Exercise Protocol
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Javier Diaz-Castro ◽  
Jose Eulogio Garcia-Vega ◽  
Julio J. Ochoa ◽  
María Puche-Juarez ◽  
Juan M. Toledano ◽  

Practicing exercise is one of the best strategies to promote well-being and quality of life, however physical activity in schoolchildren and adolescents is developed in an unpredictable, intermittent way and in short periods. There are relatively few intervention studies investigating the role of physical activity in schoolchildren endocrine function of adipose tissue and cognitive function. One hundred and three boys, divided into two groups: control (n = 51, did not perform additional physical activity) and exercise (n = 52, performed vigorous physical activity after the regular school classes). The exercise group, developed a 6 months physical activity protocol delivered by the physical education teacher during the second semester of the academic course (6 months). Body composition measurements, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, nutritional intake, hematological and biochemical parameters, endocrine function of the adipose tissue and biomarkers of brain molecular function were assessed at enrolment and after 6 months of intervention. No statistically significant differences between both groups were found for age, height and bone mass. Weight and BMI was lower in the exercise group compared to the control group, increasing lean mass and reducing fat mass. 58.68% of children in the exercise group showed high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet compared to 46.32% of the control group. The exercise group was more concerned about their diet consumed more fiber, vitamin B1, B2, B6, B12, D, Niacin, Folic acid, Fe, Zn, Se and Cu. Triglycerides levels and HDL-cholesterol were higher in the exercise group at the end of the study. Leptin, MCP-1, lipocalin-2, adipsin and PAI-1 levels were lower in the exercise group at the end of the exercise protocol. In contrast, adiponectin and osteocrin markedly increased in the exercise group. Moreover, marked increases were recorded in healthy brain state biomarkers (NGF, BDNF, and irisin) in the exercise group, which could have a positive impact on academic performance. Taken together, all the findings reported are consistent with many benefits of the exercise protocol on adipose tissue and brain molecular function, demonstrating the usefulness of early interventions based on physical activity in children to reduce risk factors related to sedentary lifestyle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Annalisa Di Giacomo ◽  
Giovanna Maria Ghiani ◽  
Francesco Todde ◽  
Filippo Tocco

Background: The aim of study was to assess hemodynamic changes during the simultaneous activation of muscle metaboreflex (MM) and diving reflex (DR) in a laboratory setting. We hypothesized that as long as the exercise intensity is mild DR can overwhelm the MM.Methods: Ten trained divers underwent all four phases (randomly assigned) of the following protocol. (A) Postexercise muscle ischemia session (PEMI): 3 min of resting followed by 3 min of handgrip at 30% of maximum force, followed immediately by 3 min of PEMI on the same arm induced by inflating a sphygmomanometer. Three minutes of recovery was further allowed after the cuff was deflated for a total of 6 min of recovery. (B) Control exercise recovery session: the same rest-exercise protocol used for A followed by 6 min of recovery without inflation. (C) DR session: the same rest-exercise protocol used for A followed by 1 min of breath-hold (BH) with face immersion in cold water. (D) PEMI-DR session: the same protocol used for A with 60 s of BH with face immersion in cold water during the first minute of PEMI. Stroke volume (SV), heart rate (HR), and cardiac output (CO) were collected by means of an impedance method.Results: At the end of apnea, HR was decreased in condition C and D with respect to A (−40.8 and −40.3%, respectively vs. −9.1%; p < 0.05). Since SV increase was less pronounced at the same time point (C = +32.4 and D = +21.7% vs. A = +6.0; p < 0.05), CO significantly decreased during C and D with respect to A (−23 and −29.0 vs. −1.4%, respectively; p < 0.05).Conclusion: Results addressed the hypothesis that DR overcame the MM in our setting.

Neurology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012929
David R Howell ◽  
Danielle L Hunt ◽  
Stacey E Aaron ◽  
Jason W Hamner ◽  
William P Meehan ◽  

Background and Objectives:Aerobic exercise has become a useful method to assist with post-concussion management. Exercise can exacerbate concussion symptoms even when symptoms are not apparent at rest. Few studies have examined the reasons for symptom exacerbation during exercise following a concussion. We had two primary objectives. 1) To delineate cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular responses to exercise in adolescents and young adults with a concussion and healthy controls. 2) To determine the association between cerebrovascular responses and symptom burden.Methods:We recruited participants with a recent concussion from a sport concussion clinic between 9/1/2018-2/22/2020. They were included if their concussion occurred <3 weeks before initial testing and if they were symptomatic at rest. Participants were excluded if they sustained a concussion in the past year (excluding index injury), reported history of neurological disorders, or were using medications/devices that may alter neurological function. Participants completed a progressive, symptom-limited, sub-maximal exercise protocol on a stationary bike. We assessed heart rate, blood pressure, fraction of end tidal CO2 (FETCO2) and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (CBF) and cerebrovascular function (vasoreactivity and autoregulation) at seated rest and during exercise.Results:We conducted 107 exercise tests (40 concussed, 37 healthy participants initially; 30 concussed at follow-up). Concussed participants were tested initially (mean=17.6±2.2 [SD] years old; 55% female; mean=12.5±4.7 days post-concussion) and again 8 weeks later (mean=73.3±9.5 days post-concussion). Control participants (mean=18.3±2.4 years; 62% female) were tested once. FETCO2 increased throughout the exercise protocol as heart rate increased, reached a plateau, and declined at higher exercise intensities. CO2 explained >25% of the variation in resting CBF (R2>0.25; p<0.01) in most (73% individuals). Within the concussion group, resting symptom severity and the heart rate at which FETCO2 reached a plateau explained ∼two-thirds of variation in exercise-induced symptom exacerbation (R2=0.65; FETCO2 β=-1.210±0.517[S.E.], p<0.05). There was a moderate, statistically significant relationship between cerebrovascular responses to CO2 at rest (cerebral vasoreactivity) and cerebrovascular responses to exercise-induced changes in FETCO2 (R2=0.13, p=0.01).Discussion:The arterial CO2 response and symptom exacerbation relationship during post-concussion aerobic exercise may be mediated by increased sensitivity of cerebral vasculature to exercise-related increase in CO2.

2021 ◽  
pp. 026835552110519
Erica Menegatti ◽  
Simona Mandini ◽  
Yung-Wei Chi ◽  
Gianni Mazzoni ◽  
Anselmo Pagani ◽  

Background Lack of physical activity represents a risk factor for both cardiovascular and chronic venous diseases (CVD), nevertheless a specific exercise protocol for CVD patient is still missing. This investigation was aimed to assess the impact of a standardized exercise protocol in a thermal water environment on physical fitness and quality-of-life (QoL) in CVD patients. Methods Sixteen (16) CVD patients performed 5 standardized exercise sessions in a thermal water pool. Before starting the exercise protocol, the cohort filled International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to determine their physical activity level. At baseline and at the end of the exercise program, leg volume, QoL, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular physical fitness were assessed by means of water plethysmography, validated questionnaire and functional test, blood pressure and heart rate at rest were also reported. Results All the patients were categorized as physically inactive: average activity time 235.6 (155.2) MET-minutes per week. At the end of the study, a significant leg volume reduction was found (−16%; p < .002). Significant improvement in lower limb strength (p < .0001), endurance (p < .006), rapidity and balance (p < .05) together with decrease in resting heart rate (−1.8%, p < .0001) and systolic blood pressure (−1.1%, p < .04) were reported, significant improvement in bodily pain (p < .0005) and social function (p < .002) QoL items were observed. Conclusions The proposed exercise protocol in thermal aquatic environment demonstrated to be an effective treatment modality improving both cardiovascular and musculoskeletal outcomes and QoL in sedentary CVD patients. Aquatic environment investigations require proper analysis of the various factors involved, in a standardized and reproducible way. The herein report can be a reference for further studies on different health related conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 372-372
Elizabeth Ott ◽  
Clay A Cavinder ◽  
Caleb O Lemley ◽  
Thu Dinh

Abstract Oxidative stress by physical stressors negatively impacts the performance of equine athletes. The present study was aimed to determine oxidative biomarkers in blood plasma of exercising horses. Stock-type horses were subject to a standardized moderate intensity exercise protocol following NRC guidelines 3 times per wk for 8 wk. Blood plasma was collected in wk 1, 2, 7, and 8 immediately before and 0, 30, 60, and 90 min after exercise and analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). Data were analyzed as repeated measures with wk, d, time, and their interactions as fixed effects. The TAC on d 2 (0.40 mM trolox) were 7.5% greater than that on d 3 (P = 0.013). There were wk × d × time interactions for SOD, TBARS, and GPx (P &lt; 0.001). The TBARS remained at d-1 wk-1 pre-exercise baseline (2.70 µM malondialdehyde) for most collection times within wk 1, 7, and 8 (P ≥ 0.058); however, TBARS increased by 0.24 to 0.41 µM on d 2 of wk 2 post-exercise (P &lt; 0.001) and remained similarly elevated on d 3 pre- and immediately post-exercise (P &lt; 0.001). The GPx similarly remained at baseline (172.57 µM/min; P ≥ 0.621) but increased by 48.18 to 83.36 µM/min at most collection times on d 1 and 2 of wk 2 (P ≤ 0.023). The SOD remained at baseline (167.21 µM/min; P ≥ 0.055) until increasing by 11.28 to 15.61 µM/min at 30 min post-exercise on d 1, wk 1 and at most collection times on d 3, wk 8 (P ≤ 0.043). The current study indicates the time-dependent nature of oxidative stress in relation to persistent stressors such as exercise.

2021 ◽  
Rory O'Keeffe ◽  
Seyed Yahya Shirazi ◽  
Jinghui Yang ◽  
Sarmad Mehrdad ◽  
Smita Rao ◽  

The possibility of muscle fatigue detection using surface electromyography has been explored and multiple biomarkers, such as median frequency, have been suggested. However, there are contradictory reports in the literature which result in an inconsistent understanding of the biomarkers of fatigue. Thus, there is an unmet need for a statistically robust sEMG-based biomarker for fatigue detection. This paper, for the first time, demonstrates the superior capability of a non-parametric muscle network to reliably detect fatigue-related changes. Seven healthy volunteers completed a lower limb exercise protocol, which consisted of the 30s of a sit-to-stand exercise before and after the completion of fatiguing leg press sets. A non-parametric muscle network was constructed, using Spearman's power correlation, and showed a very reliable decrease in network metrics associated with fatigue (degree, weighted clustering coefficient (WCC)). The network metrics displayed a significant decrease at the group level (degree, WCC: p-value<0.001), individual subject level (degree: p-value<0.035 WCC: p-value<0.004) and particular muscle level (degree: p-value<0.017). Regarding the decrease in mean degree connectivity at particular muscles, all seven subjects followed the group trend. In contrast to the robust results achieved by the proposed non-parametric muscle network, classical spectrotemporal measurements showed heterogeneous trends at the particular muscle and individual subject levels. Thus, this paper for the first time shows that a non-parametric muscle network is a reliable biomarker of fatigue and could be used in a broad range of applications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 16-25
Isabelle Schöffl ◽  
Bernhard Bliemsrieder ◽  
Thomas Küpper ◽  
Volker Schöffl

Background: Ski mountaineering is a competitive sport that has gained popularity during the last years. As most competitions are held in altitudes between 1500 m and 3500 m, a considerable amount of training occurs at various hypobaric hypoxia degrees. It was establishing a sport-specific cardiopulmonary exercise protocol using standard ski mountaineering equipment on a treadmill. This study investigated altitude’s effects on a self-regulated incremental exercise field test at 3100 m with this protocol. Methods: Six athletes were tested (24.2 ± 4.2 years) from the German Ski Mountaineering National Team with a portable telemetric cardiopulmonary exercise test equipment. First, an incremental indoor step test with skis on a treadmill (altitude 310 m) and four days later outdoor on glacier snow (3085 m) after three days of acclimatization. All athletes were exposed to repetitive intermittent hypoxia during the weeks before the test. Standard cardiopulmonary exercise parameters were recorded while individual training zones were defined according to ventilatory thresholds. Results: In highly trained athletes, mean V̇ O2peak (72/ml kg KG/min) was reduced by 25% or 9% per 1000 m altitude gain and by 18% and 23% at the first and second ventilatory thresholds, respectively. Mean maximum heart rate and the heart rate at the ventilatory thresholds were reduced at altitude compared to sea-level, as was the O2 pulse. Conclusion: Due to distinctive individual reactions to hypoxia, cold, etc., an individual and sport-specific field performance analysis, representing the daily training environment, is highly useful in world-class athletes for precise training control. Our self-regulated cardiopulmonary field protocol could well prove to serve in such a way.

Alamgir Khan ◽  
Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt ◽  
Shahzaman Khan ◽  
Sobia Nazir ◽  
Ejaz Asghar ◽  

This particular research study was basically carried out for the purpose to examine the impact of low intensity exercise on two particular liver enzymes i.e. alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphate (ALP). 20 Non sportsmen were selected as subjects of the study (n=20, age 20 to 30 years (20.95±3.79), Body Mass Index (BMI) from 18 to 30 (25.90±5.54). Similarly the subjects were divided into two groups (Experimental Group and Control Group) through the application of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and measurement of Maximum Heart Rate (MHR). 12 weeks self-made low intensity exercise protocol was applied to an experimental group.  5ml blood was collected from all subjects to measure the effect of low intensity exercise on ALT and ALP. The data of pre and post-test were processed through SPSS version 24. Based on analysis and findings, the researcher concluded that in experimental group (EXG) the level of ALT and ALP was found significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to control group (CG). Based on conclusion, it is hereby recommended by the researcher that for the purpose to promote the functional capacity of liver, low as well as moderate intensity exercise should be performed on daily basis. In addition, in this study due to lack of financial resources, two basic liver enzymes i.e.ALT and ALP were measured, therefore the other enzymes like as AST and bilirubin also need to be examined in such other research studies.

Leigh Arlegui ◽  
James W. Smallcombe ◽  
Damien Fournet ◽  
Keith Tolfrey ◽  
George Havenith

Abstract Purpose To determine sweating responses of pre-pubertal children during intermittent exercise in a warm environment and create whole-body maps of regional sweat rate (RSRs) distribution across the body. Methods Thirteen pre-pubertal children; six girls and seven boys (8.1 ± 0.8 years) took part. Sweat was collected using the technical absorbent method in the last 5 min of a 30-min intermittent exercise protocol performed at 30 ℃, 40% relative humidity and 2 m·s−1 frontal wind. Results Mean gross sweat loss (GSL) was 126 ± 47 g·m−2·h−1 and metabolic heat production was 278 ± 50 W·m2. The lower anterior torso area had the lowest RSR with a median (IQR) sweat rate (SR) of 40 (32) g·m−2·h−1. The highest was the forehead with a median SR of 255 (163) g·m−2·h−1. Normalised sweat maps (the ratio of each region’s SR to the mean SR for all measured pad regions) showed girls displayed lower ratio values at the anterior and posterior torso, and higher ratios at the hands, feet and forehead compared to boys. Absolute SRs were similar at hands and feet, but girls sweated less in most other areas, even after correction for metabolic rate. Conclusion Pre-pubertal children have different RSRs across the body, also showing sex differences in sweat distribution. Distributions differ from adults. Hands and feet RSR remain stable, but SR across other body areas increase with maturation. These data can increase specificity of models of human thermoregulation, improve the measurement accuracy of child-sized thermal manikins, and aid companies during product design and communication.

F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 649
Anwar Ebid ◽  
Mohamed El-boshy ◽  
Shamekh El-Shamy ◽  
Ali Thabet ◽  
Mohamed Abedalla ◽  

Background: Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic disease affecting bones. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) combined with exercise protocol on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone markers in men with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Methods: Ninety-five males with osteopenia or osteoporosis (mean age, 51.26 ± 2.41 years; mean height, 176 ± 2.02 cm; mean weight, 83.08 ± 2.60 kg; mean body–mass index (BMI), 26.08 ± 1.09 kg/m2) participated in the study, and they were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group 1 received a full-body PEMF and exercise protocol (PEMF +EX), Group 2 received a placebo full-body PEMF and exercise protocol (PPEMF +EX), and Group 3 received a full-body PEMF alone (PEMF). PEMF was applied for the whole body using a full-body mat three times per week for 12 weeks, with an exercise protocol that includes flexibility, aerobic exercise, strengthening, weight-bearing, and balance exercises followed by whole-body vibration (WBV) training. Outcome measures include BMD of total hip and lumbar spine and bone markers [serum osteocalcin (s-OC), Serum amino-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (s-NTX), Serum carboxy-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen (s-CTX), Parathyroid hormones (PTH), Bone-specific Alkaline Phosphatase (BSAP), and 25-hydroxy vitamin D (Vit D)]. Results: The BMD of total hip and lumbar spine was significantly increased post-treatment in all groups, and more so in Group 1 and Group 2 than Group 3. There was a significant difference in bone markers in all groups, more so in Group 1 and Group 2 than in Group 3. Conclusion: PEMF combined with exercise protocol exerts a potent role for treating OP, is more effective than exercise and PEMF alone for increasing BMD and enhancing bone formation, and suppresses bone-resorption markers after 12-weeks of treatment with the impact lasting up to 6 months.

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