reflection coefficient
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Eman Mohamed Eldesouki ◽  
Khalid Mustafa Ibrahim ◽  
Ahmed Mohmed Attiya

This paper focuses on a common drawback in electromagnetic numerical computer aided design computer aided design (CAD) tools: high frequency structure simulator (HFSS), computer simulation technology (CST) and FEKO, where the excitation by using a wave-port below and close to the cutoff frequency has unreliable values for the reflection coefficient. An example for such problem is presented in the design of a dual horn antenna fed by two different waveguide sections. To overcome this numerical error in the results of these CAD tools, a tapered waveguide section is used in the simulation as an excitation mechanism to the feeding waveguide. The cross section of the input port at this tapered waveguide section is designed to have a cutoff frequency smaller than the lowest frequency under investigation for the original problem. Then, by extracting the effect of the tapered section from the obtained reflection coefficient, it would be possible to obtain the reflection coefficient of the original problem.

2022 ◽  
Vol 355 ◽  
pp. 01007
Yu Meng ◽  
Mengru Sun ◽  
Dan Li ◽  
Yufeng Shi ◽  
Cheng Cheng ◽  

In this paper, a large number of digital printing reflective film retroreflectivity measurement. Based on the multi-angle test of the reflective film of the mainstream manufacturers in the market, the reverse reflection coefficient of the digital printing reflective film was obtained. Through the curve fitting of the measured values of the backreflection coefficient under different measuring angles by using the scatter plot, the variation law of the luminosity of the digital printing reflective film with incident Angle and observation Angle was obtained. The variation law of backreflection coefficient explored in this paper has certain significance to the application guidance of digital printing reflective film for traffic signs.

И.М. Исаев ◽  
В.Г. Костишин ◽  
Р.И. Шакирзянов ◽  
А.Р. Каюмова ◽  
Д.В. Салогуб

The article describes electromagnetic and microwave properties of the polymer composite with the lithium spinel ferrite inclusion of composition Li0.33Fe2.29Zn0.21Mn0.17O4 in the frequency range 100 MHz - 7000 MHz. It is shown that samples with a mass fraction of ferrite 60, 80% have pronounced radio-absorbing properties, measured using the reflection coefficient on a metal plate (return losses). For a composite with 80% ferrite, the minimum return loss was -37.5 dB at 2.71 GHz with an absorption width at -10 dB of 3 GHz. High absorption characteristics are directly related to the use of ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TFE) as a binder, which is expressed in the combined action of the absorption mechanisms of the magnetic and ferroelectric phases.

В.В. Шагаев

Expressions are derived for the reflection coefficients of electromagnetic waves with "p" and "s" type polarizations from a semi-infinite dielectric medium having an inhomogeneous layer. The influence of the layer was taken into account by the method of perturbation theory in a quadratic approximation of the layer thickness. A method is proposed for converting expressions derived using perturbation theory into other expressions that give more accurate values of the reflection coefficient. The angular dependences of the reflection coefficient obtained by the developed method are compared with those obtained by the numerical solution of electrodynamic equations. Requirements for the layer characteristics are formulated to minimize the error of the analytical solution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (3) ◽  
pp. 48-52
Muhammad Hafeez Rosmin ◽  
Mohamad Kamal A Rahim ◽  
Nur Syahirah Yaziz ◽  
Muhammad Naeem Iqbal ◽  
Osman Ayop ◽  

This paper discusses the simulations and measurements of the antenna with and without slot implementation in terms of reflection coefficient (S11) and radiation pattern. The slot implementation on each of the radiating elements on the 2nd iteration log periodic fractal Koch antenna (LPFKA) was described in this paper. This method is utilised to reduce the antenna's size while also preventing the lower designated frequencies from shifting to the higher band as the iteration increases. The antenna is designed to test and observe performance in the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) band, which ranges from 0.5 GHz to 3.0 GHz. Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software is used to design and model the antenna, which was then built using the wet etching technique. The antenna's substrate is made of FR-4 laminated board with a dielectric constant of 4.6, tangent loss of 0.019, and a thickness of 1.6mm. The results demonstrate good agreement, with a steady radiation pattern over the operational bandwidth and a reflection coefficient of less than -10 dB for the frequency range of interest. The antenna is being tested with Digital TV decoder and the result is observed towards the picture of the Digital TV.

Algorithms ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 7
Piotr Górniak

In the paper, the author deals with modeling the stochastic behavior of ordinary patch antennas in terms of the mean and standard deviation of their reflection coefficient |S11| under the geometrical uncertainty associated with their manufacturing process. The Artificial Neural Network is used to model the stochastic reflection coefficient of the antennas. The Polynomial Chaos Expansion and FDTD computations are used to obtain the training and testing data for the Artificial Neural Network. For the first time, the author uses his analytical transformations to reduce the required number of highly time-consuming FDTD simulations for a given set of nominal values of the design parameters of the ordinary patch antenna. An analysis is performed for n257 and n258 frequency bands (24.5–28.7 GHz). The probability distributions of the design parameters are extracted from the measurement results obtained for a series of manufactured patch antenna arrays for three different frequencies in the C, X, and Ka bands. Patch antennas are chosen as the subject of the scientific analysis in this paper because of the popularity of the patch antennas in the scientific literature concerning antennas, as well as because of a simple form of these antennas that is reflected in the time required for computation of training and testing data for the Artificial Neural Network.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (6) ◽  
pp. 984-988
Sumit Kumar ◽  
Amruta S. Dixit

A miniaturized 2 x 1 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna is presented in this paper. The designed antenna contains two circular patches with Complimentary Split-Ring Resonator (CSRR) that are etched in the ground which has a profound effect on antenna size reduction. It also helps in the reduction of isolation between two antennas. The maximum isolation between the two antennas is -84.62 dB at 2.8 GHz. The size of an antenna becomes more compact i.e., 40 x 20 x 1.6 mm3 after incorporating CSRR. The maximum gain of the designed antenna is 5.8 dBi at 4.3 GHz and the minimum reflection coefficient is -35.15 dB at 1.63 GHz. The operating band of an antenna is wide from 1.3 GHz to 4.3 GHz which covers Bluetooth, WiMax, and LTE applications. The proposed antenna is useful for various wireless applications.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (24) ◽  
pp. 8506
Yahua Yang ◽  
Xingyao Yin ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Danping Cao ◽  
Gang Gao

Seismic wave exhibits the characteristics of anisotropy and attenuation while propagating through the fluid-bearing fractured or layered reservoirs, such as fractured carbonate and shale bearing oil or gas. We derive a linearized reflection coefficient that simultaneously considers the effects of anisotropy and attenuation caused by fractures and fluids. Focusing on the low attenuated transversely isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (Q-VTI) medium, we first express the complex stiffness tensors based on the perturbation theory and the linear constant Q model at an arbitrary reference frequency, and then we derive the linearized approximate reflection coefficient of P to P wave. It decouples the P- and S-wave inverse quality factors, and Thomsen-style attenuation-anisotropic parameters from complex P- and S-wave velocity and complex Thomsen anisotropic parameters. By evaluating the reflection coefficients around the solution point of the interface of two models, we analyze the characteristics of reflection coefficient vary with the incident angle and frequency and the effects of different Thomsen anisotropic parameters and attenuation factors. Moreover, we realize the simultaneous inversion of all parameters in the equation using an actual well log as a model. We conclude that the derived reflection coefficient may provide a theoretical tool for the seismic wave forward modeling, and again it can be implemented to predict the reservoir properties of fractures and fluids based on diverse inversion methods of seismic data.

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