automated classification
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Tingmin Wu ◽  
Wanlun Ma ◽  
Sheng Wen ◽  
Xin Xia ◽  
Cecile Paris ◽  

Computer users are generally faced with difficulties in making correct security decisions. While an increasingly fewer number of people are trying or willing to take formal security training, online sources including news, security blogs, and websites are continuously making security knowledge more accessible. Analysis of cybersecurity texts from this grey literature can provide insights into the trending topics and identify current security issues as well as how cyber attacks evolve over time. These in turn can support researchers and practitioners in predicting and preparing for these attacks. Comparing different sources may facilitate the learning process for normal users by creating the patterns of the security knowledge gained from different sources. Prior studies neither systematically analysed the wide range of digital sources nor provided any standardisation in analysing the trending topics from recent security texts. Moreover, existing topic modelling methods are not capable of identifying the cybersecurity concepts completely and the generated topics considerably overlap. To address this issue, we propose a semi-automated classification method to generate comprehensive security categories to analyse trending topics. We further compare the identified 16 security categories across different sources based on their popularity and impact. We have revealed several surprising findings as follows: (1) The impact reflected from cybersecurity texts strongly correlates with the monetary loss caused by cybercrimes, (2) security blogs have produced the context of cybersecurity most intensively, and (3) websites deliver security information without caring about timeliness much.

2022 ◽  
Chris Haffenden ◽  
Elena Fano ◽  
Martin Malmsten ◽  
Love Börjeson

How can novel AI techniques be made and put to use in the library? Combining methods from data and library science, this article focuses on Natural Language Processing technologies in especially national libraries. It explains how the National Library of Sweden’s collections enabled the development of a new BERT language model for Swedish. It also outlines specific use cases for the model in the context of academic libraries, detailing strategies for how such a model could make digital collections available for new forms of research: from automated classification to enhanced searchability and improved OCR cohesion. Highlighting the potential for cross-fertilizing AI with libraries, the conclusion suggests that while AI may transform the workings of the library, libraries can also have a key role to play in the future development of AI.

Radha Krishna Guntur ◽  
Krishnan Ramakrishnan ◽  
Mittal Vinay Kumar

Roland Barthel ◽  
Ezra Haaf ◽  
Michelle Nygren ◽  
Markus Giese

AbstractVisual analysis of time series in hydrology is frequently seen as a crucial step to becoming acquainted with the nature of the data, as well as detecting unexpected errors, biases, etc. Human eyes, in particular those of a trained expert, are well suited to recognize irregularities and distinct patterns. However, there are limits as to what the eye can resolve and process; moreover, visual analysis is by definition subjective and has low reproducibility. Visual inspection is frequently mentioned in publications, but rarely described in detail, even though it may have significantly affected decisions made in the process of performing the underlying study. This paper presents a visual analysis of groundwater hydrographs that has been performed in relation to attempts to classify groundwater time series as part of developing a new concept for prediction in data-scarce groundwater systems. Within this concept, determining the similarity of groundwater hydrographs is essential. As standard approaches for similarity analysis of groundwater hydrographs do not yet exist, different approaches were developed and tested. This provided the opportunity to carry out a comparison between visual analysis and formal, automated classification approaches. The presented visual classification was carried out on two sets of time series from central Europe and Fennoscandia. It is explained why and where visual classification can be beneficial but also where the limitations and challenges associated with the approach lie. It is concluded that systematic visual analysis of time series in hydrology, despite its subjectivity and low reproducibility, should receive much more attention.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 252
Lala Chaimae Naciri ◽  
Mariano Mastinu ◽  
Roberto Crnjar ◽  
Iole Tomassini Barbarossa ◽  
Melania Melis

Several studies have used taste sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) to evaluate interindividual taste variability and its impact on food preferences, nutrition, and health. We used a supervised learning (SL) approach for the automatic identification of the PROP taster categories (super taster (ST); medium taster (MT); and non-taster (NT)) of 84 subjects (aged 18–40 years). Biological features determined from subjects were included for the training system. Results showed that SL enables the automatic identification of objective PROP taster status, with high precision (97%). The biological features were classified in order of importance in facilitating learning and as prediction factors. The ratings of perceived taste intensity for PROP paper disks (50 mM) and PROP solution (3.2 mM), along with fungiform papilla density, were the most important features, and high estimated values pushed toward ST prediction, while low values leaned toward NT prediction. Furthermore, TAS2R38 genotypes were significant features (AVI/AVI, PAV/PAV, and PAV/AVI to classify NTs, STs, and MTs, respectively). These results, in showing that the SL approach enables an automatic, immediate, scalable, and high-precision classification of PROP taster status, suggest that it may represent an objective and reliable tool in taste physiology studies, with applications ranging from basic science and medicine to food sciences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 ◽  
pp. 14-21
T. H. Raveendra Kumar ◽  
C. K. Narayanappa ◽  
S. Raghavendra ◽  
G. R. Poornima

Diagnosis of Epilepsy is immensely important but challenging process, especially while using traditional manual seizure detection methods with the help of neurologists or brain experts’ guidance which are time consuming. Thus, an automated classification method is require to quickly detect seizures and non-seizures. Therefore, a machine learning algorithm based on a modified XGboost classifier model is employed to detect seizures quickly and improve classification accuracy. A focal loss function is employed with traditional XGboost classifier model to minimize mismatch of training and testing samples and enhance efficiency of the classification model. Here, CHB-MIT SCALP Electroencephalography (EEG) dataset is utilized to test the proposed classification model. Here, data gathered for all 24 patients from CHB-MIT Database is used to analyze the performance of proposed classification model. Here, 2-class-seizure experimental results of proposed classification model are compared against several state-of-art-seizure classification models. Here, cross validation experiments determine nature of 2-class-seizure as the prediction is seizure or non-seizure. The metrics results for average sensitivity and average specificity are nearly 100%. The proposed model achieves improvement in terms of average sensitivity against the best traditional method as 0.05% and for average specificity as 1%. The proposed modified XGBoost classifier model outperforms all the state-of-art-seizure detection techniques in terms of average sensitivity, average specificity.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Imranul Islam ◽  
Shenghui Cui ◽  
Muhammad Ziaul Hoque ◽  
Hasan Muhammad Abdullah ◽  
Kaniz Fatima Tonny ◽  

Tree outside forest (TOF) has immense potential in economic and environmental development by increasing the amount of tree vegetation in and around rural settlements. It is an important source of carbon stocks and a critical option for climate change regulation, especially in land-scarce, densely populated developing countries such as Bangladesh. Spatio-temporal changes of TOF in the eastern coastal zone of Bangladesh were analyzed and mapped over 1988–2018, using Landsat land use land cover (LULC) maps and associated ecosystem carbon storage change by linking the InVEST carbon model. Landsat TM and OLI-TIRS data were classified through the Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) algorithm using Semi-Automated Classification (SAC). In the InVEST model, aboveground, belowground, dead organic matter, and soil carbon densities of different LULC types were used. The findings revealed that the studied landscapes have differential features and changing trends in LULC where TOF, mangrove forest, built-up land, and salt-aquaculture land have increased due to the loss of agricultural land, mudflats, water bodies, and hill vegetation. Among different land biomes, TOF experienced the largest increase (1453.9 km2), and it also increased carbon storage by 9.01 Tg C. However, agricultural land and hill vegetation decreased rapidly by 1285.8 km2 and 365.7 km2 and reduced carbon storage by 3.09 Tg C and 4.89 Tg C, respectively. The total regional carbon storage increased by 1.27 Tg C during 1988–2018. In addition to anthropogenic drivers, land erosion and accretion were observed to significantly alter LULC and regional carbon storage, necessitating effective river channel and coastal embankment management to minimize food and environmental security tradeoff in the studied landscape.

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