic correction in the treatment of congenital horizontal nystagmus. Material and methods. The study included 20 patients with congenital horizontal nystagmus. Depending on the type of nystagmus and compensatory mechanisms to reduce its amplitude, two groups were identified: 10 patients with pendular nystagmus and nystagmus blockage syndrome (mean age, M±sd, 5.8±1.9 years) and 10 patients with jerky nystagmus and abnormal head posture and a null zone (5.7±2.1 years). Fresnel prisms were used to select and prescribe prismatic correction. Patients were under dynamic control from 6 months to 2 years with an assessment of the results every 3 months. Results. During treatment (using prism correction), uncorrected visual acuity had a statistically significant increase of 1.8 and 1.5 times both in the first (p=0.004) and the second (p=0.001) group, respectively. A similar, and even more pronounced, change in visual acuity was observed for corrected visual acuity – in the first group it increased 3 times (p=0.001) and in the second group 2.2 times (p=0.001). Conclusion. Prismatic correction in pendular nystagmus and esotropia allows to simulate (eliminate) nystagmus blockage syndrome and, thereby, to improve the quality of vision of the patient. In its turn, prismatic correction in jerky nystagmus with abnormal head posture allows to move null zone into the primary position of gaze, increase visual acuity due to the optimal optical correction and improve the patient's quality of life. Key words: nystagmus blockage syndrome, convergence fusion, abnormal head posture, null zone, Fresnel prisms

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Łukasz Oleksy ◽  
Renata Kielnar ◽  
Anna Mika ◽  
Agnieszka Jankowicz-Szymańska ◽  
Dorota Bylina ◽  

Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 3-week rehabilitation programme focusing only on the cervical region, pain intensity, range of motion in the cervical spine, head posture, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) functioning in subjects with idiopathic neck pain who did not report TMJ pain. Design. A parallel group trial with follow-up. Methods. The study included 60 participants divided into 2 groups: experimental: n = 25 , 27-57 years old, experiencing idiopathic neck pain and who underwent a 3-week rehabilitation programme, and the control, n = 35 , 27-47 years, who were cervical pain-free. At baseline and after 3 weeks of treatment in the experimental group and with a 3-week time interval in the control group, pain intensity, head posture in the sagittal plane, range of motion in the cervical spine, and TMJ functioning were evaluated. Results. After 3 weeks of rehabilitation, there was a significant decrease in pain intensity, improved range of motion of the cervical spine and head posture, and improved clinical condition of TMJ in participants with idiopathic neck pain who did not report TMJ pain. Conclusion. The study suggested that idiopathic neck pain is associated with limited range of motion in the cervical spine, incorrect head posture, and TMJ dysfunction. Our data suggests that therapy focusing only on the cervical region may improve the clinical condition of the TMJ in subjects with idiopathic neck pain who do not report TMJ pain. These observations could be helpful in physiotherapeutic treatment of neck and craniofacial area dysfunctions. This trial is registered with ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN14511735.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Mustafa Al-Yassary ◽  
Kelly Billiaert ◽  
Gregory S. Antonarakis ◽  
Stavros Kiliaridis

AbstractAn inertial measurement unit (IMU) is an electronic device that measures and track the orientation of a body. We conducted this study in accordance with the STARD guidelines to evaluate the accuracy of IMU (index test) for measuring head posture compared to the current gold standard using a cervical range of motion (CROM) device. The reproducibility of the hunter and mirror-guided head posture was also evaluated. In vitro and in vivo tests were carried out to assess the validity of the IMU. To assess reproducibility, thirty healthy young adults were asked to look at four different locations in two different sessions while the head posture was recorded. Excellent correlation (r = 0.99; p < 0.001) was found between the IMU and CROM device with an absolute mean difference of 0.45° ± 0.58° (p = 0.85) for the in vitro test and 0.88° ± 1.20° (p = 0.99) for the in vivo test. For the reproducibility test, moderate to good correlation coefficients were found (r = 0.55 to 0.89; all p < 0.05) between the two sessions. The intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from moderate to excellent reliability (ICC from 0.74 to 0.96). These results suggest that the IMU sensors, when calibrated correctly, can be adequate to analyze head posture.

2021 ◽  
pp. 8-18
A. M. Orel ◽  
O. K. Semenova

Introduction. The strengthening of thoracic kyphosis and forward head posture is one of the urgent problems of modern man. Such changes are most often detected for elderly and senile people. However, today these features are also detected for young people. Digital radiography can objectively assess the position of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae. However, the criteria for reliably registering the position of the vertebrae of the cervicalthoracic junction have not yet been developed.The aim of the study — to develop a method for assessing the position of the vertebrae of the cervical-thoracic junction according to digital radiographs; to develop a typology of the vertebra positions of the cervical-thoracic junction; to study the frequency of vertebral position types for the cervical-thoracic junction for different age groups.Materials and methods. Spine X-ray images in the sagittal plane for 141 adult patients with dorsopathies were studied. The selection of patients was random and there were four age groups: 32 persons aged 21 to 45, 32 persons aged 46 to 59, 50 persons aged 60 to 74 and 21 persons aged 75 to 88 year-old. The study was conducted on PC screen, without the patient′s presence. A single digital X-ray image of the spine for each patient in the sagittal plane was obtained. On the combined digital radiograph, the occipital vertical was drawn along all parts of the spine, starting from the external hillock of the occipital bone downwards, and the anteroposterior CV–TV axes of the vertebrae (r axes) were applied. At the points of intersection of the axes with the occipital vertical, the perpendiculars to the axis were restored, and the angles between the perpendiculars and the vertical — the angles of the anteroposterior axes of the vertebrae (r angles) — were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using the MS Offi ce Excel 2007 and Statistica 12 software packages.Results. It was found that the values of the anteroposterior axe angles r of CVII–TIII vertebrae can serve as criteria for determining the spatial position of the cervical-thoracic junction vertebrae. There are 4 types of the shape of the cervical-thoracic junction. Type I is a straightened kyphosis («giraffe neck»); type II is physiological («harmonious»); type III — enhanced kyphosis («bear withers»); type IV–hyperkyphosis («buffalo hump»). Types III and IV are accompanied by a forward displacement of the head. Straightened cervical-thoracic junction kyphosis — type I — was diagnosed in 21 (15 %) people, 52 (37 %) patients were assigned to type II, another 48 (34 %) patients had type III, and 20 (14 %) patients had type IV cervical-thoracic junction kyphosis. In young patients aged 21 to 45, as well as in middle-aged patients aged 46 to 59, the most common type was the harmonious type II of cervical-thoracic junction, in elderly patients aged 60 to 74 — type III and close to it in frequency was type III. In elderly patients aged 75 to 88, the IV type of the position of the vertebrae of the cervical-thoracic junction prevailed in frequency.Conclusion. The proposed diagnostic method allows to register the type of the vertebra positions in cervicalthoracic junction for each patient. Four position types of the cervical-thoracic junction vertebrae were determined: straightened kyphosis «giraffe neck», physiological kyphosis «harmonious», enhanced kyphosis «bear withers» and hyperkyphosis «buffalo hump». Increased kyphosis and hyperkyphosis are accompanied by a forward head posture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. A67-A68
A Tate ◽  
V Kurup ◽  
B Shenoy ◽  
C Freakley ◽  
P Eastwood ◽  

Abstract Introduction Recent work has shown that head flexion has a modest worsening effect and head rotation has a modest protective effect on OSA severity. However, there is substantial variability both within and between individuals. In this analysis we aimed to identify if this variability is explained by sleep-state, BMI, age or sex. Methods 28 participants provided informed consent and were studied using diagnostic polysomnography with the addition of a customised, accelerometry based, head posture measurement device. For each epoch during supine sleep, the sleep state (NREM/REM), average head flexion (degrees) and average head rotation (degrees) were recorded. A logistic mixed effects model was fit across all epochs with the anthropometrics (BMI, sex, age), sleep state, average head flexion and average head rotation as explanatory variables with the absence/presence of one or more respiratory event(s) as the binary outcome variable. Results In total, 2122 of 5369 supine sleep epochs had a respiratory event. Three participants had no supine sleep. There were significant interaction effects for flexion-rotation, BMI-rotation and REM-flexion. The REM-flexion interaction effect was the strongest interaction effect with an odds ratio per 5 degrees of head flexion in REM sleep of 1.47 (95% CI: 1.13 – 1.86). Discussion Head flexion related worsening of OSA severity is greatest during REM sleep. This may be explained by attenuated upper airway neuromuscular activation in REM sleep compared with NREM sleep.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257735
Seok Woo Hong ◽  
Ki Tae Park ◽  
Yoon-Sok Chung ◽  
Yong Jun Choi ◽  
Jeong-Hyun Kang

The purpose of the present study was to reveal the relationship between degenerative changes in the cervical spine, head and neck postures, neck pain, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine in post-menopausal females. In total, 116 females (mean age 60.4 ± 7.1 years; age range 50–80 years) were included. Participants were classified into three groups based on the T-score criteria of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine set by World Health Organization, respectively. The degree of neck pain was assessed using self-administered questionnaire, the Neck Disability Index. Cervical spine degeneration and head and neck postures were identified using the lateral cephalograms. Grading system for cervical degeneration included three categories of the radiographic alterations including disc height loss, osteophyte formation, and diffuse sclerosis. The areal BMD of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Females with lower BMD exhibited lesser degree of neck pain and forward head posture (FHP) compared to those with normal BMD. Higher BMD seemed to be associated with more notable loss of the disc height at the level of C4-5. More prominent degenerative changes in the cervical spine were associated with higher areal BMD of the hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine, altered head posture, and development of neck pain.

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